Wittenberg University is a private liberal arts college in Springfield, Ohio. It has 2,000 full-time students representing 37 states and 30 foreign countries. Wittenberg College was founded in 1845 by a group of ministers in the English Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Ohio, which had separated from the established German-speaking Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Ohio and Other States. A German American pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, the Rev. Ezra Keller was the principal founder and first president of the college, its initial focus was to train clergy with the Hamma School of Divinity as its theological department. One of its main missions was to "Americanize" Lutherans by teaching courses in the English language instead of German, unlike the nearby Capital University in Columbus, Ohio; the first class consisted of eight students at the beginning of the academic year, but grew to seventy-one by the end. With a faculty of one professor and two tutors, classes were held in Springfield, Ohio, in a church on land, donated.
That city was selected for its location on the National Road, running from the eastern cities of Baltimore and Cumberland, Maryland, to the west in the Illinois Country to the territorial capital of Vandalia, near the Mississippi River. In 1874, women were admitted to the college, the following year, blacks were admitted; the name of the school came from the historic University of Wittenberg in Wittenberg, the town in which Martin Luther famously posted his Ninety-five Theses on the church door on October 31, 1517. In 1993 the university and the German city entered into an official partnership. Luther Alexander Gotwald, Professor of Theology in the Hamma Divinity School that served as the theological department of the college, was famously tried for and unanimously acquitted of heresy by the Board of Directors at Wittenberg on April 4–5, 1893; the trial concerned many key issues. For decades and Wittenberg in Springfield were associated with the local English-speaking regional Lutheran synods in the Midwest.
In 1978, Hamma Divinity School merged with the nearby Evangelical Lutheran Theological Seminary in the Bexley suburb of Columbus, Ohio, to form Trinity Lutheran Seminary. Wittenberg offers special programs. Eight pre-professional programs are offered to students, 70 percent of whom pursue graduate studies; the University's science facilities are housed in the Barbara Deer Kuss Science Center. Krieg Hall is the home of the music department. Wittenberg's art department is housed in Koch Hall. Thomas Library contains 400,000 volumes and provides access to OhioLINK, a consortium of Ohio college and university libraries as well as the State Library of Ohio; the library houses the Kemper Special Collection Area which contains the Luther-Reformation Collection with more than 400 items written by Martin Luther and his contemporaries between 1517 and 1580. The library was built 1956 to the designs of Thomas Norman Mansell of Mansell, Lewis & Fugate of Wynnewood, Pennsylvania. In 1995, the American Philosophical Association censured Wittenberg University for violating the professional rights of one its members a faculty member in the philosophy department denied tenure for unjust reasons.
In that instance, the Wittenberg administration overruled the faculty personnel board's authority and asserted its right to deny tenure for reasons beyond teaching and service. The current administration makes no such assertion. In 2012, the magazine "U. S. News & World Report" ranked Wittenberg as the 121st best Liberal Arts college in the US, Forbes Magazine ranked the schools as the 176th best university in the country. In 2010, the journal "Princeton Review" ranked Wittenberg 11th in the nation for "Best Classroom Experience", 15th in the nation for "Professors Get High Marks". In addition, Princeton Review ranked the college's campus the 18th most beautiful in the nation in 2009; the University has top programs in Communication. The communication program was named by the National Communication Association as the "Nation's Best Program". Along with that Wittenberg University has been named one of only 23 institutions in the nation by the Fiske Guide to Colleges for "Small Colleges and Universities Strong in Drama."
The elite ranking, places Wittenberg alongside such schools as Juilliard, Oberlin and Princeton. In the last 10 years, Wittenberg faculty members have won 16 Fulbright Awards, more than any other liberal arts college in the state of Ohio. Chronicle of Higher Education says the University is one of eleven bachelor's programs with more than two professors doing research under Fulbright auspices. Wittenberg professors have won seven "Ohio Professor of the Year" Awards since the award was established in 1981, more than any other school in Ohio; the Office of International Education, located in Hollenbeck Hall, provides assistance to international students and helps students find appropriate study abroad programs across the globe. The office administers two popular semester long programs: the Wittenberg semester in Wittenberg, which includes an internship, the Wittenberg semester in Costa Rica, which allows students to complete a service requirement; each semester program provides instruction leading to the completion of the language requirement.
Wittenberg frequently offers summer study abroad programs led by Wittenberg faculty. Most students have studied on Wittenberg summer programs in Germany and Poland. Blair Hall is. Undergraduates and Graduate students take classes in this building if they are planning to become a
Maurice Spector was the Chairman of the Communist Party of Canada and editor of its newspaper, The Worker, for much of the 1920s and an early follower of Leon Trotsky after his split from the Communist International. Spector immigrated to Canada with his family as an infant, he graduated from Queen's University and practiced labour law in Toronto when he wasn't employed in political positions. Spector was influenced by Trotsky's work The Bolsheviki and World Peace, published in the Toronto Mail and Empire in January 1918, by Social Democratic Party of Canada Dominion Secretary Isaac Bainbridge who introduced him to Lenin's writings and inspired him to join the SDP. Spector engaged with the left-wing of the Canadian SDP, left to form the Communist Party of Canada. In 1928, Maurice Spector, while attending the Sixth Congress of the Comintern in Moscow, accidentally got hold of a copy of Trotsky's Critique of the Draft Programme of the Communist International, which criticised the position of Nikolai Bukharin and Joseph Stalin, exposed the anti-Marxist theory of "socialism in one country".
This critique was a landmark in the ideological arming of the International Left Opposition. In a prophetic statement, Trotsky warned that if this position were adopted by the Communist International, it would mark the beginning of a process that would lead to the nationalist and reformist degeneration of every Communist Party in the world. Three generations his prediction -, ridiculed by the Stalinists at the time - has been shown to be correct. Stalin had no intention of circulating Trotsky's document, but by a strange accident of history, what happened. At that time, when the Stalinist regime had not yet been consolidated, the Communist International still had to observe certain norms of democratic centralism, which permitted the circulation of minority opinions. Although Trotsky had been expelled from the Russian party a year earlier, he took advantage of the Congress to appeal to the Communist International. In the process he submitted his document on the Draft Programme. Through a blunder in the apparatus, they circulated Trotsky's document to the heads of the delegations, including members of the programme commission.
It was here that the American James Cannon and Maurice Spector first saw and read Trotsky's document. Cannon recalled: "Through some slip-up in the apparatus in Moscow," recalls Cannon, "which was supposed to be airtight, this document of Trotsky came into the translating room of the Comintern, it fell into the hopper, where they had a dozen or more translators and stenographers with nothing else to do. They picked up Trotsky's document, translated it and distributed it to the heads of the delegations and the members of the programme commission. So, lo and behold, it was laid in my lap, translated into English by Maurice Spector, a delegate from the Canadian party, in somewhat the same frame of mind as myself, was on the programme commission and he got a copy. We let the caucus meetings and the Congress sessions go to the devil while we read and studied this document. I knew what I had to do, so did he. Our doubts had been resolved, it was as clear as daylight. We had a compact there and - Spector and I - that we would come back home and begin a struggle under the banner of Trotskyism."
Spector was a founder of the Canadian Trotskyist movement, first constituted as a branch of the Communist League of America in 1929. In 1932 he co-founded, with Jack MacDonald, the Workers Party of Canada; this new organization represented the first Canadian section of the International Left Opposition. Spector became a leading member of the Trotskyist movement there, he presented the International Report at the founding convention of the Socialist Workers Party at the end of 1938, but dropped out of the party in 1939.. He joined the Socialist Party of America shortly after leaving the SWP in 1939, remained on its executive body until 1958, when he resigned after breaking with Max Shachtman and his proposal to merge Shachtman's Independent Socialist League with the Socialist Party and Spector anticipated this would move the SP rightwards. In his Spector became editor of a children's magazine published by the Labour Zionist movement. Canada had revoked Spector's citizenship and, in 1941, the Federal Bureau of Investigation learned that Spector was in the United States illegally and had him detained.
As Canada refused to accept him, the United States began proceedings to deport him to the Soviet Union. The American Civil Liberties Union defended Spector on the grounds that, as a Trotskyist, his life would be in danger were he deported to the USSR. Spector regained his Canadian citizenship and was permitted to remain in New York. Spector was employed for part of his post-Trotskyist career by the American Council for Judaism and was director of the New York trade union division of the National Committee for Labor Israel in his years. Maurice Spector died on August 1, 1968 at the age of 70. Maurice Spector Internet Archive, Marxists Internet Archive, www.marxists.org/
AutoREALM is an open source program designed to draw maps for role-playing games in fantasy settings. The program is similar to the commercial Campaign Cartographer. AutoREALM, in its 2.x series, is written in Delphi and only works in Windows and Wine. Work is underway to recode the GUI to use wxWidgets and extending the support to Linux, FreeBSD and Mac OS X; the program is a vector art program. The program supports various kinds of grids and measurement methods, it supports drawing vector objects with both straight and fractal lines, has various line styles. It supports grouping of objects into map symbols that are arranged in a symbol library; the library shipping with the program includes various symbols from contributors. The program has some other modules, such as AutoNAME, a name generator based on context-free grammars. Campaign Cartographer List of role-playing game software Official website AutoREALM on SourceForge.net Development on bitbucket.org/bmorel/autorealm AutoREALM at Curlie
The sweet potato is a important crop for subsistence farmers in Africa and other developing countries. Due to its short growing period, tolerance to drought and high yield from poor soils, it is used as a famine reserve for many of these households. However, it is a perishable food source, susceptible to destruction by microorganisms, metabolic spoilage, physical destruction and pests; as such they are not stored for extended periods of time following harvest. This causes a lot of waste; the majority of subsistence farmers who eat sweet potato do not utilize a storage technique of any kind, instead using a method of continuous cultivation and leaving the tubers in the ground until they are ready to be used. While less common, simple methods of storage do exist; the common ones include pit and indoor storage and all extend the storage time of sweet potatoes by some degree. Maintaining proper storage temperature is the most significant barrier to good storage in subsistence farmers. Pretreatment of sweet potato can help to minimize risk of losses.
Curing can toughen the skin and heal minor physical damages while drying can reduce spoilage and inactivate metabolic degradation. Optimum storage of sweet potatoes occurs at 12–16 °C, 85–90% relative humidity and requires proper ventilation to remove excess carbon dioxide and bring in oxygen for respiration. At these conditions sweet potatoes have been shown to last 5 months to a maximum of a year compared to 2–3 months normally. Sweet potatoes are a perishable crop and difficult to store for extended periods of time; this is due to their high moisture content, metabolic activity following harvesting and thin, permeable skin. Following harvest, sweet potatoes are susceptible to spoilage by physical, pathological and environmental means. Physical losses refer to sweet potatoes damaged by mechanical force during harvest and transportation of the tubers; this includes injury by way of cuts and skinning. Delicate skin and poor harvesting and handling techniques are the main cause of these issues.
Damage to tubers by physical means can be minimized careful handling and storing in boxes and cartons instead of cloth sacks. Physiological processes within the plant can contribute to spoilage. Natural transpiration causes water loss and results in an unappealing pithy texture. Respiration continues to occur after harvesting and a buildup of CO2 around the crop can cause early spoilage. Sprouting will occur during long term storage, useful for planting but will utilize nutrients in the tuber. Sprouting can be inhibited by preharvest spraying with maleic hydrazide, treatment of tubers with methyl ester of napthalene acetic acid in acetone on paper spread between tubers and 0.5–4.0% thiourea solution. Sweet potatoes are susceptible to a number of fungi and viruses. Infection can cause the production of toxins, pathogenic bacteria, bitter flavours, tissue breakdown, surface blemishes. Two common sources of infection are from Rhizopus Botryodiplodia; these are responsible for 78% of sweet potato infections in Bangladesh.
The pest of greatest concern for farmers is the sweet potato weevil. This can enter the tuber prior to harvesting and proliferate in storage and has been known to cause up to 50% loss in yields. Simple techniques can be used to minimize the threat of the sweet potato weevil, it has been shown that storage of the potatoes in temperatures under 20 °C can kill up to 89.5% of weevils in an infected crop. Dipping of tubers in hot water been shown as an effective intervention to control infestations. Damage to tuber by physical and physiological means can increase chance of pathological infection and pests; the length of time that sweet potatoes may be stored is dependent on temperature and relative humidity. Storage in temperatures less than 10 °C will cause chill injury in sweet potatoes; this is characterized by discoloration of the insides of the tuber, which can range from brown to black instead of the usual orange. Formation of hard areas occurs that remain after cooking. Other signs of chill injury include production of off flavours, internal cell structure breakdown and increased rotting due to reduced skin formation, which allows fungal infection.
On the other end of the scale, temperatures above 16 °C will cause a rise in the rates of respiration and sprouting in tubers as well as increased activity by microorganisms. Relative humidity under 80% will cause excessive water loss while RH above 90% will cause condensation to form, which accelerates rotting. To minimize potential spoilage, precise storage conditions should be met. Sweet potatoes should be stored at between 12 and 16 °C with a RH of 85-90%. Proper ventilation of the storage area is a key factor in maximizing potential storage time. Respiration causes the production of CO2. Sweet potatoes can convert 57dm3 of oxygen/ton/day to carbon dioxide and need ventilation to compensate for this; the O2 in the storage environment should not fall below 7% and CO2 must not exceed 10%. Due to lack of proper equipment, maintaining adequate temperature conditions are the largest hurdle that farmers in a developing nation will have to face. Not all sweet potatoes are suitable for storage. Tubers that have been mechanically damaged, infected with pests or pathogens, or are rotten or sprouting should not be kept.
These factors can increase losses in the rest of the stored crop. Under these optimum conditions sweet potatoes have been sh
Sue Margaret Cousins was an American editor and writer. Cousins was a member of St. Mark's Episcopal Church, the Authors Guild, the Texas Institute of Letters, the Philosophical Society of Texas, the San Antonio Conservation Society, a trustee of the Wildflower Foundation; some of her works were published under the pseudonyms William Masters, Mary Parrish, Avery Johns. Sue Margaret Cousins was born in Munday, Texas on January 26, 1905 to parents Walter Henry and Sue Margaret Reeves Cousins, her father was a pharmacist. She has a brother named Walter Henry Cousins Jr, a niece named Cynthia Cousins Lodge, a nephew named Walter Henry Cousins III. Cousins develop an interest in literature at an early age, she made her first publication at the age of 16. Cousins grew up in Texas and graduated from the now defunct Dallas High School in 1922, she went on to pursue a Bachelor of Arts in English Literature from the College of Liberal Arts at the University of Texas at Austin. Cousins joined the Alpha Chi Omega fraternity during her time in college.
She graduated with her B. A. in 1926, winning the D. A. Frank Poetry Prize in the process. Cousins began her literary career as an apprentice with her father's pharmaceutical journal after graduation from college, she remained with the organization until 1937, being promoted to associate editor and editor in 1930 and 1935, respectively. Cousins moved to New York City in 1937 to pursue opportunities with the Pictorial Review; the magazine ceased publication in 1939, Cousins went on to work a copy editor role with Hearst Magazines, Inc. While at Hearst, Cousins served as the managing editor of the magazine publications Good Housekeeping and McCall's. In 1961, she became a senior editor at Doubleday, in 1970 she was a special editor at Holt, Reinhart & Winston, she worked as fiction and book editor for Ladies' Home Journal. Cousins wrote over 200 short stories, including "The Life of Lucy Gallant,", adapted into a Paramount Pictures film in 1955; some of her other notable works include: Uncle Edgar and the Reluctant Saint Ben Franklin of Old Philadelphia We Were There at the Battle of the Alamo Thomas Alva Edison A Christmas Gift Traffic with Evil The Boy in the Alamo In addition, Cousins edited the anthology Love and Marriage and the memoirs of President Lyndon B. Johnson and First Lady Lady Bird Johnson.
His Honour Alistair Watson Bell, was a British Circuit judge and Liberal Party politician. Bell was born in only son of Albert William Bell and Alice Elizabeth Watson, he was educated at Lanark Grammar School, George Watson's College and the Universities of Edinburgh and Wadham College, Oxford. In 1957 he married Patricia Margaret Seed, they had a son. Bell served as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Army Service Corps in 1955. In 1955 he received a Call by Middle Temple, he entered practice on the Northern Circuit in 1957. He was a Recorder of the Crown Court from 1972–78 and Honorary Recorder at Carlisle from 1990–98, he served as a Circuit Judge from 1978–97. Bell was Liberal candidate for the Chorley division of Lancashire at the 1964 General Election, he was Liberal candidate for the Westmorland division at the 1966 General Election. He did not stand for parliament again