Ballantine Books is a major book publisher located in the United States, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine with his wife, Betty Ballantine. It was acquired by Random House in 1973, which in turn was acquired by Bertelsmann in 1998 and remains part of that company today. Ballantine's logo is a pair of mirrored letter Bs back to back; the firm's early editors were Bernard Shir-Cliff. Following Fawcett Publications' controversial 1950 introduction of Gold Medal paperback originals rather than reprints, Lion Books and Ace decided to publish originals. In 1952, Ian Ballantine, a founder of Bantam Books, announced that he would "offer trade publishers a plan for simultaneous publishing of original titles in two editions, a hardcover'regular' edition for bookstore sale, a paper-cover,'newsstand' size, low-priced edition for mass market sale."When the first Ballantine Book, Cameron Hawley's Executive Suite was published in 1952, the publishing industry saw that the simultaneous hardcover and paperback editions were obvious successes.
Houghton Mifflin published the $3.00 hardcover at the same time Ballantine distributed its 35¢ paperback. By February 1953, Ballantine was preparing to print 100,000 more. Houghton Mifflin sold 22,000 hardback copies in its first printing. Ballantine's sales soon totaled 470,000 copies. Instead of hurting hardback sales as some predicted, the paperback edition instead gave the book more publicity. After the film rights were sold to MGM, Robert Wise directed the 1954 film, nominated for four Academy Awards. On the heels of that kind of sales and publicity, other Ballantine titles were seen in spinner racks across the country. Executive Suite was followed by Hal Ellson's The Golden Spike, Stanley Baron's All My Enemies, Luke Short's Saddle by Starlight, Ruth Park's The Witch's Thorn, Emile Danoen's Tides of Tide, Frank Bonham's Blood on the Land, Al Capp's The World of Li'l Abner and LaSelle Gilman's The Red Gate. During the early 1950s, Ballantine attracted attention as one of the leading publishers of paperback science fiction and fantasy, beginning with The Space Merchants.
The Frederik Pohl and C. M. Kornbluth novel had first appeared in Galaxy Science Fiction under the title Gravy Planet. Kauffman scored when he acquired and edited Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451. Ballantine's science fiction line included the unusual Star Science Fiction Stories. With cover paintings by Richard Powers, this innovative anthology series offered new fiction rather than reprints. Edited by Frederik Pohl, it attracted readers by combining the formats of both magazines and paperbacks. In the early 1960s, the company engaged in a well-known rivalry with Ace Books for the rights to reprint the works of J. R. R. Tolkien and Edgar Rice Burroughs in paperback form. Ballantine prevailed in the struggle for the Tolkien work, with their editions of Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings including a message on the back cover from Tolkien himself urging consumers to buy Ballantine's version and boycott "unauthorized editions". A separate Canadian edition of the books was published with different front cover art work.
Tolkien asked for permission to add the back cover message. Betty Ballantine recalled: "And we did put a little statement on the back covers saying that Ace was not paying royalties to Professor Tolkien, everybody who admired Lord of the Rings should only buy our paperback edition. Well, everybody got behind us. There was no publication that did not carry some kind of outraged article, and of course, the whole science fiction fraternity got behind the book. During the mid-1970s, Ballantine published the Star Trek Logs, a ten-volume series of Alan Dean Foster adaptations of the animated Star Trek. In 1968, Ballantine published a non-fiction book related to Star Trek, The Making of Star Trek by Stephen E. Whitfield and Gene Roddenberry. In 1976, Ballantine published the novelization of a forthcoming science fiction film, Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker by George Lucas; the book, like the film Star Wars released the following year, was an enormous success and sold out its initial print run.
In the first three months, Ballantine sold 3.5 million copies. After publishing The World of Li'l Abner, Ballantine introduced Shel Silverstein in 1956 with his Grab Your Socks! Collection of cartoons from Pacific Stars and Stripes. Ballantine published several collections of Jim Davis' comic strip Garfield; as an editor at Ballantine during the 1950s and 1960s, Bernard Shir-Cliff handled the Zacherley anthologies, the paperback of Hunter Thompson's Hell's Angels, Harvey Kurtzman's The Mad Reader and other early Mad paperbacks. He made four contributions to other magazines edited by Kurtzman. In 1956, Shir-Cliff edited a humor anthology, The Wild Reader, for Ballantine, including essays and satirical pieces by Robert Benchley, Art Buchwald, Tom Lehrer, John Lardner, Shepherd Mead, Ogden Nash, S. J. Perelman, Frank Sullivan, James Thurber and others; the 154-page paperback was illustrated with cartoons by Kelly Freas who did the front cover. Another contributor to both Ballantine and the Kurtzman magazines was the cartoonist-author Roger Price.
He did two humor books for Ballantine. I'm for Me First details Herman Clabbercutt's plan to launch a revolutionary political party known as the "I'm for M
3rd Battalion, 5th Marines
3rd Battalion, 5th Marines is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps. The battalion is based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton and consists of 1,000 Marines and Fleet Marine Force Navy personnel; the 3rd Battalion falls under the command of the 5th Marine Regiment which falls under the command of the 1st Marine Division. Headquarters and Service Company Company I Company K Company L Weapons Company 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines, along with the rest of the 5th Marine Regiment, was first organized on June 8, 1917, as the United States prepared for World War I; the battalion was composed of four companies: the 20th, 45th and 47th. Six days manned by Spanish–American War and Boxer Rebellion veterans along with a large number of raw recruits, they set sail for France, they participated in campaigns and battles such as Bois de Belleau, Vierzy, Château-Thierry, Pont-a-Mousson, Limey Sector, Meuse-Argonne, Blanc Mont, St Michiel and Soissons. The French Government recognized the young battalion by presenting it the Croix de guerre along with the Fourragère and changing the name of a French landmark, Belleau Wood, to "Bois de la Brigade de Marine" or "Wood of the Marine Brigade".
In August 1919, the Battalion was deactivated following World War I and less than two years in May 1921, the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines was reactivated. For the next several years, men of the 3rd Battalion served in the Caribbean and at home, guarding the U. S. Mail. In March 1927, the 3rd Battalion deployed to Nicaragua to help stabilize the government against overthrow attempts by rebel forces. For the next six years, the Battalion aided the Nicaraguan government until peace was restored; the job done, the 3rd Battalion was once again disbanded in January 1933. In November 1934, the 3rd Battalion was reactivated for the fourth time, only to be deactivated in March 1935. Shortly before World War II in April 1940, 3rd Battalion was again reactivated; the fighting in World War II found the Marines of 3/5 at Guadalcanal, New Britain and Okinawa. At Peleliu, they were the last Marine battalion to be shipped out. In April 1946, their mission accomplished, 3rd Battalion was disbanded and most of the Pacific veterans returned to civilian life.
During October 1949, 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines, was reactivated on Guam. During August 1950, the Battalion deployed to fight against the North Korean army invading the Republic of Korea during the Korean War; the 3rd Battalion fought at such places as the Pusan Perimeter, Inchon and Chosin Reservoir. At the close of hostilities, the 3rd Battalion returned to the United States, settling at MCB Camp Pendleton; the battalion's nickname "Darkhorse" sprang from the radio call sign of its commander in Korea, Colonel Robert Taplett, known as "Darkhorse Six". From April 1966 to March 1971, the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines, fought in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War, they fought in such places as Chu Lai, Da Nang, Quang Nam, Operation Hastings, Operation Union and Union II in the Que Son valley—received a Presidential Unit Citation, the Battle of Hue, An Hoa, Operation Swift in the Que Son Valley—received a second Presidential Unit Citation, Firebase Ross. During the Vietnam War, the unit motto was "consummate professionals".
On December 1, 1990, the battalion deployed to the Middle East in support of Operation Desert Shield as a Battalion Landing Team, with the 5th Marine Expeditionary Brigade. As part of the largest amphibious task force assembled since Vietnam, the battalion was augmented with mobilized Marine Corps Reserve units from 4th Assault Amphibian Battalion, Tow Platoon, 23rd Marines, 4th Marine Division, 4th Tank Battalion. 3/5 distinguished itself in combat operations in Al Wafrah, Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm as Mechanized Combined Arms Task Force. En route home from hostilities, 3/5 participated in Operation Sea Angel, delivering critical food and humanitarian assistance to the cyclone ravaged country of Bangladesh. 3rd Battalion was deployed for the 2003 invasion of Iraq to oust Saddam Hussein. The Battalion was again deployed in 2004 to capture the city of Fallujah from insurgents' control. In November 2004, the Battalion, along with several other units, participated in Operation Phantom Fury and was part of one of the biggest battles in Iraq to that time.
On June 20, 2006, seven Marines and a Navy Corpsman of Kilo Company were charged with the April 26, 2006, murder of disabled Iraqi civilian Hashim Ibrahim Awad, an event referred to as the "Hamdania incident". All eight face additional charges of kidnapping, larceny and housebreaking or unlawfully entering a dwelling. Five of the men are accused of making a false official statement. On May 19, 2006, Darkhorse Marines captured three insurgents responsible for the kidnapping and detention of Jill Carroll, an American journalist with the Christian Science Monitor. In June 2006, 3/5 avenged the death of four Scout Snipers who belonged to 2/4, killed on a roof top in Ramadi in 2004. 3/5's mission in Habbaniyah killed the insurgent driver of a vehicle. The sniper rifle now resides at the 5th Marines Regimental Command Post. Members of 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines, conducted operations in the Sangin District of Helmand Province, Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom between September 2010 and April 2011.
The area was handed over by 7th Marines to 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines. Twenty-five of the battalion's Marines were killed in action and 200 were wounded, many losing limbs; the 3rd Battalion are using Alternative Energy sources. A couple of forward combat base
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Battle of Peleliu
The Battle of Peleliu, codenamed Operation Stalemate II by the United States military, was fought between the U. S. and Japan during the Mariana and Palau Campaign of World War II, from September to November 1944, on the island of Peleliu. U. S. Marines of the 1st Marine Division, soldiers of the U. S. Army's 81st Infantry Division, fought to capture an airstrip on the small coral island; this battle was part of a larger offensive campaign known as Operation Forager, which ran from June to November 1944, in the Pacific Theater. Major General William Rupertus, Commander of the 1st Marine Division, predicted the island would be secured within four days. However, after repeated Imperial Army defeats in previous island campaigns, Japan had developed new island-defense tactics and well-crafted fortifications that allowed stiff resistance, extending the battle through more than two months. In the United States, this was a controversial battle because of the island's questionable strategic value and the high casualty rate, which exceeded that of all other amphibious operations during the Pacific War.
The National Museum of the Marine Corps called it "the bitterest battle of the war for the Marines". By 1944, American victories in the Southwest and Central Pacific had brought the war closer to Japan, with American bombers able to strike at the Japanese main islands from air bases secured during the Mariana Islands campaign. There was disagreement among the U. S. Joint Chiefs over two proposed strategies to defeat the Japanese Empire; the strategy proposed by General Douglas MacArthur called for the recapture of the Philippines, followed by the capture of Okinawa an attack on the Japanese mainland. Admiral Chester Nimitz favored a more direct strategy of bypassing the Philippines, but seizing Okinawa and Taiwan as staging areas to an attack on the Japanese mainland, followed by the future invasion of Japan's southernmost islands. Both strategies for different reasons; the 1st Marine Division had been chosen to make the assault. President Franklin D. Roosevelt traveled to Pearl Harbor to meet both commanders and hear their arguments.
MacArthur's strategy was chosen. However, before MacArthur could retake the Philippines, the Palau Islands Peleliu and Angaur, were to be neutralized and an airfield built to protect MacArthur's right flank. By 1944, Peleliu Island was occupied by about 11,000 Japanese of the 14th Infantry Division with Korean and Okinawan laborers. Colonel Kunio Nakagawa, commander of the division's 2nd Regiment, led the preparations for the island's defense. After their losses in the Solomons, Gilberts and Marianas, the Imperial Army assembled a research team to develop new island-defense tactics, they chose to abandon the old strategy of stopping the enemy at the beach. The new tactics would only disrupt the landings at the water's edge and depend on an in-depth defense farther inland. Colonel Nakagawa used the rough terrain to his advantage, by constructing a system of fortified bunkers and underground positions all interlocked into a "honeycomb" system; the old "banzai charge" attack was discontinued as being both wasteful of men and ineffective.
These changes would force the Americans into a war of attrition requiring more resources. Nakagawa's defenses were based at Peleliu's highest point, Umurbrogol Mountain, a collection of hills and steep ridges located at the center of Peleliu overlooking a large portion of the island, including the crucial airfield; the Umurbrogol contained some 500 limestone caves, interconnected by tunnels. Many of these were former mine shafts. Engineers added sliding armored steel doors with multiple openings to serve both artillery and machine guns. Cave entrances were built slanted as a defense against flamethrower attacks; the caves and bunkers were connected to a vast system throughout central Peleliu, which allowed the Japanese to evacuate or reoccupy positions as needed, to take advantage of shrinking interior lines. The Japanese were well armed with 81 mm and 150 mm mortars and 20 mm anti-aircraft cannons, backed by a light tank unit and an anti-aircraft detachment; the Japanese used the beach terrain to their advantage.
The northern end of the landing beaches faced a 30-foot coral promontory that overlooked the beaches from a small peninsula, a spot known to the Marines who assaulted it as "The Point". Holes were blasted into the ridge to accommodate a 47 mm gun, six 20 mm cannons; the positions were sealed shut, leaving just a small firing slit to assault the beaches. Similar positions were crafted along the 2-mile stretch of landing beaches; the beaches were filled with thousands of obstacles for the landing craft, principally mines and a large number of heavy artillery shells buried with the fuses exposed to explode when they were run over. A battalion was placed along the beach to defend against the landing, but they were meant to delay the inevitable American advance inland. Unlike the Japanese, who drastically altered their tactics for the upcoming battle, the American invasion plan was unchanged from that of previous amphibious landings after suffering 3,000 casualties and two months of delaying tactics against the entrenched Japanese defenders at the Battle of Biak.
On Peleliu, American planners chose to land on the southwest beaches because of their proximity to the airfield on South Peleliu. The 1st Marine Regiment, commanded by Colonel Lewis B. Puller, was to land on the northern end of the beaches; the 5th Marine Regiment, under Colonel Harold D. Harris, would land in the center, the 7th Marine Regiment, under Col. Herman H. Hannek
A memoir is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private, that took place in the subject's life. The assertions made in the work are understood to be factual. While memoir has been defined as a subcategory of biography or autobiography since the late 20th century, the genre is differentiated in form, presenting a narrowed focus. A biography or autobiography tells the story "of a life", while a memoir tells a story "from a life", such as touchstone events and turning points from the author's life; the author of a memoir may be referred to a memorialist. Memoirs have been written since the ancient times, as shown by Julius Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico known as Commentaries on the Gallic Wars. In the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars, his second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili is an account of the events that took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate.
The noted Libanius, teacher of rhetoric who lived between an estimated 314 and 394 AD, framed his life memoir as one of his literary orations, which were written to be read aloud in the privacy of his study. This kind of memoir refers to the idea in ancient Greece and Rome, that memoirs were like "memos", or pieces of unfinished and unpublished writing, which a writer might use as a memory aid to make a more finished document on; the Sarashina Nikki is an example of an early Japanese memoir, written in the Heian period. A genre of book writing, Nikki Bungaku, emerged during this time. In the Middle Ages, Geoffrey of Villehardouin, Jean de Joinville, Philippe de Commines wrote memoirs, while the genre was represented toward the end of the Renaissance, through the works of Blaise de Montluc and Margaret of Valois, that she was the first woman to write her Memoirs in modern-style; until the Age of Enlightenment encompassing the 17th and 18th centuries, works of memoir were written by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury.
While Saint-Simon was considered a writer possessing a high level of skill for narrative and character development, it wasn't until well after his death that his work as a memoirist was recognized, resulting in literary fame. Over the latter half of the 18th through the mid-20th century, memoirists included those who were noted within their chosen profession; these authors wrote as a way to publish their own account of their public exploits. Authors included politicians or people in court society and were joined by military leaders and businessmen. An exception to these models is Henry David Thoreau's 1854 memoir Walden, which presents his experiences over the course of two years in a cabin he built near Walden Pond. Twentieth-century war memoirs became a genre of their own, from the First World War, Ernst Jünger and Frederic Manning's Her Privates We. Memoirs documenting incarceration by Nazi Germany during the war include Primo Levi's If This Is a Man, which covers his arrest as a member of the Italian Resistance Movement, followed by his life as a prisoner in Auschwitz.
In the early 1990s, memoirs written by ordinary people experienced a sudden upsurge, as an increasing number of people realized that their ancestors’ and their own stories were about to disappear, in part as a result of the opportunities and distractions of technological advances. At the same time and other research began to show that familiarity with genealogy helps people find their place in the world and that life review helps people come to terms with their own past. With the advent of inexpensive digital book production in the first decade of the 21st century, the genre exploded. Memoirs written as a way to pass down a personal legacy, rather than as a literary work of art or historical document, are emerging as a personal and family responsibility; the Association of Personal Historians formed in Amherst, Massachusetts, in the early days of the modern memoir, as an international trade association for professionals who assist individuals and organizations in documenting their life stories, preferably in archival formats.
With the expressed interest of preserving history through the eyes of those who lived it, some organizations work with potential memoirists to bring their work to fruition. The Veterans History Project, for example, compiles the memoirs of those who have served in a branch of the United States Armed Forces – those who have seen active combat. Association of Personal Historians Diary Fake memoirs Histoire de ma vie Last will and testament Time Magazine. Memoir Network
Kenneth Lauren Burns is an American filmmaker, known for his style of using archival footage and photographs in documentary films. His known documentary series include The Civil War, Jazz, The War, The National Parks: America's Best Idea, The Roosevelts, The Vietnam War, he was executive producer of both The West, Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies. Burns' documentaries have earned two Academy Award nominations and have won several Emmy Awards, among other honors. Burns was born on July 29, 1953, in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Lyla Smith Burns, a biotechnician, Robert Kyle Burns, at the time a graduate student in cultural anthropology at Columbia University in Manhattan; the documentary filmmaker. Burns' academic family moved frequently. Among places they called home were France. Burns' mother was found to have breast cancer when he was three and she died when he was 11, a circumstance that he said helped shape his career. Well-read as a child, he absorbed the family encyclopedia. Upon receiving an 8 mm film movie camera for his 17th birthday, he shot a documentary about an Ann Arbor factory.
He graduated from Pioneer High School in Ann Arbor in 1971. Turning down reduced tuition at the University of Michigan, he attended Hampshire College, an alternative school in Amherst, where students are graded through narrative evaluations rather than letter grades and where students create self-directed academic concentrations instead of choosing a traditional major, he worked in a record store to pay his tuition. Studying under photographers Jerome Liebling, Elaine Mayes and others, Burns earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in film studies and design in 1975. In 1976, Elaine Mayes, college classmate Roger Sherman founded a production company called Florentine Films in Walpole, New Hampshire; the company's name was borrowed from Mayes' hometown of Massachusetts. Another Hampshire College student, Buddy Squires, was invited to succeed Mayes as a founding member one year later; the trio were joined by a fourth member, Lawrence "Larry" Hott. Hott did not matriculate at Hampshire, but worked on films there.
Hott had begun his career as an attorney. Each member releases content under the shared name of Florentine Films; as such, their individual "subsidiary" companies include Ken Burns Media, Sherman Pictures, Hott Productions. Burns' oldest child, Sarah, is currently an employee of the company. Burns worked as a cinematographer for the BBC, Italian television, others, in 1977, having completed some documentary short films, he began work on adapting David McCullough's book The Great Bridge, about the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge. Developing a signature style of documentary filmmaking in which he "adopted the technique of cutting from one still picture to another in a fluid, linear fashion pepped up the visuals with'first hand' narration gleaned from contemporary writings and recited by top stage and screen actors", he made the feature documentary Brooklyn Bridge, which earned an Academy Award nomination for Best Documentary and ran on PBS in the United States. Following another documentary, The Shakers: Hands to Work, Hearts to God, Burns was Oscar-nominated again for The Statue of Liberty.
Burns collaborates with author and historian Geoffrey Ward, notably on documentaries such as The Civil War, Jazz and the 10 part TV series The Vietnam War. Burns has gone on to a long, successful career directing and producing well-received television documentaries and documentary miniseries on subjects as diverse as arts and letters. According to a 2017 piece in the New Yorker and his company, Florentine Films, have selected topics for documentaries slated for release by 2030; these topics include country music, the Mayo Clinic, Muhammad Ali, Ernest Hemingway, the American Revolution, Lyndon B. Johnson, Barack Obama, Winston Churchill, the American criminal justice system, African-American history from the Civil War to the Great Migration. In 1982, Burns married Amy Stechler, with whom he had two daughters and Lily; as of 2017, Burns resides in Walpole, New Hampshire, with his second wife, Julie Deborah Brown, whom he married on October 18, 2003. She is the founder of the non-profit Room to Grow.
They have two daughters and Willa Burns. Burns is a descendant of Johannes de Peyster Sr. through Dr. Gerardus Clarkson, an American Revolutionary War physician from Philadelphia, he is a distant relative of Scottish poet Robert Burns. In 2014 Burns appeared in Henry Louis Gates's Finding Your Roots where he discovered startling news that he
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo