Rivendell is a valley in the fictional world of Middle-earth created by J. R. R. Tolkien, it was established and ruled by Elrond Half-elven in the Second Age, four or five thousand years before the events of The Lord of the Rings, was protected by the powers of its lord and his elven ring Vilya. It is an important location in Tolkien's legendarium, featured in The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales. Elrond lived in Rivendell with his wife Celebrían, their sons Elladan and Elrohir, their daughter Arwen, many other Elves, both Noldor and Sindar. Notable Elves who lived in Rivendell included Glorfindel and Erestor. In some writings, featured in Unfinished Tales and Celeborn lived in Rivendell for a time before they became rulers of Lothlórien. Unique among non-elves, Bilbo Baggins "retired" to Rivendell as an old hobbit, before going over the water. Rivendell is a direct translation or calque into English of the Sindarin name Imladris, both meaning "deep valley of the cleft".
The name Rivendell is formed by two English elements: "riven" and "dell", making the whole word purport "deeply cloven valley". Imladris was rendered "Karningul" in Westron, the "Common Tongue" of Middle-Earth represented as English in the text of The Lord of the Rings; the house of Elrond in Rivendell is referred to as The Last Homely House, alluding to the elves' old cities, in Beleriand and Aman, the wilderness that lies east of the Misty Mountains. Rivendell was located in eastern Eriador at the edge of a narrow gorge of the river Bruinen, but well hidden in the moorlands and foothills of the Hithaeglir or Misty Mountains. Contrary to the map of western Middle-earth published in The Lord of the Rings, the Great East Road did not lead to Rivendell: Rivendell was maintained as a hidden valley away from the road to the High Pass; the climate was cool-temperate and semi-continental with moderately warm summers snowy—but not frigid—winters and moderate precipitation. Seasons were more pronounced than in areas further west, such as the Shire, but less extreme than the places east of the Misty Mountains.
Like Hobbiton, it is located at about the same latitude as Tolkien's hometown Oxford. Rivendell was founded in the year 1697 of the Second Age, following the destruction of the Elvish realm of Eregion by the forces of Sauron. Sauron had invaded Eregion in S. A. 1695 to wrest the rings of power from the Elven smiths. In response to this attack, Gil-galad sent a force from Lindon, commanded by Elrond, to bolster Eregion's defence. After two years of fighting Eregion was utterly destroyed; the remnants of Elrond's army and Eregion's refugees were driven north into the hills of Rhudaur by Sauron's forces, were subsequently besieged for three years in the valley that would become the site of Rivendell. They were relieved in S. A. 1700 when an army of Elves from Lindon and their allies the Men of Númenor, in conjunction with the defenders, attacked the besieging force and annihilated it. After the siege was lifted it was decided to abandon Eregion, leaving Rivendell the only Elven settlement in eastern Eriador.
At the end of the Second Age it served as a mustering station for the forces of the Last Alliance of Elves and Men on their way to war in Mordor. After this war Rivendell enjoyed centuries of peace, but was attacked in the fourteenth century of the Third Age by the armies of the Witch-king of Angmar, it again withstood a siege for some years, but its enemies were driven off when reinforcements arrived from Lothlórien. Several centuries a force sent from Rivendell, commanded by Glorfindel, took part in the final battle against the armies of Angmar. Following the destruction of Arnor, the northern kingdom of the Númenórean exiles, in T. A. 1974, Rivendell became an important location for the remnants of its people, the Rangers of the North. Elrond held several important relics of the kingdom in his keeping, including the shards of Narsil, the Sceptre of Annúminas, the Star of Elendil, the ring of Barahir, all of the heirs of the chieftains of the Rangers were fostered in Rivendell as children.
The most notable, last, of these was Aragorn, whom Elrond regarded as a foster son. During his time in Rivendell Aragorn fell in love with Arwen, they were married after he was crowned king of Gondor and Arnor. Rivendell proved to be an important location in the events leading up to and during the War of the Ring. Fearing the growing power of Sauron, his enemies formed the White Council to allow them to debate and strategize how to confront his menace. Elrond was a prominent member of the Council, it met in Rivendell. One of these meetings occurred in T. A. 2941. That same year, another Council member, the wizard Gandalf, helped the Hobbit Bilbo Baggins and a company of dwarves on their quest to reclaim Erebor. On their way they stopped at Rivendell, while there learned important information as to how they could achieve their goal. Bilbo and Gandalf stopped in Rivendell on their return journey. After his 111th birthday Bilbo retired to Rivendell, spending his time writing his memoirs and scholarly works, but his finding of the One Ring on his previous adventure soon set great events in motion.
In T. A. 3018 Frodo Baggins and his companions journeyed to Rivendell to deliver the Ring to safety from Sauron's agents, stayed there for more than two months. In that time, several other Elves and Men arrived at Rivendell on separate errands, at the Council of Elrond they learned that all of their errands were re
Bilbo Baggins is the title character and protagonist of J. R. R. Tolkien's 1937 novel The Hobbit, as well as a supporting character in The Lord of the Rings. In Tolkien's narrative conceit, in which all the writings of Middle-earth are translations from the fictitious volume of The Red Book of Westmarch, Bilbo is the author of The Hobbit and translator of various "works from the elvish". In The Hobbit, Bilbo Baggins, a hobbit in comfortable middle age, was hired as a "burglar" –despite his initial objections– by the wizard Gandalf and 13 Dwarves led by their king, Thorin Oakenshield; the Dwarves were on a quest to reclaim its treasures from the dragon Smaug. The adventure took Bilbo and his companions through the wilderness, to the elf haven of Rivendell, across the Misty Mountains, through the black forest of Mirkwood, to Lake-town in the middle of Long Lake, to the Mountain itself. There, after the Mountain was reclaimed, the Battle of Five Armies took place. In that battle, a host of Elves and Dwarves--with the help of Eagles and Beorn the shapeshifter--defeated a host of Goblins and Warg.
At the end of the story, Bilbo returned to his home in the Shire to find that several of his relatives--believing him to be dead--were trying to claim his home and possessions. During his journey, Bilbo encountered other fantastic creatures, including Trolls, giant spiders, Goblins, Warg, a murderous creature named Gollum. Underground, near Gollum's lair under the Misty Mountains, Bilbo accidentally found a magic ring of invisibility that he used to escape from Gollum. By the end of the journey, Bilbo had become wiser and more confident, having saved the day in many precarious situations. Bilbo's journey has been compared to a pilgrimage of grace; the Hobbit can be characterized as a "Christian bildungsroman which equates progress to wisdom gained in the form of a rite of passage". He rescued the Dwarves from giant spiders with the magic ring and a short Elven-sword that he had acquired, he used the magic ring to sneak around in dangerous places, he used his wits to smuggle the 13 Dwarves out of the Wood-elves' prison.
When tensions arose over ownership of the treasures beneath the Lonely Mountain, Bilbo used the Arkenstone, a stolen heirloom jewel, as leverage in an unsuccessful attempt to negotiate a compromise between the Dwarves, the Wood-elves, the Men of Lake-town. In so doing, Bilbo strained his relationship with Thorin. In addition to becoming wealthy from his share of the Dwarves' treasure, Bilbo found that he had traded respectability for experience and wisdom. At the end of the book, Gandalf proclaimed; the Fellowship of the Ring, the first volume of The Lord of the Rings, begins with Bilbo's "eleventy-first" birthday, 60 years after the beginning of The Hobbit. The main character of the novel is Frodo Baggins, Bilbo's cousin, who celebrates his 33rd birthday and comes of age on the same day. In T. A. 2989, Bilbo, a lifelong bachelor, adopted Frodo, the orphaned son of his first cousin Primula Brandybuck and his second cousin Drogo Baggins, made him his heir. Though Frodo was "his first and second cousin once removed either way", the two regarded each other as uncle and nephew.
All this time Bilbo had kept his magic ring, with no idea of its significance, using it to hide from his obnoxious cousins, the Sackville-Bagginses, when they came to visit. Gandalf's investigations revealed it to be the One Ring forged by the Dark Lord Sauron; the Ring had prolonged Bilbo's life beyond the normal hobbit span, at 111 he still looked 50. While the Ring did not corrupt him as it had its previous owners, it was beginning to affect him. On the night of his and Frodo's birthday, Bilbo invited all of the Shire, he signed his home, Bag End, estate over to Frodo. He gave a farewell address to his neighbours, at the end of which he put on the Ring and vanished from sight; as Bilbo prepared to leave the house, he reacted with panic and suspicion when Gandalf tried to persuade him to leave the Ring with Frodo. Bilbo refused to give up the Ring. Gandalf talked some sense into him. Bilbo admitted he would have liked to be rid of the Ring, he left it behind, becoming the first person to do so voluntarily.
He left the Shire that night, was never seen in Hobbiton again. His earlier adventure, his eccentric habits as a hobbit, his sudden disappearance led to the enduring figure of "Mad Baggins" in hobbit folklore, who disappeared with a flash and a bang and returned with gold and jewels. Freed of the Ring's power over his senses, Bilbo travelled first to Rivendell, on to visit the dwarves of the Lonely Mountain. After he returned to Rivendell he spent much of the next 17 years living a pleasant life of retirement: eating, writing poetry, working on his memoirs and Back Again, known as The Hobbit, he became a scholar of Elven lore, leaving behind the Translations from the Elvish, which forms the basis of what is known to us as The Silmarillion. When Frodo and his friends Samwise Gamgee, Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took stopped in Rivendell on their quest to destroy the Ring, Bilbo was still alive but now visibly aged, the years having caught up with him after h
Lindon is the land beyond the Ered Luin, the Blue Mountains, in the northwest of Middle-earth in the fictional universe of J. R. R. Tolkien, it is the westernmost land of the continent. The Gulf of Lune divides it into Harlindon. Mithlond or the Grey Havens stood near the mouth of the River Lhûn at the gulf's eastern end. Lindon serves as a narrative plot device, the final point of transition from the mortal changing world of Middle-earth to the unchanged Arda of the past. Ossiriand was the most eastern region of Beleriand during the First Age, lying between the Ered Luin and the river Gelion. Ossiriand was a forested land; the Seven Rivers were, from north to south: River Gelion River Ascar or Rathlóriel River Thalos River Legolin River Brilthor River Duilwen River Adurant Along the northern side of the Ascar ran the Dwarf-road to Nogrod. North of Ossiriand lay the land of Thargelion, ruled by Caranthir son of Fëanor; the island Tol Galen in Ossiriand's southernmost river, the Adurant, was named the Land of the Dead that Live when Lúthien and Beren lived their second lives there.
The first settlers of Beleriand were the Sindarin Elves, but they did not venture into Ossiriand except as "wandering hunters". Ossiriand continued to remain unoccupied for many centuries, a situation not disturbed when Dwarves appeared, built their road along the northern boundary. Another Elven people, the Nandor, entered Ossiriand under their leader Denethor; the Nandor were given permission by Thingol to settle the lands. There they lived in "long years of peace", they chose no more leaders, many of them removed to Thingol's kingdom of Doriath. The Nandor remaining in Ossiriand withdrew into its woods, became known as the Laiquendi, or Green Elves; the Laiquendi were prodigious singers. At the drowning of Beleriand in the War of Wrath, only parts of Ossiriand and Thargelion survived, along with what became the islands of Tol Fuin and Himring. Belegaer the Great Sea broke through the Blue Mountains on the eastern boundary of Beleriand to create the Gulf of Lhûn; the War of Wrath ended the First Age, thereafter the name Lindon was applied to the surviving parts of Ossiriand and Thargelion.
This new Elven realm was ruled by King Gil-galad until his death in S. A. 3441, subsequently by the lord Círdan. Many of the Elves of Beleriand relocated to Lindon at the beginning of the Second Age, where they were ruled by King Gil-galad; the Noldor dwelt in the northern section of Forlindon, while the Sindar and surviving Laiquendi were in the southern section of Harlindon. Together they built Mithlond, the Grey Havens, on the eastern end of the Gulf of Lhûn along the banks of the River Lhûn in its deep firth. Círdan the Shipwright was the master of the Havens since its founding; the general map of Middle-earth in The Lord of the Rings shows other anchorages farther west in the Gulf of Lhûn: Harlond and Forlond on the southern and northern shores, respectively. Lindon was one of the two Noldorin realms during the other being Eregion, or Hollin; because of its cultural and spiritual importance to the Elves, Mithlond in time became the primary Elvish settlement west of the Misty Mountains prior to the establishment of Eregion and of Imladris.
After the death of Gil-galad, as the Elves dwindled in numbers by the year, Mithlond remained a focal point of the history of the northern part of Middle-earth. During the War of the Elves and Sauron, the Dark Lord Sauron attempted to invade and conquer the Havens in order to gain the Three Elven Rings but was halted and defeated at the Lhûn by Gil-galad with the timely arrival of the great Númenórean armament of Tar-Minastir; the Second Age ended with the Last Alliance of Men. The Last Alliance was the final great military effort of the Elves and they raised their largest army since the First Age for the war. Gil-galad was killed by Sauron during the last battle of the war; the Elves of Lindon suffered severe losses in the war and afterwards most of the surviving Noldor departed for Valinor and much of Lindon became depopulated. In the Third Age Lindon was ruled by Gil-galad's ally, the Sindarin elf Círdan the Shipwright, master of Mithlond. Círdan ruled as a "lord" and never with Gil-galad's title "king".
Círdan's main task was to build ships for the Elves departing Middle-earth to sail to the West. By the end of the Third Age, the majority of Lindon's population resided in or around the harbour of the Grey Havens, while the rest settled along the shores of the Gulf of Lhûn. Lindon was one of the few populated areas of northwestern Middle-earth that remained untouched by the War of the Ring. Sauron never achieved the strength and reach he had in the Second Age and he was unable to make a direct assault though the realm was a strategically important location populated by his enemies. During the Fourth Age, it was one of the last Elven havens as the remaining Elves of Rivendell and Lothlórien left Middle-earth. In the beginning of the first century, Fourth Age, it experienced a population growth as migrants from the east came to
Gríma, called Wormtongue, is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, he appears in the second and third volumes of the work, The Two Towers and The Return of the King, his role is expanded in Unfinished Tales. He is introduced in The Two Towers as the chief advisor to King Théoden of Rohan and henchman of Saruman. Gríma serves as an archetypal sycophant, flatterer and manipulator, is considered to be based by Tolkien on the Beowulf character Unferth; the name Gríma derives from the Old English or Icelandic word meaning "mask", "helmet" or "spectre". It is possible to link the name to the English word "grim", which among other characteristics means "ugly" in Old English. Gríma, son of Gálmód, was at first a faithful servant, but he fell in league with Saruman, from on worked to weaken Théoden and his kingdom through lies and persuasion. Tolkien describes him as "a wizened figure of a man, with a pale wise face, heavy lidded eyes", with a "long pale tongue", he was disliked in Edoras.
The original meaning of "worm" in Old English was "A serpent, dragon," and Gandalf compares him to a snake:The wise speak only of what they know, Gríma son of Gálmód. A witless worm have you become; therefore be silent, keep your forked tongue behind your teeth. I have not passed through fire and death to bandy crooked words with a serving-man till the lightning falls. See, Théoden, here is a snake! To slay it would be just, but it was not always. Once it was a man, it did you service in its fashion, it is implied that Saruman had promised him the king's niece, as a reward for his services. Her brother Éomer accused him of "watching her under his lids and haunting her steps", his schemes were foiled when Gandalf the White and his companions arrived at Edoras, convinced the king that he was not as weak as his adviser had made him seem. Upon Théoden's restoration, "many things which men had missed" were found locked in Gríma's trunk, including the king's sword, Herugrim. Théoden decided to go forth to battle at the Fords of Isen, Gríma was given a choice: prove his loyalty and ride into battle with the king, or ride into exile.
Choosing the latter, he went to Saruman at Orthanc. Following the confrontation between Saruman and Gandalf, Gríma mistakenly threw the palantír of Orthanc at the Rohirrim accompanying Gandalf, or at Saruman himself, so permitted its capture by Peregrin Took. Gríma accompanied Saruman to the Shire, where Saruman sought revenge for his defeat at Orthanc in petty tyranny over the Hobbits. During this time, Saruman shortened Gríma's nickname to "Worm"; when Saruman was overthrown by a hobbit rebellion and ordered to leave, Frodo Baggins implored Gríma not to follow him, offered him food and shelter. Saruman countered by revealing to the Hobbits that Gríma had murdered and eaten Lotho Sackville-Baggins, a kinsman of Frodo. Gríma played a major role in the back-story to The Lord of the Rings, prior to his first appearance in The Two Towers. In Unfinished Tales Tolkien writes that on 20 September in T. A. 3018 Gríma was captured by the Nazgûl in the fields of the Rohirrim, while on his way to Isengard to inform Saruman of Gandalf's arrival at Edoras.
He divulged what he knew of Saruman's plans to the Nazgûl his interest in the Shire, its location. Gríma was set free, the Nazgûl set out for the Shire. In another version within the same chapter, this role is given to the squint-eyed southerner that the hobbits encounter at Bree. In the same book, Tolkien intimates that Gríma may have given Théoden "subtle poisons" that caused him to age at an accelerated pace. In Ralph Bakshi's 1978 animated film adaptation of The Lord of the Rings, Gríma Wormtongue was voiced by Michael Deacon. Paul Brooke played Gríma in BBC Radio's 1981 serialisation. In Peter Jackson's Lord of the Rings films, Gríma was played by Brad Dourif. According to Dourif, Jackson encouraged him to shave off his eyebrows so that the audience would have a subliminal reaction of unease to the character."The Scouring of the Shire" episode does not appear in the film version. This scene was cut from the theatrical releases of the films, but can be found on the Extended Edition DVD of The Return of the King.
In this scene, the assembled leaders of the West ride to Ent-occupied Isengard to confront Saruman. Théoden offers Gríma clemency. Enraged, Gríma stabs Saruman in the back. Saruman falls from the tower and is impaled on a spiked wheel, remnant of his war machines, the palantír slips out of his cloak. Gríma himself is killed by one of Legolas' arrows. In the DVD commentary, Jackson states that in further deleted material Saruman reveals to the company that Gríma had killed Théoden's son Théodred, casting new light on both his earlier reaction to Théodred's death and on Legolas' reason for shooting him. In The Lord of the Rings: The Third Age video game, Gríma Wormtongue is a miniboss faced by the player in the village hall, he uses powerful spells that drain Action Points and disabling the target. In The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II, Gríma Wormtongue is a hero for the Isengard faction, can weaken and convert enemy units. In The Lord of the Rings: Conquest, Grima is a playable scout-type hero.
In Dougal Dixon's After Man, a toad known as the Oak Leaf Toad, whose tongue is described as worm-like, is known by the scientific name Grima frondiforme. In Harry Pott
A palantír is a fictional magical artefact from J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium. A palantír is described as a crystal ball, used for both communication and as a means of seeing events in other parts of the world or in the distant past or in the future; when one looks into a palantír, one can mentally communicate with other such stones and anyone who might be looking into them. Fashioned of a dark crystal, they were indestructible by any means men possessed at the end of the Third Age, they were of various sizes. The Stone of Osgiliath had power over other stones including the ability to eavesdrop; the smaller stones required one to move around them, thereby changing the viewpoint of its vision, whereas the larger stones could be turned on their axis. A wielder of great power such as one of the Maiar like Sauron could dominate a weaker user through the stone, the experience of Peregrin Took and Saruman. According to Gandalf, it is beyond the skill of both Sauron and Saruman to create the palantíri, while Sauron cannot make the palantíri "lie", or create false images, he could show selective images to create a false impression in the viewer.
The stones' gaze can pierce anything except darkness and shadow. A technique called. Knowledge of this technique was lost long ago; the palantíri were made by the Elves of Valinor in the Uttermost West, by the Noldor even Fëanor himself. Many palantíri were made, but only eight are mentioned in Tolkien's published works; the Master Stone was kept in the tower of Avallónë on Tol Eressëa, but no record is made of successful communication from any palantír of Middle-earth to this one. Seven stones were given to the Elf-friends, the Faithful Dúnedain of Númenor as a gift, during the Second Age. Elendil took them with him on his flight to Middle-earth on the nine ships; the stones of Arnor were at Elostirion, Amon Sul, Annuminas. After the destruction of Arnor and its successor states by the Witch-King of Angmar, the stones of Amon Sul and Annuminas were lost in Arvedui's shipwreck in the Bay of Forochel; the stone of Elostirion remained at the Emyn Beraid throughout the Third Age but was aligned only with the Master Stone on Tol Eressëa.
It could only look to the West. The stone of Osgiliath was lost during the Kin-strife when the Dome of the Stars was among the places sacked and burned in the city; the stone was not recovered. As for the other stones of Gondor, Sauron captured the palantír of Minas Ithil in 2002 T. A when the Ring-wraiths took it a second time. Saruman found the palantir of Orthanc when he was given possession of the Angrenost by Beren the Steward; the Anor-stone was used only by the Steward Denethor when he inherited his father's position in Minas Tirith. At the end of the Third Age, the use of palantíri influenced events of The Lord of the Rings. Saruman looked through the Orthanc stone, saw what he thought was an unassailable strength in Mordor, helping to corrupt him; when Pippin touched the Orthanc-stone, he encountered Sauron, attempting to contact Saruman using the Ithil-stone. Sauron thought; when Aragorn, exercising his lawful authority as heir to the Kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor, used the stone, he revealed himself to Sauron and wrenched the stone's power free of Sauron's will.
As a lawful user of the stone, Aragorn used the stone to see many things and most the attack on the Falas, which he intercepted by riding the Paths of the Dead with Rangers of the North. Denethor's constant use of the Anor-stone in Minas Tirith since becoming Steward of Gondor aged him as he battled with Sauron; the images that he saw steered by Sauron in part plus Faramir's mortal wound convinced him that there was no hope for Gondor, which resulted in his attempted murder of Faramir and his own suicide in the tomb of the Stewards off the Rath Dinen, the Silent Way. After the War of the Ring, only the stone of Orthanc remained in the possession of the king of the Reunited Kingdom as the elves took the stone of Elostirion with them into the West; the Ithil-stone had been lost in the fall of Barad-dûr, the Anor-stone would only show burning hands unless one possessed sufficient strength of will to turn its images elsewhere. One Stone, called Elendil's Stone, was placed in the tower of Elostirion in the Tower Hills, just west of the Shire.
Its location was only known to a few and it remained hidden there until it was taken back to the West with the three Elven Rings. It was unique among the stones brought to Middle-earth, in that it did not communicate with the others and would only look west along the Straight Road to the Master-stone of Avallónë; the palantír of Amon Sûl, most powerful of the three in Arnor, was kept for centuries in the Watchtower of Amon Sûl. When Arnor was divided into three kingdoms, all of them claimed Amon Sûl because of the palantír. Just before Angmar captured and destroyed the Watchtower in T. A. 1409, the Stone was taken to Fornost. It remained there, it w
Frodo Baggins is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, the main protagonist of The Lord of the Rings. Frodo is a hobbit of the Shire who inherits the One Ring from his cousin Bilbo Baggins and undertakes the quest to destroy it in the fires of Mount Doom, he is mentioned in Tolkien's posthumously published works, The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales. Frodo did not appear until the third draft of A Long-Expected Party, when he was named Bingo, son of Bilbo Baggins and Primula Brandybuck. In the fourth draft, he was renamed Bingo Bolger-Baggins, son of Rollo Bolger and Primula Brandybuck. Tolkien did not change the name to Frodo until the third phase of writing, when much of the narrative, as far as the hobbits' arrival in Rivendell, had taken shape. Prior to this, the name "Frodo" had been used for the character who became Peregrin Took. Frodo is introduced in The Fellowship of the Ring as the adoptive heir of Bilbo Baggins; the chapter "A Long-expected Party" relates that Frodo's parents Drogo Baggins and Primula Brandybuck had been killed in a boating accident when Frodo was 12.
At the age of 21 he was adopted by his cousin, who brought him to live at Bag End. He and Bilbo shared the same birthday, the 22nd of'September', it was Bilbo who introduced the Elvish languages to Frodo, they shared long walking trips together. Frodo and Meriadoc Brandybuck are first cousins once removed, since Frodo is first cousin to Meriadoc's father, Saradoc Brandybuck, their common ancestors are Mirabella Took Brandybuck. Frodo is moreover third cousin to Meriadoc's mother, Esmeralda Took. Frodo is related to Peregrin Took, being his second and third cousin once removed. Fredegar Bolger is second cousin once removed to Frodo. Frodo shares a close relationship with his gardener Samwise Gamgee although they have no family tie; the Fellowship of the Ring opens as Frodo comes of age and Bilbo leaves the Shire for good on his one hundred and eleventh birthday. Frodo inherited Bag Bilbo's ring, which were both introduced in The Hobbit. Gandalf, at this time, was not certain about the origin of the Ring, so he warned Frodo to avoid using it and to keep it secret.
Frodo kept the Ring hidden for the next 17 years, resulting in it giving him the same longevity of Bilbo, until Gandalf returned to tell him that it was the One Ring of the Dark Lord Sauron, who desired to use it to conquer Middle-earth. Realizing that he was a danger to the Shire as long as he remained there with the Ring, Frodo decided to leave home, at the age of 50, take the Ring to Rivendell, home of Elrond, a mighty Elf lord, he left the Shire with three companions: his gardener Samwise Gamgee and his cousins Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took. They escaped just in time, for Sauron's most powerful servants, the Nine Nazgûl, had entered the Shire as Black Riders, looking for Bilbo and the Ring, they nearly intercepted him. Frodo and his companions escaped the Black Riders by travelling through the Old Forest, but they were misled by the magic of Old Man Willow until they were rescued by Tom Bombadil, who gave them shelter and guided them on their way. After leaving Bombadil, they were caught in fog on the Barrow Downs by Barrow-wights and were entranced under a spell.
Frodo broke loose from the spell, attacked the barrow-wight and summoned Tom Bombadil, who again rescued the hobbits and set them on their way. At the Prancing Pony, an inn in the village of Bree, Frodo received a delayed letter from Gandalf, met Aragorn called Strider, a Ranger of the North; the One Ring slipped onto Frodo's finger inadvertently in the Prancing Pony's common room, turning Frodo invisible. This attracted the attention of Sauron's agents; the group, under Aragorn's guidance fled through the Midgewater Marshes and again escaped the Nazgûl. While encamped at Amon Sûl, they were attacked by five Nazgûl; the chief of the Nazgûl, known as the Witch-king of Angmar, stabbed Frodo with a Morgul-blade, before Aragorn routed all five of them with fire. A piece of this blade remained in Frodo's shoulder and, working its way towards his heart, threatened to turn him into a wraith under the control of the Witch-king. With the help of his companions and Glorfindel, Frodo was able to evade the remaining Ringwraiths and reach Rivendell.
Although overcome by his wound, once there he was healed over time by Elrond. In Rivendell, the Council of Elrond met and resolved to destroy the Ring by casting it into Mount Doom in Mordor, the realm of Sauron. Frodo, stepped forward to be the Ring-bearer. A Fellowship of nine companions was formed to guide and protect him: the hobbits, Aragorn, the dwarf Gimli, the elf Legolas of Mirkwood, Boromir, a man of Gondor. Together they set out from Rivendell. Frodo was armed with Sting, Bilbo's Elvish knife, wore Bilbo's coat of Dwarven mail made of mithril; the company, seeking a way over the Misty Mountains, first tried the Pass of Caradhras, but abandoned it in favour of the mines of Moria. In Moria Frodo was stabbed by an Orc-spear
Minas Tirith named Minas Anor, is a fictional city and castle in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth writings, it became the fortified capital of the kingdom of Gondor in the second half of the Third Age. It had been built to guard the former capital, from attack from the west, but became the capital when Osgiliath fell into ruin following the Kin-strife and the Great Plague, it is referred to as the White City and the City of the Kings. The Rohirrim sometimes translated this into their own language as "Mundburg". In the climax of The Lord of the Rings the city comes under a large and determined attack by the forces of Mordor. Tolkien equated the latitude of the city with that of Florence; the name Minas Tirith means "The Tower of Guard" or "The Tower of Watch" in the Elvish language Sindarin. It was named Minas Anor, "The Tower of the Setting Sun", in connection with Minas Ithil, "The Tower of the Rising Moon". Minas Ithil was conquered by orcs from Mordor and was renamed Minas Morgul, "The Tower of Black Sorcery".
Due to this event and the continuous rise of Mordor's power, Minas Anor was renamed Minas Tirith, "The Tower of Guard". The Drúedain referred to Minas Tirith as "Stone-city" and "Stone-houses"; the city of Minas Tirith covered the Hill of Guard. This hill was a shoulder of Mindolluin, the mountain which towered behind the city and, the easternmost peak of the White Mountains; the city was built on seven levels. Each level was about 100 ft higher than the one below it, each surrounded by a high stone wall; these were all white, with the exception of the wall of the First Circle, black, built of the same material used for Orthanc. This outer wall was the tallest and strongest of the city's seven walls; each wall held a gate, each gate faced a different direction from the one in the next wall. The city's main street snaked up the eastern hill-face and through each of the gates. Except for the high saddle of rock which joined the west of the hill to Mindolluin, the city was surrounded by the Pelennor, an area of farmlands.
Minas Tirith's port was a few miles south of the city at Harlond, where the great river Anduin made its closest approach to the city. The Citadel, located on the summit of the city, was the city's seventh and highest level, was protected by the city's seventh and innermost wall. At an elevation 700 feet higher than the plain surrounding the city, it had a commanding view of the lower vales of Anduin; the White Tower stood in the Citadel, in the Court of the Fountain in front of the Tower grew the White Tree, the symbol of Gondor. The topmost level contained lodgings for the Steward of Gondor, the King's House, Merethrond the Hall of Feasts, barracks for the Guard of the Citadel, other buildings for important officials and guests; the Guard of the Citadel, which consisted of several companies, was the elite force assigned to protect the highest level of Minas Tirith. Sections of the Guard could be deployed outside the city, such as in the Battle of the Morannon and the coronation of King Elessar.
In the book The Return of the King, Beregond was a member of the Guard, Pippin Took was appointed to serve with the Guard. The east of the Citadel was the flat top of the great pier of rock which jutted out from the eastern hill-face of Minas Tirith, in line with the Great Gate, 700 ft below the Citadel; the entrance to the Citadel, the Seventh Gate of the city, was in this eastern part. The gate was a tunnel which ran up through the rock pier from the Sixth Circle, where the keystone of the tunnel's archway was carved with the head of a crowned King. Guards of the Citadel manned the Seventh Gate; the White Tower also called the Tower of Ecthelion, was the most prominent building in Minas Tirith, the seat of the rulers of Gondor: the Kings and the Stewards. The phrase "the White Tower" was used as a metonym for the city and its rulers; the tower itself stood 300 ft tall. The main doors of the tower faced east, onto the Court of the Fountain. Inside these doors was the Tower Hall, the great throne-room where the Kings held court.
Upper storeys included private apartments for the rulers. The Seeing Stone of Minas Anor rested in a secret chamber at the top of the Tower. A buttery of the Guards of the Citadel was located in the basement of the tower, accessed by a door and stair at the tower's north feet; the White Tower was built by King Calimehtar in T. A. 1900. The tower was extensively re-built by Steward Ecthelion I in T. A. 2698, giving rise to the Tower of Ecthelion. In the late Third Age, the White Tower stood in opposition to the Dark Tower of Sauron in Mordor. Tolkien's stories feature a number of other white towers, including the tower of Avallónë, the tower built for Elwing, the eponymous towers of the Tower Hills; the Great Gate was the main gate on the first level of the City of Minas Tirith. It was in the City Wall—or Othram—facing eastward across the Pelennor Fields toward the Anduin. In front of the Great Gate there was a large paved area called the Gateway; the main roads to Minas Tirith met here: the North-way.
The Great Gate was strong, constructed of iron and steel and guarded by stone towers and bastions. The iron do