Wissembourg is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France. It is situated on the little River Lauter close to the border between France and Germany 60 km north of Strasbourg and 35 km west of Karlsruhe. Wissembourg is a sub-prefecture of the department; the name Wissembourg is a Gallicized version of Weißenburg in German meaning "white castle". The Latin place-name, sometimes used in ecclesiastical sources, is Sebusium; the town was annexed by France after 1648 but incorporated into Germany in 1871. It was returned to France in 1919, but reincorporated back into Germany on 1940. After 1944 it again became French. Weissenburg Abbey, the Benedictine abbey around which the town has grown, was founded in the 7th century under the patronage of Dagobert I; the abbey was supported by vast territories. Of the 11th-century buildings constructed under the direction of Abbot Samuel, only the Schartenturm and some moats remain; the town was fortified in the 13th century. The abbey church of Saint-Pierre et Paul erected in the same century under the direction of Abbot Edelin was secularized in the French Revolution and despoiled of its treasures.
At the abbey in the late 9th century the monk Otfried composed a gospel harmony, the first substantial work of verse in German. In 1354 Charles IV made it one of the grouping of ten towns called the Décapole that survived annexation by France under Louis XIV in 1678 and was extinguished with the French Revolution. On 25 January 1677 a great fire destroyed the Hôtel de Ville. Many early structures were spared: the Maison du Sel, under its Alsatian pitched roof was the first hospital of the town. There are many 15th and 16th-century timber-frame houses, parts of the walls and gateways of the town; the Maison de Stanislas was the retreat of Stanisław Leszczyński, ex-king of Poland, from 1719 to 1725, when the formal request arrived, 3 April 1725 asking for the hand of his daughter in marriage to Louis XV. The First Battle of Wissembourg took place near the town in 1793; the “Lines of Wissembourg,” made by Villars in 1706, were famous. They were a line of works extending to Lauterbourg nine miles to the southeast.
Like the fortifications of the town, only vestiges remain, although the city wall is still intact for stretches. Austrian General von Wurmser succeeded in capturing the lines in October 1793, but was defeated two months by General Pichegru of the French Army and forced to retreat, along with the Prussians, across the Rhine River. Wissembourg formed the setting for the Romantic novel L’ami Fritz co-written by the team of Erckmann and Chatrian, which provided the material for Mascagni's opera L'Amico Fritz. Another Battle of Wissembourg took place on 4 August 1870, it was the first battle of the Franco-Prussian War. The Prussians were nominally commanded by the Crown Prince Frederick, but ably directed by his Chief of Staff, General Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal; the French defeat allowed the Prussian army to move into France. The Geisberg monument commemorates the battle. Otfrid of Weissenburg Jean-Gotthard Grimmer, pastor at Wissembourg deputy to the National Convention on 10 ventôse year III to replace Philibert Simond.
Louis Moll, born in Wissembourg in 1809 and died in 1880. Joseph GuerberJoseph Guerber Stanisław Leszczyński, king of Poland from 1704 to 1709, exiled in Wissembourg and lived from 1719 to 1725; the school in the city now bears his name. Charles de Foucauld Auguste Dreyfus Jean Frédéric Wentzel, famous photos of Wissembourg Jean-François Kornetzky, football goalkeeper Martin Bucer was a Protestant reformer based in Wissembourg/Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran and Anglican doctrines and practices. Drew Heissler aka Pokey LaFarge, is songwriter, his family emigrated from Wissembourg/Alsace. Jean-Pierre Hubert, a science-fiction writer. Julie Velten Favre and educator Alix Bénézech, actress The town, set in a landscape of wheat fields, retains a former Augustinian convent with its large-scale Gothic church, now the parish of Saints-Pierre-et-Paul; the 13th century Dominican church now serves as the cultural center'La Nef'. The Grenier aux Dîmes belonging to the Abbey is 18th-century but an ancient foundation.
Noteworthy houses are the medieval "Salt house", the Renaissance "House of l'Ami Fritz" and the Baroque City Hall, a work by Joseph Massol. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Château Saint-Rémy d'Altenstadt INSEE commune file Tourist information Accessed 11 May 2014. Saints Peter and Paul Church at Structurae Virtual tour picture gallery Interactive map of the property of abbey Wissembourg, based on Liber donationum and Liber possessionum, in Traditiones possessionesque Wizenburgenses, edited by Zeuss, Johann Caspar, Speyer 1842
Hatfield Heath is a village, civil parish, an electoral ward in the Uttlesford district of Essex, at its west is close to the border with Hertfordshire. In close proximity are the towns of Sawbridgeworth. Stansted Airport is 5 miles to the north; the neighbouring Hatfield Broad Oak was a market town. As it declined Hatfield Heath in the parish of Hatfield Broad Oak, grew because of its proximity to main roads through the parish. In 1660 the fair at Hatfield Broad Oak was moved to Hatfield Heath. By the third quarter of the 18th-century the heath, had cottages around its edge, by the 19th century two schools, a church and a brewery; the 1870-72 Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales entry for Hatfield Heath describes:...a chapelry in Hatfield-Broad Oak parish, Essex. It was constituted in 1860. Pop. 622. Houses, 124; the manor belongs to Esq.. The living is a p. curacy in the diocese of Rochester. Value, £75.* Patron, the Vicar of Hatfield-Broad-Oak. The church was built in 1860. There is an Independent chapel.
Hatfield Heath became after 1860 an ecclesiastical district formed out of but remaining part of Hatfield Broad Oak. The settlement was a hamlet, one of two ecclesiastical chapelries of Hatfield Broad Oak, the other being Bush End. By 1901 Hatfield Heath, remaining an Hatfield Broad Oak ecclesiastical district and hamlet, had a population of 579. At the time both Hatfield Heath and Bush End were perpetual curacies together of a yearly value of £75, held under advowson of the vicar of Hatfield Broad Oak; the church supported three National Schools in the wider Hatfield Broad Oak parish, which contained "several" private schools. The National School at Hatfield Heath was built in 1899 for 201 mixed children, which in 1902 had an average attendance of 66. An 1894 will of George Cheveley provided interest from a trust for Hatfield Heath National School children's education, in 1905, the Cheveley Educational Foundation. An 1857-built day school in Hatfield Broad Oak provided non-religious teaching to 113 parish pupils.
The Hatfield Heath Congregational community dates to 1665, established by an incumbent ejected from the vicarage of Hatfield Broad Oak who became licensed as a Congregational minister. The community met in a meeting house, by 1724 in a barn, where the congregation numbered 300. A further house was acquired on which land the present enlarged church was built in 1875, building on a number of earlier church structures. By 1851 the congregation was 500, became part of the United Reformed Church in 1972, after which membership fell to 91 in 1980; the Hatfield Broad Oak Congregational church building, dating from 1818 and converted for Roman Catholic use, was until the 1920s a station of Hatfield Heath Congregational church. Kelly's Directory noted in 1902 at Hatfield Heath a Gothic style independent Congregational "chapel" seating 300, built in 1876; the church's front gable contained a stained glass window to Rev. C. Berry, the minister for over 50 years; the first British School associated with the Congregational community dated to 1827, with 18 pupils attending by 1833.
By the end of the decade it was reduced to a Sunday school. A second British School was built concurrently with the present church. An original bridge over Pincey Brook on the road to Matching south from Hatfield Heath dates to before the late 13th-century; the upkeep of the bridge was the responsibility of Hatfield Priory, after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Down Hall manor and manorial lords. By the middle of the 17th-century these responsibilities were not always maintained; the bridge came under the auspices of the county in 1881. On the Chelmsford Road to the east of the village is Stone Bridge over the Pincey Brook; this bridge was the responsibility of two local famers until 1779, after which in 1800 it was maintained by the county, but was dilapidated by 1858. A significant estate at Hatfield Heath is'Gladwyns'; the early 19th-century house on the estate, within grounds of 3 acres, was in 1902 occupied by Horace Broke J. P. and was Grade II listed in 1981. The Lincoln's Inn barrister Horace Broke was secretary to Lord Justice Mellish.
The 17th-century timber-framed White Horse inn is at the north of the village green, as is the 18th-century brick-built Stag, recorded as such in 1769, the earlier Horseshoe. Other inns ceasing trade in the 18th-century are The Bell, The White Hart. Over the last hundred-and-fifty years businesses established include machinists, a stonemason, a harness maker. Firms include civil engineers, a slaughterhouse, a sausage maker. Camp 116, a Second World War prisoner-of-war camp on Mill Lane, was built in 1941, it closed in 1955 but a 2003 English Heritage survey rated the camp as near complete. In 2018 a proposal by a construction company to redevelop the decaying site for housing was presented to Uttlesford District Council. A local petition was raised to save and restore the camp as a historical amenity and an application was made "to earmark the site as
Moshe Aviv Tower, is a 235-metre-tall skyscraper located in the demarcated area of the Bursa on Jabotinsky Road in northern Ramat Gan, Israel. The 68-story building is known as City Gate, its original name, it is the second tallest building in Israel, following Tel Aviv's 238-meter-high Azrieli Sarona Tower. The building was designed by architects Amnon Amnon Schwartz, it was named after Moshe Aviv, the owner of the construction company, who died in an accident in October 2001, before its completion. The design for City Gate was inspired by the famous Westend Tower in Frankfurt. Construction on the tower was completed in 2003 when the tower became occupied; the construction period was short, achieving a sequence of five stories per month with only one shift of 40 workers. The rate of concrete placement per month was 3,000 m3 and on a typical floor there are 42 windows. Total cost of construction was US$133 million; the tower has a total of 180,000 m2 of space. The building appeared in a TV advertisement for the Mifal HaPayis national lottery before it was completed, in December 2002.
When completed it is the most expensive single building in Israel. There is now an approved plan for a similar tower of the same height, the Elite Tower, across Jabotinsky Road, on the current site of the Elite Factory; the Moshe Aviv Tower is a multi-use structure. The top 11 floors consist of 17,000 m2 of residential space divided among 98 apartments. Below that, the bulk of the tower contains 63,000 m2 of office space. Separate lobbies and elevators serve the residential and office sections. 1,200 m2 of commercial space occupies the lower floors. There is a synagogue on the third floor for office tenants and visitors; the rooftop of the cylinder part serves. The tower boasts an exclusive fitness club and swimming pool situated on the tower's carpark annex roof. On September 27, 2004, as part of the annual global City in Pink lighting campaign for breast cancer, the building was lit in bright pink light. List of skyscrapers in Israel List of tallest buildings in the world Architecture in Israel Official website