Ford Dagenham is a major automotive factory located in Dagenham, operated by the Ford of Britain subsidiary of Ford Motor Company. The plant opened in 1931 and has produced 10,980,368 cars and has so far produced more than 39,000,000 engines in its history, it covers around 475 acres and has received over £800 million of capital investment since 2000. Vehicle assembly ceased at the plant in 2002, but it continues as a major production site with capacity to assemble 1.4 million engines a year. In 2008, the plant produced around 1,050,000 engines and was the largest producer of Ford diesel engines globally, it was announced in October 2012 that the stamping plant at Dagenham would close in summer 2013 with the loss of 1,000 jobs. Employment at the plant peaked at around 40,000 workers in 1953. Following specialisation to engines it employs around 2000 people. Planning of the Dagenham plant began in the early 1920s, a time when lorries were small and road networks little developed. In the UK, bulk supplies were still delivered by water transport, so the Dagenham plant, like the Ford Trafford Park plant which it would replace, needed good water access.
Dagenham on the southern estuarial edge of Essex offered the prospect of a deepwater port which would allow for bulk deliveries of coal and steel on a far larger scale than the barges of the Manchester Ship Canal could manage at the old plant. In 1924, Ford Motor Company purchased land in the Dagenham marshes for £167,700. On 17 May 1929, Edsel Ford marked the start of construction on the site by cutting the first turf in the marshes. Construction on the site continued for 28 months and required around 22,000 concrete piles to be driven down through the clay of the marshland site to adequately support a factory that from the start was planned to incorporate its own steel foundry and coal-fired power station. At the time when the plant was planned, western governments were responding to economic depression with protectionist policies; this was the context in which Henry Ford’s policy of setting up autonomous car-manufacturing businesses in principal overseas markets can be seen. The drive for self-reliance implicit in including within the Dagenham plant its own steel foundry and power station went beyond anything attempted by other European mass-production automakers such as Morris in England, Opel in Germany, or Citroën in France.
Inspiration for Ford’s Dagenham plant came more directly from Ford’s own Rouge River plant on the edge of Detroit. The first vehicle out of the Dagenham plant was a Ford AA van, produced in October 1931. However, the British economy was in a depressed condition at this time, the surviving local market for light trucks was dominated by Morris Commercial products. Production at Ford’s Dagenham plant got off to a slow start, but picked up as the local economy recovered, so that by 1937, the plant produced 37,000 vehicles, an annual total that would not be exceeded until 1953. Most of the output of the Dagenham plant during the 1930s consisted of various editions of the Ford 8, a successful model first built at Dagenham in 1932, which inspired the more successful Morris 8, first produced at Cowley in 1935 by the UK market leader of the late 1930s. Wartime production included large numbers of trucks along with Bren gun carriers; the plant produced numerous'special purpose' engines. Agricultural vehicles were an important element: at one point, the Fordson represented 95% of UK tractor production.
After the Second World War, Ford’s UK operation set the pace for the UK auto industry, Dagenham products included models such as the Zephyr, and, the Anglia. The 1950s was a decade of expansion: a £75 million plant redevelopment completed in 1959 increased floor space by 50% and doubled production capacity; this went hand-in-hand with the concentration in-house of car body assembly, following the acquisition in 1953 of the company's principal UK body supplier, Briggs Motor Bodies. In 1960s, Ford began to merge its competing British and the lesser competing Ford of Ireland subsidiaries, culminating in the creation of Ford of Europe in 1967 in Cork, Ireland; the new entity began to systematically merge the once-separate product lineups from Dagenham and Cologne. Henry Ford & sons followed; the 1960s was an era that had several European automakers, including Ford, investing in new assembly plants on greenfield sites. The Dagenham plant was, by 1970, becoming one of the Europe’s older mass-production car plants.
In 1970, production of the Ford Escort began at the new Saarlouis in West Germany. By this time, the UK auto industry was gaining a reputation for poor industrial relations, with a lengthy strike leading to a three-month shut-down at the Dagenham plant at the start of the summer of 1971; this savaged availability of the Ford Cortina Mk III during its crucial first year. By the time the Ford Cortina Mk IV was introduced to UK customers, the cars inherited several Ford UK engines but were, in other respects identical to those branded in left-hand drive European markets as Ford Taunus models. Saarlouis was joined in 1976 by another new European plant in Valencia, Spain, to produce the new Ford Fiesta concurrently with Dagenham; the same European strategy was followed by Ford's US rival General Motors, which in the 1970s merged the operations of its independent Opel and Vauxhall subsidiaries, with similar results. This decision to concurrently manufacture the same models in other European plants reduced the company’s vulnerability to further industrial disruption at Dagenham, gave Ford a crucial advantage over strike-torn domest
The Ford GT is an American mid-engine two-seater sports car manufactured and marketed by Ford for model year 2005 in conjunction with the company's 2003 centenary. The Ford GT began production again from the 2017 model year; the GT recalls Ford's significant GT40, a consecutive four-time winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans, including a 1-2-3 finish in 1966. The Ford GT began life as a concept car designed in anticipation of the automaker's centennial year and as part of its drive to showcase and revive its "heritage" names such as Mustang and Thunderbird. At the 2002 North American International Auto Show, Ford unveiled a new GT40 Concept car. Camilo Pardo, the head of Ford's "Living Legends" studio, is credited as the chief designer of the GT and worked under the guidance of J Mays. Carroll Shelby, the original designer of the Shelby GT 500, was brought in by Ford to help develop the GT. While under development, the project was called Petunia; the GT is similar in outward appearance to the original GT40, but is bigger and most 3 in taller than the original's 40 in overall height.
Although the cars are visually related, there is no similarity between the modern GT and the 1960s GT40 that inspired it. Three pre-production cars were shown to the public in 2003 as part of Ford's centenary celebrations, delivery of the production version called the Ford GT began in the fall of 2004; as the Ford GT was built as part of the company's 100th anniversary celebration, the left headlight cluster was designed to read "100". A British company, Safir Engineering, who built continuation GT40 cars in the 1980s, owned the "GT40" trademark at that time; when production of the continuation cars ended, they sold the excess parts, tooling and trademark to a small Ohio based company called Safir GT40 Spares. This company licensed the use of the "GT40" trademark to Ford for the initial 2002 show car; when Ford decided to put the GT40 concept to production stage, negotiations between the two firms failed, thus the production cars are called the GT. The GT was produced for the 2006 model years.
The car began assembly at Mayflower Vehicle Systems in Norwalk and was painted and assembled by Saleen at their Saleen Special Vehicles facility in Troy, Michigan. The GT is powered by an engine built at Ford's Romeo Engine Plant in Michigan. Installation of the engine and transmission along with interior finishing was handled in the SVT building at Ford's Wixom, Michigan plant. Of the 4,500 cars planned 100 were to be exported to Europe, starting in late 2005. An additional 200 cars were destined for sale in Canada. Production ended in September 2006 without reaching the planned production target. 550 cars were built in 2004, nearly 1,900 in 2005, just over 1,600 in 2006, for a grand total of 4,038 cars. The final 11 car bodies manufactured by Mayflower Vehicle Systems were disassembled, the frames and body panels were sold as service parts; the Wixom Assembly Plant has stopped production of all models as of May 31, 2007. Sales of the GT continued from cars held in storage and in dealer inventories.
When the Ford GT was first announced, the demand outpaced supply, the cars sold for premium prices. The first private sale of Ford's new mid-engine sports car was completed on August 4, 2004, when former Microsoft executive Jon Shirley took delivery of his Midnight Blue 2005 Ford GT. Shirley earned the right to purchase the first production Ford GT at a charity auction at the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance Auction after bidding over $557,000. A few other early cars sold for as much as a US$100,000 premium over the suggested retail price of $139,995. Optional equipment available included a McIntosh sound system, racing stripes, painted brake calipers, forged alloy wheels adding $13,500 to the MSRP. During the GT's production run, the car was featured on the cover of the video game Gran Turismo 4, was featured in Need for Speed: ProStreet, as well as being made into physical form in the Transformers: Alternators toyline, which featured realistic cars turning into Cybertronians; the GT won Top Gear's Gas Guzzler of the Year award in 2005.
One of the show's presenters, Jeremy Clarkson, owned a GT and despite reserving high acclaim for the vehicle requested a refund from Ford due to extensive problems with the car's aftermarket alarm system. The Ford GT features many technologies unique at its time including a superplastic-formed frame, aluminum body panels, roll-bonded floor panels, a friction stir welded center tunnel, covered by a magnesium center console, a "ship-in-a-bottle" gas tank, a capless fuel filler system, one-piece door panels, an aluminum engine cover with a one-piece carbon fiber inner panel. Brakes are four-piston aluminum Brembo calipers with cross-drilled and vented rotors at all four corners; when the rear canopy is opened, the rear suspension components and engine are visible. The longitudinal rear mounted Modular 5.4 L V8 engine is all-aluminum alloy engine with an Eaton 2300 Lysholm screw-type supercharger. It features a forged rotating assembly housed in an aluminum block designed for the car. A dry sump oiling system is employed.
The DOHC 4 valves per cylinder heads are a revision of the 2000 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra R cylinder heads. The camshafts have unique specifications, with more lift and durati
Flat Rock Assembly Plant
Flat Rock Assembly Plant known as Ford's Michigan Casting Center, Mazda Motor Manufacturing USA and AutoAlliance International, is a Ford Motor Company assembly plant located at 1 International Drive in Flat Rock, Michigan in Metro Detroit. The plant comprises 2,900,000 square feet of production space and employs 3,510 hourly workers and 140 salaried workers — and manufactures the Ford Mustang coupe and the tenth generation Lincoln Continental. Following three years of work and the largest single investment by Ford, the Michigan Casting Center opened in January 1972, at the time one of the most technologically advanced casting facilities in the world. Despite the sizable capital investment, frequent union labor problems and work injuries and declining demand for the V8 engine blocks produced there led to the facility's closure in 1981. A worker, Robert Williams, was killed by an industrial robot arm on January 25, 1979, he is the first known human to be killed by a robot. Mazda Motor Corporation started construction of a new building on the site of the Michigan Casting Center in 1985 and cars started production at Mazda Motor Manufacturing USA in September 1987 with the Mazda MX-6 and Ford Probe coupes.
In 1991 the plant had 3,600 employees, including 250 Japanese employees. Ford repurchased a 50% share in the plant on April 15, 1992, it became a joint-venture and was renamed AutoAlliance International on July 1, 1992; the plant began production of all models of the Mazda 626 sold in America starting in 1993. During this era, Deepak Ahuja was Chief Financial Officer of the joint venture; the Ford Contour-derived Mercury Cougar was produced at the plant from 1998 to 2002. Production of North American Mazda 6 began in the 2003 model year, followed by the Ford Mustang starting in 2005; the last Mazda 6 rolled off the line on Friday, August 24, 2012, with Mazda discontinuing production on American soil ending the 20 year joint-venture between Mazda and Ford. Mazda moved production of the Mazda 6 back to the Hofu factory in Japan and opened a new factory in Salamanca, Mexico to build the Mazda 2 and Mazda 3 subcompact and compact cars. On September 10, 2012, Ford Motor Company re-took full management control of the plant, renaming it the Ford Flat Rock Assembly Plant, confirming $555 million in investments designed to retool the plant for the production of the 2013 Ford Fusion midsize sedan.
On July 15, 2015, Ford confirmed that the new 2017 Lincoln Continental sedan would be produced at the Flat Rock plant starting in 2016. On January 3, 2017, Ford announced that it will begin manufacturing an electric small SUV by 2020, a high passenger volume autonomous vehicle designed for commercial ride hailing or ride sharing by 2021, both to be built at Flat Rock. Ford Mustang Lincoln Continental Mazda MX-6 Ford Probe Mazda 626 Mercury Cougar Mazda 6 Ford Fusion Fucini, Joseph J. Working for the Japanese. Simon & Schuster, June 30, 2008. ISBN 1439106487, 9781439106488; the section starting at p. 101 discusses Japanese employees from Mazda working in the Flat Rock Assembly Plant along with Americans in the 1980s
The Oakville Assembly Complex is a Ford Motor Company of Canada automobile factory in Oakville, Canada, spanning 5,464,000 square feet in area. This landmark occupies the same site as, combines, the former Ontario Truck plant and Oakville Assembly Plant. Visible from the Queen Elizabeth Way and the Lakeshore West GO Train line, it relies on the nearby railway service to transport parts and vehicles throughout the country; the first car plant on this site opened in 1953, produced nearly all of the vehicles for Ford in Canada until 1966. It was the site of production for the company's minivans but was renovated with a $1 billion investment to produce crossover CUVs by 2006. Phase one was completed with the launch of the Edge and the MKX in the fall of 2006 and phase two was completed by spring of 2008 with the launch of the Ford Flex. In addition to the human workers, 440 robots help to assist in the production of new automobiles; the company has two different shifts -- 10 hours. As of 2002, up to 211,000 new vehicles can be assembled within a typical year.
In 2013, Ford announced an investment of C$700-million to upgrade the plant to manufacture vehicles of global platform with the assistance from the governments of Canada and Ontario of C$140-million worth to the project. The plant assembled 255,924 vehicles in 2012, 258,358 vehicles in 2013. Ford Edge Ford Flex Lincoln MKT Lincoln Nautilus Some of the former models produced at the plant included: Frontenac Ford Maverick Mercury Comet Ford Custom 500 Ford LTD Mercury Lynx Ford Escort Ford Tempo Mercury Topaz Ford Windstar Ford f150 Ford Freestar Mercury Monterey Lincoln MKX List of Ford factories Official website
Lincoln Continental Mark IV
The Continental Mark IV is a personal luxury car, sold and marketed by the Lincoln division of Ford Motor Company from the 1972 to 1976 model years. The third generation of the Mark series, the Mark IV grew in size over its Continental Mark III predecessor and its Cadillac Eldorado rival. Sharing a common chassis with the Ford Thunderbird, the Mark IV was given its own exterior design from the windows down, returning hidden headlights, a radiator-style grille, a Continental spare tire trunklid. In what would become a long-running tradition for the Lincoln model line, in 1976, the Mark IV introduced Designer Editions as an option series, which consisted of specially coordinated exterior and interior trims developed between Lincoln and contemporary fashion designers. All Continental Mark IVs were assembled at the Wixom Assembly Plant in Wixom, alongside the standard Lincoln Continental and the Ford Thunderbird. For 1977, the Mark IV underwent a substantial revision, becoming the Continental Mark V.
Following the successful redesign of the Lincoln Continental for the 1970 model year, Ford Motor Company chose an evolutionary design path for the successor of the Continental Mark III. With designers again using sharp-edged fenders, hidden headlamps, a tall radiator-style grille, the Continental Mark IV retained the traditional "long-hood, short deck" coupe proportions of the Mark III along with its "Continental spare tire" decklid; the spare tire was stored on a ledge in the trunk on top of the gas tank behind the rear seat. In a cost cutting move, Ford Motor Company forced the Mark IV to increase parts commonality with the Ford Thunderbird. In a major break from American luxury car tradition, the rear wheel openings of the Mark IV were designed at the same height as the front wheels. In 1973, the front bodywork underwent a major redesign, necessitated by the addition of 5 mph bumpers. For 1974, a 5 mph bumper was added to the rear body work, moving the taillights from the bumper into the rear bodywork.
All Mark IVs were equipped with a vinyl roof. The Mark IV introduced the opera window to the Mark series, a feature that would be featured in the Mark through the discontinuation of the Mark VI after 1983. For 1972, it was an universally specified option, becoming standard for 1973. All Mark IVs were equipped with the 460 cu in -4V Ford 385 series 16-valve V8. Rated at 365 hp in the Mark III, the 460 was carried over to the Mark IV. For 1972, rated output underwent a numeric decrease to 212 hp. In order to comply with changing EPA emissions regulations, Ford was required to decrease the compression ratio of the engine; the same year, American auto manufacturers adopted SAE net horsepower as its standard of measuring engine output, to better reflect real-world engine performance. All examples of the Mark IV were equipped with a Ford C6 three-speed automatic transmission. A feature retained from the Mark III was "Sure-track" brakes. Both front seats were power adjustable. Performance was not competitive with contemporary premium personal luxury cars.
However, no other "personal luxury" models were six-passenger vehicles, except the Cadillac Eldorado. For 1976, to attract further interest to the model line, the Mark IV debuted four "Designer Series" special-edition option packages. Intentionally for appearance purposes, each version of the Designer Series was developed through the consultation of notable fashion designers of the time, with each edition featuring a coordinated exterior and interior color, with specific trim and interior fabrics. In addition, the opera window was fitted with the signature of the corresponding designer, a 22-karat gold-plated plated instrument panel plaque. Preceding the Designer Series, the Mark III offered a Cartier-branded dashboard clock as an option. Though the Mark IV was in its final year, the Designer Series proved successful and was retained for the Mark V, Mark VI, Mark VII, with Lincoln adapting the Cartier brand for a flagship trim level of the Lincoln Town Car from 1982 to 2003. While no longer associated with fashion designers, the Lincoln Black Label series is a close revival of the Designer Series, with a specially coordinated exterior and interior design theme.
1976 Continental Mark IV Givenchy Designer Series Automotive Mileposts. Lincoln Continental kit. Retrieved on May 7, 2005. Lincoln Mark Series
Genk Body & Assembly
Genk Body & Assembly was a Ford Motor Company automobile factory in Genk, just over an hour to the west of the company's European head office in Cologne. The site spanned 6,135,630 square feet; the plant employed approx 4,300 workers in 2014. The plant opened in the early 1960s; the first mainstream car built there was Ford's first front wheel drive volume model, the Ford Taunus P4. On the plant focused on producing mid-sized family cars including the company's Sierra and Mondeo models. Ford announced in October 2012 that it was planning to close its Genk plant at the end of 2014 in response to longstanding over-capacity problems in Europe, as part of a larger closure plan that will see the manufacturer's European capacity slashed by 20%, with further capacity cuts penciled in should the company not succeed in returning to higher European sales volumes; the next generation of Ford Mondeo will be assembled, for the European market, at the manufacturer's Valencia plant. Reports in March 2013 indicated that agreement with the workers' representatives would see Ford paying out an average of €144,000 for each of the 4,000 workers to be laid off.
It was noted that this was below the US$202,700 per worker, the price paid by General Motors at the closure in 2010 of their Antwerp facility. At the end of 2016 it was estimated that the decontamination of the site would cost 11.4 million euros. List of Ford factories
Detroit Free Press
The Detroit Free Press is the largest daily newspaper in Detroit, Michigan, US. The Sunday edition is titled the Sunday Free Press, it is sometimes referred to as the "Freep". It serves Wayne, Macomb, Livingston and Monroe counties; the Free Press is the largest city newspaper owned by Gannett, which publishes USA Today. The Free Press has received four Emmy Awards, its motto is "On Guard for 188 Years". In 2018, the Detroit Free Press received two Salute to Excellence awards from the National Association of Black Journalists; the newspaper was launched by John R. Williams and his uncle, Joseph Campau, was first published as the Democratic Free Press and Michigan Intelligencer on May 5, 1831, it was renamed to Detroit Daily Free Press in 1835. Williams printed the first issues on a Washington press he purchased from the discontinued Oakland Chronicle of Pontiac, it was hauled from Pontiac in a wagon over rough roads to a building at Bates and Woodbridge streets in Detroit. The hand-operated press could produce 250 pages per hour.
The first issues were 14 with five columns of type. Sheldon McKnight became the first publisher with John Pitts Sheldon as editor. In the 1850s, the paper was developed into a leading Democratic publication under the ownership of Wilbur F. Storey. Storey left for the Chicago Times in 1861. In the 1870s ownership passed to William E. Quinby, who continued its Democratic leanings and established a London, England edition. In 1940, the Knight Newspapers purchased the Free Press. During the following 47 years the Free Press competed with The Detroit News in the southeastern Michigan market; the Free Press was delivered and sold as a morning paper while the News was sold and delivered as an evening newspaper. In 1987, the paper entered into a one hundred-year joint operating agreement with its rival, combining business operations while maintaining separate editorial staffs; the combined company is called the Detroit Media Partnership. The two papers began to publish joint Saturday and Sunday editions, though the editorial content of each remained separate.
At the time, the Detroit Free Press was the tenth highest circulation paper in the United States, the combined Detroit News and Free Press was the country's fourth largest Sunday paper. On July 13, 1995, Newspaper Guild-represented employees of the Free Press and News and the pressmen and Teamsters working for the "Detroit Newspapers" distribution arm went on strike. By October, about 40% of the editorial staffers had crossed the picket line, many trickled back over the next months while others stayed out for the two and a half years of the strike; the strike was resolved in court three years and the unions remain active at the paper, representing a majority of the employees under their jurisdiction. In 1998, the Free Press vacated its former headquarters in downtown Detroit and moved to offices into the News building. On August 3, 2005, Knight Ridder sold the Free Press to the Gannett Company, which had owned and operated The Detroit News. Gannett, in turn sold The News, to MediaNews Group.
The Free Press resumed publication of its own Sunday edition, May 7, 2006, without any content from The News. A quirk in the operating agreement, allows The News to continue printing its editorial page in the Sunday Free Press. On December 16, 2008, Detroit Media Partnership announced a plan to limit weekday home delivery for both dailies to Thursday and Friday only. On other weekdays the paper sold at newsstands would be smaller, about 32 pages, redesigned; this arrangement went into effect March 30, 2009. The Free Press entered a news partnership with CBS owned-and-operated station WWJ-TV channel 62 in March 2009 to produce a morning news show called First Forecast Mornings. Prior to the partnership, WWJ aired no local newscast at all. In February 2014, the DMP announced its offices along with those of the Free Press and The Detroit News would occupy six floors in both the old and new sections of the former Federal Reserve building at 160 West Fort Street; the partnership expected to place signs on the exterior similar to those on the former offices.
The move took place October 24–27, 2014. The Detroit Almanac: 300 Years of Life in the Motor City. Peter Gavrilovich and Bill McGraw, editors. ISBN 0-937247-34-0 Media in Detroit Official website Official mobile website Gannett subsidiary profile of the Detroit Free Press The Detroit Free Press Building Detroit Newspaper Partnership