Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Henry A. Wise
Henry Alexander Wise was an American lawyer and politician from Virginia. He was a U. S. Representative and Governor of Virginia, US Minister to Brazil. During the American Civil War, he was a general in the Confederate States Army, he was the father of Richard Alsop Wise and John Sergeant Wise, who both served as U. S. Representatives. Wise was born in Drummondtown in Accomack County, Virginia, to Major John Wise and his second wife Sarah Corbin Cropper. Wise was of Scottish descent, he was tutored until his twelfth year, when he entered Margaret Academy, near Pungoteague in Accomack County. He graduated from Washington College in 1825, he was a member of the Union Literary Society at Washington College. After attending Henry St. George Tucker's Winchester Law School, Wise was admitted to the bar in 1828, he settled in Nashville, Tennessee, in the same year to start a practice, but returned to Accomack County in 1830. Wise was married three times, he was first married in 1828 to Anne Jennings, the daughter of Rev. Obadiah Jennings and Ann Wilson of Washington, Pennsylvania.
In 1837, Anne and one of their children died in a fire, leaving Henry with four children: two sons and two daughters. Wise married a second time in November 1840, to Sarah Sergeant, the daughter of U. S. Representative John Sergeant and Margaretta Watmough of Philadelphia. Sarah gave birth to at least five children, she died of complications, along with her last child, soon after its birth on October 14, 1850. Sarah's sister Margaretta married George G. Meade, a major general in the Civil War. In the nineteen years of marriage to his first two wives, Wise fathered fourteen children. Henry married a third time, to Mary Elizabeth Lyons in 1853. After serving as governor, Wise settled with Mary and his younger children in 1860 at Rolleston, an 884-acre plantation which he bought from his brother John Cropper Wise, who continued to live there, it was located on the Eastern Branch Elizabeth River near Virginia. The property was first owned and developed by William and Susannah Moseley, English immigrants who settled there in 1649.
Their descendants owned the property into the 19th century. After Wise entered Confederate service, he and his family abandoned Rolleston in 1862 as Union troops were taking over Norfolk. Wise arranged for his family to reside in Franklin County, Virginia. After the Civil War and Mary Wise lived in Richmond, where he resumed his law career. Henry A. Wise served as a U. S. Representative from 1833 to 1844, he was elected Representative in 1832 as a Jackson Democrat. After this election, Wise fought a duel with his defeated opponent. Wise was re-elected in 1834, but broke with the Jackson administration over the rechartering of the Bank of the United States, he was sustained by his constituents. Wise was re-elected as a Whig in 1836, 1838, 1840. On February 24, 1838, Wise served as the second to William J. Graves of Kentucky during the latter's duel with Jonathan Cilley of Maine at the Bladensburg Dueling Grounds, in which Cilley was mortally wounded, he wrote an account of the event, published by his son John in the Saturday Evening Post in 1906.
In 1840 Wise was active in securing the nomination and election of John Tyler as Vice President on the Whig ticket. Tyler succeeded to the presidency and broke with the Whigs. Wise was one of a small group of Congress members, known derisively as the "Corporal's Guard," who supported Tyler during his struggles with the Whigs, was re-elected as a Tyler Democrat in 1842. In 1843, Tyler nominated Wise as U. S. Minister to France, but he did not receive Senate confirmation. In 1844, Tyler appointed Wise as U. S. Minister to Brazil. Wise resigned as Representative to take up this office, he served from 1844 to 1847. Two of his children were born in Rio de Janeiro. In Brazil, Wise worked on issues related to trade and tariffs, Brazilian concerns about the US annexation of Texas, establishing diplomatic relations with Paraguay. Wise returned to the United States in 1847, resumed the practice of law, he identified with the Democratic Party, was active in politics. A delegate to the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1850, Wise opposed any reforms, insisting on the protection of slavery came first.
In the statewide election of 1855, Wise was elected Governor of Virginia, defeating Know-Nothing candidate Thomas S. Flournoy, he was the 33rd Governor of Virginia, serving from 1856 to 1860, the last Eastern Shore Governor until Ralph Northam was elected in 2017. Wise County, was named after him when it was established in 1856. One of his last official acts. During the secession crisis of 1860-61, Wise was a vehement advocate of immediate secession by Virginia, he was a member of the Virginia secession convention of 1861. Frustrated with the convention's inaction through mid-April, Wise helped plan actions by Virginia state militia to seize the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry and the Gosport Navy Yard in Norfolk; these actions were not authorized by the militia's commanders. These plans were pre-empted by the bombardment of Fort Sumter on April 12–14 and Lincoln's call for troops to suppress rebellion on April 15. After a further day and half of debate, the convention voted for secession. During the latter stage of the debate on April 17, Wise revealed the plans which would have forced the issue.
1843: Wise was elected to the U. S. House of Representa
Lyndon B. Johnson National Grassland
Lyndon B. Johnson National Grassland is a National Grassland located in the Great Plains of the northern part of the U. S. state within an hour's drive from Fort Worth. It is used for recreation such as hiking, horseback riding and hunting, it is used as grazing land for cattle and other livestock. Camping and other activities are free of charge, visitors may camp in any area of the park. Both pull-through and hike-in campsites are available; some areas require a small fee for use, but these are few and marked. It is located in the northern part of Wise County, but a small portion extends northward into southern Montague County, it has a land area of 20,309 acres. The grassland is administered together with all four United States National Forests and two National Grasslands located in Texas, from common offices in Lufkin, Texas; the units include Angelina, Davy Crockett and Sam Houston National Forests, plus Caddo National Grassland and Lyndon B. Johnson. There are local ranger district offices located in Decatur.
List of facilities named after Lyndon Johnson Rucker Pond Media related to Lyndon B. Johnson National Grassland at Wikimedia Commons Caddo–LBJ National Grasslands– U. S. Forest Service
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Denton County, Texas
Denton County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 662,614, making it the ninth-most populous county in Texas; the county seat is Denton. The 2017 Census Bureau estimate for Denton County's population is 836,210; the county, named for John B. Denton, was established in 1846. Denton County is included in TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2007, it was one of the fastest-growing counties in the United States. Before the arrival of white settlers, various Native American peoples, including the Kichai and the Lenape, infrequently populated the area; the area was settled by Peters Colony landowners in the early 1840s. Until the annexation of Texas, the area was considered part of Fannin County. On April 11, 1846, the First Texas Legislature established Denton County; the county was named for John B. Denton, killed while raiding a Native American village in Tarrant County in 1841; the county seat was set at Pickneyville. This was changed to Alton, where the Old Alton Bridge stands, Shane’s bridge and moved to Denton.
By 1860, the population of the county had increased to 5,031. On March 4, 1861, residents of the county narrowly voted for secession from the Union, with 331 votes cast for and 264 against; the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad reached Lewisville, located in the southern portion of the county, by the early 1880s. The Denton County Courthouse-on-the-Square was built in 1896, today the building houses various government offices as well as a museum. Lewisville Lake Lake Ray RobertsAccording to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 953 square miles, of which 878 square miles is land and 75 square miles is water. Denton County is located in the northern part of the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex 35 miles south of the border between Texas and Oklahoma, it is drained by two forks of the Trinity River. The largest body of water in Denton County is Lewisville Lake, formed in 1954 when the Garza–Little Elm Reservoir was merged with Lake Dallas; the county is on the western edge of the Eastern Cross Timbers and encompasses parts of the Grand Prairie portion of the Texas blackland prairies.
Portions of Denton County sit atop the Barnett Shale, a geological formation believed to contain large quantities of natural shale gas. Between 1995 and 2007, the number of natural gas wells in the county increased from 156 to 1,820, which has led to some controversy over the pollution resulting from hydraulic fracturing. Cooke County Grayson County Collin County Dallas County Tarrant County Wise County As of the 2015 Texas Population Estimate Program, the population of the county was 778,846, non-Hispanic whites 459,448. Black Americans 69,040. Other non-Hispanic 85,406. Hispanics and Latinos 164,952; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 662,614 people, 224,840 households and 256,139 housing units in the county. The population density was 754.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 75% White, 8.4% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 6.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.9% from two or more races. 18.2 % of the population were of Latino origin. Denton County ranked twenty-ninth on the US Census Bureau's list of fastest-growing counties between 2000 and 2007, with a 41.4% increase in population.
A Williams Institute analysis of 2010 census data found there were about 5.2 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. Denton County, like all counties in Texas, is governed by a Commissioners Court; this court consists of the county judge, elected county-wide and four commissioners who are elected by the voters in each of four districts. Denton County, like most suburban counties in Texas, votes reliably for Republican candidates in statewide and national elections; the last Democratic presidential candidate to win the county was Lyndon Johnson in 1964. As of the 2016 election, there are no elected Democrats representing a significant portion of the county above the municipal level; the following school districts lie within Denton County: Argyle Independent School District Aubrey Independent School District Denton Independent School District Lake Dallas Independent School District Lewisville Independent School District Little Elm Independent School District Ponder Independent School District Sanger Independent School DistrictThe following school districts lie within Denton County: Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District Celina Independent School District Era Independent School District Frisco Independent School District Krum Independent School District Northwest Independent School District Pilot Point Independent School District Prosper Independent School District Slidell Independent School DistrictThe following private educational institutions serve Denton County: Denton Calvary Academy Coram Deo Academy Lakeland Christian School Liberty Christian School Selwyn College Preparatory SchoolThe following higher education institutions serve Denton County: University of North Texas Texas Woman's University North Central Texas College The Denton County Transportation Authority operates a bus service in the county that includes Denton and Highland Village.
SPAN Transit covers areas outside of Lewisville. DCTA operates the A-train, a commuter rail service runs from Denton to Carrollton, at which station passengers can switch to the Green Line train owned and operated by Dallas Area Rapid Transit. Passengers can transfer to other DART lines at the
Parker County, Texas
Parker County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 116,927; the county seat is Weatherford. The county was created in 1855 and organized the following year, it is named for Isaac Parker, a state legislator who introduced the bill that established the county in 1855. Parker County is included in TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 910 square miles, of which 903 square miles are land and 6.6 square miles are covered by water. The county is intersected by the Brazos River. Slipdown Mountain and Slipdown Bluff, at a height of 1,368 feet, are the highest points in Parker County, they are located just east of southwest of Poolville. I-20 I-30 US 180 US 377 FM 5 FM 51 FM 52 FM 113 SH 171 SH 199 SH 312 FM 920 Wise County Tarrant County Johnson County Hood County Palo Pinto County Jack County As of the census of 2003, 98,495 people, 31,131 households, 24,313 families resided in the county.
The population density was 98 people per square mile. The 34,084 housing units averaged 38 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 83.17% White, 1.79% African American, 0.67% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 12.61% from other races, 1.38% from two or more races. About 7% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 31,131 households, 38.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.60% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.90% were not families. Around 18.30% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.11. As of the 2010 census, about 3.4 same-sex couples per 1,000 households were in the county. In the county, the population was distributed as 27.50% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 10.50% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $45,497, for a family was $51,530. Males had a median income of $37,913 versus $25,412 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,305. About 5.90% of families and 8.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.30% of those under age 18 and 9.60% of those age 65 or over. Azle Cresson Fort Worth Mineral Wells Reno Briar Horseshoe Bend Western Lake Parker County, like most suburban counties in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area, has been a Republican stronghold for decades. Republicans have held all public offices since 1999 and the county has not voted for a Democratic Presidential candidate since 1976. Orville Bullington and politician Oliver Loving, Loving-Goodnight Cattle Trail Bose Ikard, trusted cattle driver of Oliver Loving and Charles Goodnight Mary Martin, star of stage and screen S.
W. T. Lanham, last Confederate governor of Texas Jim Wright, youngest mayor of Weatherford, TX, Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives Douglas Chandor, international portrait artist List of museums in North Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Parker County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Parker County Parker County government's website The Parker County Poor Farm Historic photos from the Weatherford College Library, hosted by the Portal to Texas History Parker County in Handbook of Texas Online
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c