Ruth Aiko Asawa was an American sculptor. Asawa's work is in the collections of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York. Fifteen of her wire sculptures are on permanent display in the tower of San Francisco's de Young Museum in Golden Gate Park. Asawa was an arts education advocate and the driving force behind the creation of the San Francisco School of the Arts, renamed the Ruth Asawa San Francisco School of the Arts in 2010 in tribute to her. Ruth Asawa was born in 1926 in Norwalk, one of seven children, her parents were immigrants from Japan, her father operated a truck farm until the federal government initiated the Japanese American internment during World War II. The family was interned at the assembly center hastily set up at the Santa Anita racetrack for much of 1942 they were sent away to Rohwer War Relocation Center in Arkansas. Asawa's younger sister, was visiting family in Japan when her family was interned, she was unable to return, as the US prevented entry of American citizens from Japan.
Nancy was forced to stay in Japan for the duration of the war. Her father, Umakichi Asawa, was arrested by FBI agents in February 1942, interned at a detention camp in New Mexico. For six months following, the Asawa family did not know if he was dead. Asawa did not see her father for six years. After her father's discovery Asawa and her family were sent to an internment camp, where she studied art. From a young age, Asawa expressed an interest in art; when Asawa was a child, she was encouraged by her third grade teacher to create her own artwork. As a result, Asawa received first prize in a school arts competition in 1939, for her artwork about what makes someone American. Following her graduation from the internment center's high school, Asawa attended Milwaukee State Teachers College, intending to become an art teacher, she was prevented from attending college on the California coast, as the war had continued and the zone of her intended college was still declared prohibited to ethnic Japanese, whether or not they were American citizens.
Unable to get hired for the requisite practice teaching to complete her degree, she left Wisconsin without a degree. The summer before her final year in Milwaukee, Asawa traveled to Mexico with her older sister Lois. Asawa attended an art class at the Universidad de Mexico. A friend of artist Josef Albers, Porset told Asawa about Black Mountain College where he was teaching. Asawa recounted:I was told that it might be difficult for me, with the memories of the war still fresh, to work in a public school. My life might be in danger; this was a godsend, because it encouraged me to follow my interest in art, I subsequently enrolled at Black Mountain College in North Carolina. From 1946 to 1949, she studied at Black Mountain College with Josef Albers. Asawa learned to use commonplace materials from Albers, she began experimenting with wire, using a variety of techniques. Like all Black Mountain College students, Asawa took courses across a variety of different art forms, this interdisciplinary approach helped to shape her artistic practice.
She was influenced by the Black Mountain College summer sessions of 1946 and 1948, which featured courses by artist Jacob Lawrence, photography curator and historian Beaumont Newhall, Jean Varda, composer John Cage, choreographer Merce Cunningham, artist Willem de Kooning, R. Buckminster Fuller. According to Asawa, the dance courses she took with Merce Cunningham were inspirational. Asawa married architect Albert Lanier in July 1949; the couple had six children: Xavier, Hudson, Adam and Paul. Albert Lanier died in 2008. Asawa died of natural causes on August 5, 2013, at her San Francisco, home at the age of 87. In the 1950s, Asawa experimented with crocheted wire sculptures of abstract forms that appear as three-dimensional line drawings, she learned the basic technique while in Toluca, where villagers used a similar technique to make baskets from galvanized wire. She explained: I was interested in it because of the economy of a line, making something in space, enclosing it without blocking it out.
It’s still transparent. I realized that if I was going to make these forms, which interlock and interweave, it can only be done with a line because a line can go anywhere. While her technique for making her sculptures resembles weaving, Asawa did not study weaving nor did she use fiber materials. Asawa's wire sculptures brought her prominence in the 1950s, when her work appeared several times in the annual exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art and in the 1955 São Paulo Art Biennial. In 1962, Asawa began experimenting with tied wire sculptures of images rooted in nature that became geometric and abstract as she continued to work in that form. "Ruth was ahead of her time in understanding how sculptures could function to define and interpret space," said Daniell Cornell, curator of the de Young Museum in San Francisco. "This aspect of her work anticipates much of the installation work that has come to dominate contemporary art."In 1968, Asawa created her first representational work, a mermaid fountain in Ghirardelli Square on San Francisco’s waterfront.
Near Union Square, she created a fountain for which she mobilized 200 schoolchildren to mold hundreds of images of the city of San Francisco in dough, which were cast in iron. Over the years, she went on to design other public fountains and became known in San Francisco as the "fountain lady". Despite her tremendo
Clara Stanton Jones
Clara Stanton Jones was the first African-American president of the American Library Association, serving as its acting president from April 11 to July 22 in 1976 and its president from July 22, 1976 to 1977. She was appointed the director of the Detroit Public Library, becoming the first African-American director of a major city public library in the United States. Stanton Jones was born on May 1913, in St. Louis, Missouri, to a close-knit, Catholic family, her future career and impact in library science seemed predestined as she frequented the library at an early age. Jones recalls that she was one of the smallest patrons at the public library near her grandmother's house. Although Jones had little interaction with librarians in her young years, she read what interested her and selected her own materials, her mother, Etta J. Stanton, worked as a school teacher, lecturing at public school systems until her marriage. Since the law did not allow married women to teach in the public school system, she taught in Catholic parochial schools to help support her family, including Clara Jones' endeavor to attend college.
Jones' father, Ralph Herbert Stanton, was a manager at the Standard Life Insurance Company. He accepted a position with the Atlanta Life Insurance Company, where he worked until his death. Jones grew up in a segregated St. Louis neighborhood, but she was not daunted by the assumed, implicit Jim Crow laws. Education and solidarity were emphasized in Jones' family, she obtained a well-rounded education though the St. Louis public school system was segregated, she grew up in an African-American world, with black role-models and mentors. In high school, Jones aspired to become an elementary school teacher though her future salary would be below white counterparts; this position would still provide a high standard of living for African Americans at that time because the income gap between white and black teachers was only slight. Jones was the first member of her family to graduate from college. St. Louis was segregated, but instead of attending the local, tuition-free teachers college, designated for black students, Jones attended the Milwaukee State Teacher's College in 1930.
Jones was one of only six black students at the college. She transferred to Spelman College in Atlanta, where she majored in English and History and decided to become a librarian instead of a teacher; the president Florence Reed caught notice of Jones' typing skills and offered her a position as a typist with the new Atlanta University Library. She was receptive to their suggestions as she had considered this career change. Jones remained in that position until her graduation. Jones began working in libraries the same year, she said that at the beginning of 1938, she worked in libraries at Dillard University, New Orleans, Southern University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Jones spent the remainder of her library career at the Detroit Public Library, retiring in 1978 as the director, she was elected the first black president of the American Library Association after she accepted the position as head of the Detroit Public Library. There was opposition to the election of Jones at the Detroit Public Library.
Her detractors tried to challenge her authority by questioning her decisions, making decisions behind her back, using degrading language. Her secretary, Carolyn Moseley, recalled how Jones never discussed these obstacles because that would effect how people perceived her. Moseley recalled how Jones focused helping others become more successful by utilizing her power and resources on their behalf. In May 1977, Clara Stanton Jones president of the American Library Association, responded to the ALA Intellectual Freedom Committee's recommendation to quash the ALA's "Resolution on Racism and Sexism Awareness" because its language remained unclear, her response was published in American Libraries, the official publication of the ALA. Jones opposed the IFC's proposal, declaring that the resolution required further adjustments and amendments to the language before the committee considered annulment; the IFC feared that the resolution favored censorship as a means to purge library materials of racist and sexist language, thereby opposing the Library Bill of Rights pledge to sustain access to information and enlightenment despite content, encourage libraries to challenge censorship.
The ALA made the decision to deliberate the fate of the resolution and report its results at the 1977 Detroit conference. Jones asserted that the resolution did not conflict with the Library Bill of Rights, instead promoted awareness by encouraging training and outreach programs in the libraries and library schools. In agreement with the Library Bill of Rights, she advocated for more enlightenment, not repression, to combat the effects of racism and sexism in library materials. Jones viewed the resolution as the framework, not the final solution, for enabling librarians
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.
In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.
Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon
Milwaukee Girls' Trade and Technical High School
Milwaukee Girls' Trade and Technical High School is a historic school building located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. It is located in the original Milwaukee Normal School building, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. The site is made up of four adjoining structures built in stages. Built in 1885, the central and oldest structures of the complex is the former State Normal School; the second structure was built in 1894 on the west side of the original structure. After the normal school was sold to the City of Milwaukee in 1909, it was converted to the Milwaukee Girls' Trade and Technical School; the third and fourth structures of the complex were built in 1918 and 1932. The site is home to the Milwaukee Rescue Mission, a homeless shelter
A normal school is the historical term for an institution created to train high school graduates to be teachers by educating them in the norms of pedagogy and curriculum. Most such schools, where they still exist, are now denominated "teacher-training colleges" or "teachers' colleges" and may be organized as part of a comprehensive university. Normal schools in the United States and Canada trained teachers for primary schools, while in continental Europe, the equivalent colleges educated teachers for primary and tertiary schools. In 1685, St. Jean-Baptiste de La Salle, founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, founded what is considered the first normal school, the École Normale, in Reims, France; the term "normal" herein refers to the goal of these institutions to instill and reinforce particular norms within students. "Norms" included historical behavioral norms of the time, as well as norms that reinforced targeted societal values and dominant narratives in the form of curriculum.
The first public normal school in the United States was founded in Concord, Vermont, by Samuel Read Hall in 1823 to train teachers. In 1839, the first state-supported normal school was established by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts on the northeast corner of the historic Lexington Battle Green; the first modern teacher training school in China was established by Qing educator Sheng Xuanghuai in 1895 as the normal school of the Nanyang Public School in Shanghai, China. Many comprehensive public or state-supported universities, such as the University of California, Los Angeles in the United States and Beijing Normal University in China, were established and operated as normal schools before expanding their faculties and organizing as research universities; some of these universities in Asia, retain the word "Normal" in their name to recognize their historical purpose. In Canada, most normal schools were assimilated into a university as its faculty of education, offering a one or two-year Bachelor of Education degree.
Such a degree requires at least three, but four, years of prior undergraduate study. The term "normal school" originated in the early 16th century from the French école normale; the French concept of an "école normale" was to provide a model school with model classrooms to teach model teaching practices to its student teachers. The children being taught, their teachers, the teachers of the teachers were together in the same building. Although a laboratory school, it was the official school for the children -- secondary. Educating teachers was of great importance in the newly industrialized European economies and their need for a reliable and uniform work force; the process of instating such norms within students depended upon the creation of the first uniform, formalized national educational curriculum. Thus, normal schools, as the teacher training schools, were tasked with both developing this new curriculum and developing the techniques through which teachers would instill these ideas and values in the minds of their students.
In Germany schools of education only exist in the state of Baden-Württemberg. These schools prepare teachers for Grundschule and secondary schools like Hauptschule and Realschule. Teachers for the Gymnasium are educated on universities. In Finland, normal schools are under national university administration, whereas most schools are administered by the local municipality. Teacher aspirants do most of their compulsory trainee period in normal schools and teach while being supervised by a senior teacher. In France, a two-tier system developed since the Revolution: primary school teachers were educated at départemental écoles normales, high school teachers at the Écoles normales supérieures. Nowadays all teachers are educated in École supérieure du professorat et de l'éducation; the Écoles Normales Supérieures in France and the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa in Italy no longer specialize in teacher training. In the United Kingdom, teacher training colleges were once separate institutions, many such colleges adopted the title "College of Higher Education".
A restructuring of higher education in the UK during the 1980s resulted in many of these adopting the status of "university". The University of Chester traces its roots back to 1839 as the earliest training college in the United Kingdom. Others were established by religious institutions and were single-sex until World War II. Since they have either become multi-discipline universities in their own right or merged with another university to become its faculty of education. Following the recommendation in the 1963 Robbins Report into higher education, teacher training colleges were renamed colleges of education. For information about academic divisions devoted to this field outside of the United States and Canada, see Postgraduate Training in Education. In Wales, there were two colleges which included the word'Normal' in their name: the first being'The Normal College, Swansea' where the eminent mathematician John Viriamu Jones was educated and the second was The Normal College, which survived until 1996, when it became part of University of Wales Bangor.
The latter was one of the last institutions in the UK to retain the word "Normal" in its name. In Lithuania, Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences, former Vilnius Pedagogical University is the main teachers' training institution, established in 1935. In Mainland China, the "normal school" term
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Frank A. Dudley
Frank Alonzo Dudley was an American lawyer, politician and business owner associated with Niagara Falls, New York. Dudley established the United Hotels Company of America and the "Lewiston Heights" neighborhood in Lewiston, New York. Frank Alonzo Dudley was born in the Town of Wilson, New York on January 30, 1864, he was the third of five children to John Alexander Dudley, born in Guilford and Henrietta Wright, born in Lockport, New York. His father was the son of Phineas Dudley Jr. and Elizabeth Graves, a great-granddaughter of Colonial Connecticut Governor John Webster. His maternal grandparents were Candace Gaskill. During his infancy, his parents moved to the Town of Whitewater, where he lived on a farm until he was about 14 years old. At that point, he moved to the village, now city, of Whitewater and for the next four years, he attended the district school and subsequently that State Normal School, which became the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. In 1882, he returned to New York, where he read law with Joshua Gaskill.
He was admitted at the same time as Cuthbert W. Pound. In 1887, he settled permanently in Niagara Falls, New York, where in 1888, he formed a co-partnership with W. Caryl Ely, under the firm name of "Ely & Dudley", which became "Ely, Dudley & Cohn."Dudley was a partner, until his death in 1945, with "Dudley, Phelps, & Gray" with Alfred W. Gray, Alpheus R. Phelps, Newman Gray, a law firm based out of the NRHP listed United Office Building in Niagara Falls, New York he had built in 1929 by James A. Johnson of Esenwein & Johnson. In politics, he was an active and prominent Republican, in 1895 and 1896, was elected to the 119th and 120th New York State Legislature; as a candidate for the Assembly, Dudley received 3,556 votes. Townsend, Prohibitionist. In the Assembly of 1896, Dudley was a member of the "Judiciary Claims" and "Federal Relations" committees and in the 120th Legislature, he was the "Chairman of Taxation and Retrenchment." Dudley introduced and championed several bills which became laws including: a law giving the Niagara Falls Hydraulic Manufacturing Company the permanent right to use the waters of the Niagara River, sufficient to develop 100,000 horsepower.
The bill was known as the "Dudley tax bill," and was vetoed by Governor Frank S. Black. During the 1932 Presidential Election campaign, Dudley served as president of the "Republican Hotel Men's Association." Dudley was early connected with the power development at Niagara Falls and was one of the incorporators and organizers of many different companies. He was one of the incorporators and organizers of the Buffalo and Niagara Falls Electric Railway part of International Railway System. Dudley was one of the originators of the Whirlpool and Northern Electric Railway, which extended into the Town of Lewiston, he was one of the organizers of the 1898 Lewiston Connecting Bridge between Lewiston, New York and Queenston, Ontario in Canada. Dudley organized the "North Coast Railway of State of Washington," of which he was the first president; the railway was taken over by the Harriman Interests, became part of the Southern and Union Pacific Systems. He was a stockholder and a vice-president in a number of business and commercial enterprises of Niagara Falls, including the "Electric City Bank,".
Which merged into "Niagara Falls Trent Co.", of which Dudley was its first President. Dudley was one of the founders and served as vice-president of "Niagara Falls Electrical Transmission Company", incorporated February 25, 1905 for the transmission and sale of electricity; the president and treasurer was Frederic Thomas Nicholls and the company was controlled through stock ownership by the Electrical Development Company of Ontario, Ltd. It owned franchises in the towns of Tonawanda, Pendleton and Sweden, as well as the cities of Tonawanda, North Tonawanda, Lockport, including the villages of Medina and Holley. In addition to the franchises, the company had a controlling interest in the "Niagara Falls Gas and Electric Light Company", its revenues derived from the rental of real estate. Dudley was a director of the Niagara Falls Power Co. the first great power development of Niagara. In 1901, Dudley organized the Niagara Falls Country Club. In 1916, the Club moved from Niagara Falls to Lewiston.
A. W. Tillinghast was engaged to design the course in Lewiston, completed in 1919; the former site in Niagara Falls became the Hyde Park Golf Club. Dudley, along with Paul A. Schoellkopf, a son of Arthur Schoellkopf, Afred W. Gray, financed the "Lewiston Heights" neighborhood, part of, transferred to the Niagara Falls Country Club for their move to Lewiston. At one time Dudley and Gray owned all the land at Lewiston Heights. Both Dudley and Schoellkopf built mansions on the escarpment. In 1910, along with F. W. Rockwell, organized the United Hotels Company of America and Dudley served as its president, its executive office was at 45 Falls St. in Niagara Falls, New York and its administrative office was at 25 W. 45th St. in New York City. He was president of the American Purchasing Corporation with offices in London, New York C