Stevens Point, Wisconsin
Stevens Point is the county seat of Portage County, United States. The city was incorporated in 1858 and its 2010 population of 26,717 makes it the largest city in the county. Stevens Point forms the core of the United States Census Bureaus Stevens Point Micropolitan Statistical Area, Stevens Point is home to the University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point and a campus of Mid-State Technical College. Historically part of the Menominee homelands, a strip along the Wisconsin River was ceded to the United States in an 1836 treaty. In 1854 the Menominee made its last treaty with the U. S. gathering on a reservation on the Wolf River, Stevens Point was named after George Stevens, who operated a grocery and supply business on the Wisconsin River during the extensive logging of interior Wisconsin. The river was used by logging companies to float logs to market, loggers on the river found this a convenient stopping point, as the river bends slightly and the operation was from far upstream. The town developed from Stevenss post and was named for him, in 1845, the postal service came to Stevens Point and with this improvement in communications, within twenty years, the population tripled.
In 1847, the first plat was laid out of what would become the City of Stevens Point, including what was then, as years went by, the area around the town square grew as logging increased. Most buildings were first built with readily available wood, many cases of early fires were reported from 1850–1890. Around 1880, buildings began to be built with such as brick. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city encompasses 17.20 square miles, as of the 2010 census 26,717 people,10,598 households, and 4,944 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,674.0 inhabitants per square mile and they occupied 11,220 housing units at an average density of 703.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91. 7% White,0. 9% African American,0. 4% Native American,4. 7% Asian,0. 7% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race was 2. 6% of the population. 34. 9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 2%had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.87.
The median age in the city was 26.5 years. 16% of residents were under the age of 18,31. 3% were between the ages of 18 and 24,22. 3% were from 25 to 44,18. 5% were from 45 to 64, and 12% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48. 8% male and 51. 2% female, the Stevens Point Area Public School District serves the city, as do the Pacelli Catholic Schools. Public elementary schools include Bannach, Jefferson School for the Arts, Madison, McDill, McKinley, Plover-Whiting, and Washington Service-Learning Center
Grandfather Falls is the highest waterfall on the Wisconsin River. The total drop is 89 feet, spread out in a series of cascades over about one mile, the upper third of the falls and most of the flow, except in the spring, is diverted through a canal and a series of penstocks to feed hydroelectric generators. Grandfather Falls dam and power generating facility is owned and operated by Wisconsin Public Service Corporation, the cascade has been known historically as Grandfather Bull Falls and as Boileaux Rapids. Other phonetic variations on Boileaux such as Beauleaux and Brearbeaux are seen in older accounts. The Ojibwe name for the cascade was Konajewun which means long falls, many of the falls and rapids on the Wisconsin River had the word Bull inserted in the name, such as Big Bull Falls at what is now Wausau and Jenny Bull Falls at what is now Merrill. While traveling up stream, a party of these voyageurs encountered the rapids at Mosinee and named it Taureau, when they encountered the rapids at Wausau, which were bigger, they named them Gros Taureau — Big Bull.
When they encountered the much larger rapids 40 miles further up stream and this began a tradition for naming all the falls on the upper Wisconsin. Several hundred million years ago, the highlands of Wisconsin were an alpine mountain range. Beneath this range, igneous rock formed which now is called pre-Cambrian bedrock, Grandfather Falls lies in this pre-Cambrian rock bed, and is thus a remnant of the physical geography of this ancient mountain range. Although there are no records of when and to what degree trade started on the upper Wisconsin. Lac du Flambeau was a large Ojibwe town within which Montreal fur traders built semi-permanent trading posts and these traders sent employees on excursions down river to trade with Ojibwe towns and camps which existed as far south as the Yellow River. When traveling to the satellite Ojibwe villages downstream, it was necessary to portage the Falls, by the time US federal surveyors arrived to take their data in 1851, the portage road was well-established.
At the head of the falls before starting, Crow held the canoe by a rock projecting from the shore, while Black Nail made a prayer, the offering consisted of two yards of scarlet broad cloth, and a brass kettle. Prayer, he threw the offering overboard, and grappled his paddle, and the canoe went bounding over the billows, and ran the falls in safety. As Jenny developed in the 1870s, it became a point of departure for suppliers to the logging camps and it required four days to make the trip to Eagle River by this means and two to return downstream. The principal means by which the mills along the Wisconsin River sent their product to market was lumber rafts. Lumber rafts were used before railroads were built in the region, the product was the raft itself, constructed of the boards which were to be sold at Saint Louis and other cities along the Mississippi. It was virtually impossible to run these lumber rafts down Grandfather Falls, as a consequence, Jenny became the northern-most sawmill town
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Wisconsin is the 23rd largest state by total area and the 20th most populous. The state capital is Madison, and its largest city is Milwaukee, the state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline, Wisconsin is known as Americas Dairyland because it is one of the nations leading dairy producers, particularly famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, especially paper products, information technology, and tourism are major contributors to the states economy. The word Wisconsin originates from the given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673, subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, and over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands.
English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in numbers during the early 19th century. The legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845, the Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure. Interpretations vary, but most implicate the river and the red sandstone that lines its banks, other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning red stone place, where the waters gather, or great rock. Wisconsin has been home to a variety of cultures over the past 12,000 years. The first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation and these early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting, agricultural societies emerged gradually over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE.
Toward the end of period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the Effigy Mound culture. Later, between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact, the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was probably the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien
Upper Peninsula of Michigan
The Upper Peninsula is the northern of the two major peninsulas that make up the U. S. state of Michigan. It may be referred to as the UP or Upper Michigan, the peninsula is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, on the east by the St. Marys River, on the southeast by Lake Michigan and Lake Huron, and on the southwest by Wisconsin. The Upper Peninsula contains 29% of the area of Michigan. Residents are frequently called Yoopers and have a regional identity. Large numbers of French Canadian, Swedish, the peninsula includes the only counties in the United States where a plurality of residents claim Finnish ancestry. Ordered by size, the peninsulas largest cities are Marquette, Sault Ste, Escanaba, Menominee and Iron Mountain. The land and climate are not very suitable for agriculture because of the harsh winters. The economy has been based on logging and tourism, most mines have closed since the golden age from 1890 to 1920. The land is forested and logging remains a major industry. The first known inhabitants of the Upper Peninsula were tribes speaking Algonquian languages and they arrived roughly around A. D.800 and subsisted chiefly from fishing.
Early tribes included the Menominee and the Mishinimaki, Étienne Brûlé of France was probably the first European to visit the peninsula, crossing the St. Marys River around 1620 in search of a route to the Far East. French colonists laid claim to the land in the 17th century, establishing missions, following the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, the territory was ceded to Great Britain. Sault Ste Marie, Michigan is the oldest European settlement in Michigan, American Indian tribes formerly allied with the French were dissatisfied with the British occupation, which brought new territorial policies. Whereas the French cultivated alliances among the Indians, the British postwar approach was to treat the tribes as conquered peoples, in 1763, tribes united in Pontiacs Rebellion to try to drive the British from the area. In 1764, they began negotiations with the British which resulted in temporary peace, although the Upper Peninsula nominally became United States territory with the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the British did not give up control until 1797 under terms of the Jay Treaty.
As an American territory, the Upper Peninsula was still dominated by the fur trade, john Jacob Astor founded the American Fur Company on Mackinac Island in 1808, the industry began to decline in the 1830s as beaver and other game were overhunted. When the Michigan Territory was first established in 1805, it included only the Lower Peninsula, in 1819, the territory was expanded to include the remainder of the Upper Peninsula, all of Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota. When Michigan was preparing for statehood in the 1830s, the boundaries proposed corresponded to the territorial boundaries
In physical geography, a dell is a small secluded hollow, a grassy, park-like, usually partially-wooded valley. Like dale, the word dell is derived from the Old English word dæl, Dells in literature are often portrayed as pleasant safe havens. Matthiessen State Park Cirque Coulee Dells of the Wisconsin River Glen, glaciated valley, U-shaped Gully, Valley Hollywood Dell Farmer in the Dell Dalles
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Guillaume Delisle, spelled Guillaume de lIsle, was a French cartographer known for his popular and accurate maps of Europe and the newly explored Americas and Europe. Deslile was the son of Marie Malaine and Claude Delisle, who remarried Charlotte Millet de la Croyère after his first wife died following childbirth and it is possible that the couple had as many as 12 children, but many of them died at a young age. Although Claude Delisle had studied law, he taught history. Guillaume and his two of half-brothers, Joseph Nicolas and Louis, ended up pursuing similar careers in science, while Claude certainly has to be given credit for Guillaume’s education, the latter showed early signs of being an exceptional talent. He would soon contribute to the workshop by drawing maps for his father’s historical works. In order to perfect his skills, Guillaume Delisle became the student of the astronomer Jean-Dominique Cassini, early on he produced high quality maps, the first being his Carte de la Nouvelle-France et des Pays Voisins in 1696.
At 27, Delisle was admitted into the French Académie Royale des Sciences, after that date, he signed his maps with the title of “Géographe de l’Académie”. Five years later, he moved to the Quai de l’Horloge in Paris, Delisle’s ascension through the ranks culminated in 1718 when he received the title of Premier Géographe du Roi. His new office consisted in teaching geography to the Dauphin, King Louis XIV’s son, Claude Delisle’s reputation as a man of science probably helped Guillaume. In Delisle’s case, it could be said that his accomplishments surpassed his father’s, like many cartographers of his day, Delisle did not travel with the explorers and elaborated the maps mostly in his office. The quality of his maps depended on a network that would provide him first-hand information. Given the family’s reputation and his own, Delisle had access to fairly recent accounts of travellers who were coming back from the New World, being a member of the Académie, he was aware of recent discoveries, especially in astronomy and measurement.
When he could not confirm the accuracy of his source, he would indicate it clearly on his maps, Delisles search for exactitude and intellectual honesty entangled him in a legal dispute in 1700 with Jean-Baptiste Nolin, a fellow cartographer. Noticing Nolin had used details that were considered original from his Map of the World, in the end, Delisle managed to convince the jury of scientists that Nolin only knew the old methods of cartography and therefore that he had stolen the information from his manuscript. Nolins maps were confiscated and he was forced to pay the court costs, the scientificity of the work produced by the Delisle family contrasted with the workshop of Sanson. While Sanson knowingly published outdated facts and mistakes, Delisle strived to present up-to-date knowledge, after Guillaume Delisles death in 1726, his widow tried to preserve the workshop and protect the family. She appealed to the king with the help of the abbot Bignon, by that time, Guillaumes brothers Joseph-Nicolas and Louis had already left to serve Peter the Great in Russia.
The youngest Delisle, Simon Claude, lacked practical knowledge in cartography, the Delisle workshop was bequeathed to Philippe Buache
The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent major advance of the North American ice sheet complex. This advance was synchronous with global glaciation during the last glacial period, including the North American alpine glacier advance, the Wisconsin glaciation extended from approximately 85,000 to 11,000 years ago, between the Sangamon interglacial and the current interglacial, the Holocene. The maximum ice extent occurred approximately 25, 000–21,000 years ago during the last glacial maximum and this glaciation radically altered the geography of North America north of the Ohio River. At the height of the Wisconsin Episode glaciation, the ice covered most of Canada, the Upper Midwest, and New England, as well as parts of Idaho, Montana. On Kelleys Island in Lake Erie or in New York Citys Central Park, during much of the glaciation, sea level was low enough to permit land animals, including humans, to occupy Beringia and move between North America and Siberia.
Two related movements have been termed Wisconsin, Early Wisconsin and Late Wisconsin, the Early Wisconsin was the bigger of the two and extend farther west and south. It retreated a distance before halting. During this period of quiet, the deposits were eroded and weathered. This first Wisconsin period erased all the Illinoian glacial topography that extended over, the Late Wisconsin ice sheet extended more towards the west than the earlier movements. This may have due to changes in the accumulation center of the ice sheet. The Labrador Ice Sheet centered east of Hudson Bay, expanding towards the southwest, it reached into the eastern edge of Manitoba and across the Great Lakes to the Ohio River, upwards of 1,600 miles from its source. Its eastern lobes covered New England and reached south to Cape Cod and Long Island, the Keewatin Ice Sheet began west of Hudson Bay in the Canadian Territory of Keewatin The ice moved south some 1,500 miles into Kansas and Missouri. To the west, it reached 1,000 miles to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, the Cordilleran Ice Sheet has left remnants throughout the Northern Rocky Mountains.
Unlike the other two ice sheets, this one is mountain based covering the British Columbia and reaching into northern Washington State, the Cordilleran Ice Sheet has more of an Alpine style of many glaciers merged into a whole. The striations made by the ice field in moving over the show that it moved principally to the west through the passes of the coast range. When the ice sheet melts northward from a moraine, water begins to be pond between this moraine and the ice front, the water cannot drain through the ice sheet, which for the Wisconsin period covered most of the proglacial river valleys. Numerous small, isolated water bodies form between the moraine and the ice front, as the ice sheet continues to melt and recede northward, these ponds combine into a proglacial lake. An outlet forms through these low spots, until one becomes dominant when erosion, lowers the outlet, Ice melt and rainfall carried large quantities of clay and gravel from the ice mass
Wausau is a city in and the county seat of Marathon County, United States. The Wisconsin River divides the city into east and west, the city is adjacent to the Town of Wausau. As of the 2010 census, Wausau had a population of 39,106 and it is the core city of the Wausau Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Marathon County and had a population of 134,063 at the 2010 census. This area was occupied for thousands of years by succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples, the historic Ojibwe occupied it in the period of European encounter. They had a fur trade for decades with French colonists. After the French and Indian War this trade was dominated by British-American trappers from the eastern seaboard and this provided a route for products from the region to the large New York and other eastern markets. The area had been called Big Bull Flats or Big Bull Falls by French explorers and they named it for the long rapids in the river, which created many bubbles, called bulle in French.
By an 1836 treaty with the United States, the Ojibwe ceded much of their lands in the area to federal ownership and it was sold to non-Native peoples. Wausau means a place or a place which can be seen from far away in the Ojibwe language. George Stevens, the namesake for the city of Stevens Point located south of Wausau, began harvesting the pine forests for lumber in 1840, lumbering was the first major industry in this area, and other sawmills along the Wisconsin River were quickly constructed by entrepreneurs. By 1846, Walter McIndoe arrived and took the lead in the local business and his efforts helped to establish Marathon County in 1850. Word of Stevens success in the region spread across the country throughout the logging industry. Loggers came from Cortland County, New York, Carroll County, New Hampshire, Orange County and Down East Maine in what is now Washington County and Hancock County, Maine. These were Yankee migrants, that is to say they were descended from the English Puritans who had settled New England during the 1600s, by 1852, Wausau had been established as a town and continued to grow and mature.
German immigration into the following the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states brought more people, and by 1861. Churches, schools and social organizations began to flourish, the state granted the city a charter in 1872, and elections are held the first Tuesday in April. The residents elected A. Kickbusch as their first mayor in 1874, five years earlier, Kickbusch had returned to his homeland of Germany and brought back with him 702 people, all of whom are believed to have settled in the Wausau area. Kickbusch founded the A. Kickbusch Wholesale Grocery Company, a business carried on by his grandson
Louis Jolliet was a French Canadian explorer known for his discoveries in North America. Jolliet and Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette, a Catholic priest and missionary, were the first non-Natives to explore, Jolliet was born in 1645 in a French settlement near Quebec City. When he was seven years old, his father died but his mother remarried a successful merchant, Jolliets stepfather owned land on the Ile dOrleans, an island in the Saint Lawrence River in Quebec that was home to First Nations. Jolliet spent much time on Ile dOrleans, so it was likely that he began speaking Aboriginal languages at a young age, during his childhood, Quebec was the center of the French fur trade. The Natives were part of life in Quebec, and Joliet grew up knowing a lot about them. He entered a Jesuit school as a child and focused on philosophical and religious studies and he studied music, becoming a skilled harpsichordist and church organist. Yet he decided to leave the seminary as an adult and pursued fur trading instead, Jolliet attended a Jesuit school in Quebec and received minor orders in 1662, but abandoned his plans to become a priest in 1667.
He spoke French and Spanish, de Soto had named the river Rio del Espiritu Santo, but tribes along its length called it variations of Mississippi. On May 17,1673, Jolliet and Marquette departed from St. Ignace Michigan with two canoes and five voyageurs of French-Indian ancestry. The group followed Lake Michigan to the end of Green Bay and they paddled upstream on the Fox River to the site now known as Portage, Wisconsin. There, they portaged a distance of less than two miles through marsh and oak forest to the Wisconsin River. Europeans eventually built a trading post at that shortest convenient portage between the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins, on June 17, the canoeists ventured onto the Mississippi River near present-day Prairie du Chien. The Jolliet-Marquette expedition traveled down the Mississippi to within 435 miles of the Gulf of Mexico and they turned back north at the mouth of the Arkansas River. By this point, they had encountered natives carrying European goods, the voyageurs followed the Mississippi back to the mouth of the Illinois River, which friendly natives told them was a shorter route back to the Great Lakes.
Following the Illinois river upstream, they turned up its tributary the Des Plaines River near modern-day Joliet. They continued up the Des Plaines river, and portaged their canoes and they followed the Chicago River downstream until they reached Lake Michigan near the location of modern-day Chicago. Father Marquette stayed at the mission of St. Francis Xavier at the end of Green Bay. Joliet returned to Quebec to relate the news of their discoveries, Marquette returned to what became the Illinois Country in late 1674