Woburn is a city in Middlesex County, United States. The population was 38,120 at the 2010 census. Woburn is located 9 miles north of Massachusetts. Woburn was first settled in 1640 near Horn Pond, a primary source of the Mystic River, was incorporated in 1642. At that time the area included present day towns of Woburn, Winchester and parts of Stoneham and Wilmington. In 1740 Wilmington separated from Woburn. In 1799 Burlington separated from Woburn. Woburn got its name from Bedfordshire. Woburn played host to the first religious ordination in the Americas on Nov. 22, 1642. Rev. Thomas Carter was sworn in by many of the most prominent men of New England including John Cotton, minister of the First Church of Boston, Richard Mather minister of the First Church of Dorchester, Capt. Edward Johnson co-founder of the church and town of Woburn. Johnson is regarded as "the father of Woburn." He served as the first town clerk, represented the town in the Massachusetts General Court, made the first map of Massachusetts, wrote the first history of the colony.
The first organizational Town Meeting was held on April 13, 1644 and the first town officers were chosen. Town Selectmen were Edward Johnson, Edward Convers, John Mousall, William Learned, Ezekiel Richardson, Samuel Richardson and James Thompson. William Learned was selected as Constable. Michael Bacon, Ralph Hill, Thomas Richardson were chosen as Surveyors of Highways. Deacon Edward Convers was one of the founders of Woburn, he was one of its first selectmen, built the first house and first mill in Woburn. He was active in town affairs and was a large landowner and surveyor. List of important events Gershom Flagg's tannery was built in 1668 The Middlesex Canal was opened in 1803 Thompson established a tannery at Cummingsville in 1823 The Boston and Lowell Railroad started operating through Woburn in 1835 The Woburn Sentinel newspaper began in 1839 In 1840 the first membership library opened The telegraph started operating in Woburn in 1867 "America's oldest active gun club," the Massachusetts Rifle Association, was founded in 1875 and moved to Woburn in 1876.
The public library opened in 1879 The telephone was introduced in Woburn in 1882. Cummings Properties, the major holder of commercial properties in the region, was founded in 1970. Cummings Foundation was established in 1986. Cummings Foundation purchased the former Choate Memorial Hospital site and turned it into the New Horizons of Choate senior living community in 1990. Community Weeklies Inc. was founded by William S. Cummings and began publishing Woburn Advocate in 1991; the firm was bought by a division of Fidelity Investments in 1994, Woburn Advocate is now being published by GateHouse Media. Middlesex Superior Courthouse moved to TradeCenter 128 business campus in 2008; the final phase of construction is completed on TradeCenter 128 business campus in 2010. Woburn Police Officer John B. Maguire was killed in the line of duty while responding to an armed robbery on December 26, 2010. Massachusetts Biotechnology Council awarded Woburn the platinum-level "Bio-Ready community" designation in 2011.
Woburn was the scene of a high-profile water contamination crisis. During the mid to late 1970s, the local community became concerned over the high incidence of childhood leukemia and other illnesses in the Pine Street area of east Woburn. After high levels of chemical contamination were found in City of Woburn’s Wells G and H in 1979, some members of the community suspected that the unusually high incidence of leukemia, a wide variety of other health problems were linked to the possible exposure to volatile organic chemicals in the groundwater pumped from wells G and H. In May 1982, a number of citizens whose children had developed or died from leukemia filed a civil lawsuit against two corporations, W. R. Grace and Company and Beatrice Foods. Grace's subsidiary and Beatrice were suspected of contaminating the groundwater by improperly disposing of trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and other industrial solvents at their facilities in Woburn near wells G and H. In a controversial decision over what many considered a bungled trial, Beatrice was acquitted and Grace only paid $8 million, a third of which went to the lawyers and lawyer fees.
A United States Environmental Protection Agency report found Beatrice and Grace responsible for the contamination. A book titled. In 1998 the book was turned into a movie starring John Travolta and Robert Duvall titled A Civil Action; the film was filmed in nearby Bedford and Lexington, with only a few shots on location in Woburn. Woburn is located at 42°29′4″N 71°9′7″W, it is bordered by the towns of Wilmington, Stoneham, Winchester and Burlington. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.9 square miles, of which 12.7 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. Woburn features a humid continental climate, similar to those of many of the other Boston suburban areas, it features moderately cold Winters, but not as bad as the ones around The Great Lakes Regions or Southern Canada, or Northern New England. Nonetheless, it features occasional'arctic blasts' which can drop the temperature below zero. Spring generally
APEC Mexico 2002 was a series of political meetings held around Mexico between the 21 member economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation during 2002. Various meetings were held across Mexico in 2002. Leaders from all the member countries met from 26-27 October 2002 in Los Cabos. Counter-terrorism efforts were expected to be major issues of APEC Mexico 2002. APEC Mexico 2002 summit in Los Cabos presented a new opportunity for Asian investors and commercial agents to discover Mexico as a profitable frontier.2002 APEC Ministerial Meeting 2002 Mexico economies updates and Free trade with other countries of Mexico 1. Implementation of policies on trade and finance to promote economic growth and extract gains from the New Economy. Capacity building to obtain benefits from development through the promotion of micro and medium sized enterprises. Strengthening APEC's international relevance by encouraging greater participation of youth and women, intensifying efforts to promote the benefits of globalization and improving the functioning of APEC
Puerto Viejo de Talamanca is a coastal town in Talamanca in Limón Province in southeastern Costa Rica, known as Puerto Viejo to locals. The town was called Old Harbour until the Costa Rican government institutionalized Spanish as the national language and changed the names of the towns and landmarks in the area from English to Spanish or Native American. Fields became Bri Bri. Bluff became Cahuita. There is another town known as Puerto Viejo in northeastern Costa Rica, Puerto Viejo de Sarapiquí, which can confuse visitors. Buses leaving the same San José station for either of the Puerto Viejos display the same destination, "Puerto Viejo". Puerto Viejo de Talamanca is a popular tourist destination, it is known in the surfing community for the biggest and most powerful wave in Costa Rica, known as Salsa Brava. It is home to beautiful beaches, such as Playa Chiquita, Playa Negra and Punta Uva, which are a few of Costa Rica's most spectacular beaches which can be found between Puerto Viejo and Manzanillo.
Manzanillo is 13 km south along the beach. The popular Jaguar Rescue Centre is nearby. Many tourists stop in Puerto Viejo en route to the Panamanian border at Sixaola; this border crossing is popular with people going to and from Bocas del Toro. Puerto Viejo offers the closest accommodations and services to the border; the small border towns of Sixaola and Guabito, Panama are 49 km south of Puerto Viejo. The border towns have no restaurants; the townspeople are made up of ticos, a substantial amount of Costa Ricans of Jamaican descent, as well as a number of Europeans who have emigrated to the area. The outskirts of town and the mountains are home to the Bribri Indians; the howler monkey is native to the region. In early April 2012, nine local businesses and residents were formally notified of the impending evictions and subsequent demolitions of their properties, for being in violation of Costa Rica's Maritime Law. Seventy-six properties have been cited as "in violation" of the Maritime Zoning Laws, with the first phase of demolitions planned for November 2012.
There is a complex history of laws and findings that are being reviewed and debated by the affected communities. The Vice President made a show of support for villagers in Manzanillo whose homes were scheduled to be demolished. In March 2014 the Costa Rican legislature approved laws which permitted those residents whose homes were due to be demolished to remain where they were and a law that recognizes the existing coastal towns as well as rectification of the original limitations of the Gandoca/Manzanillo wildlife refuge disaffecting the populated areas. Puerto Viejo has a tropical climate. Temperatures remain consistent during the year. Sunrise and sunset change little during the year. Limón International Airport is 55 km to the north, has similar average temperatures and precipitation. Puerto Viejo de Talamanca travel guide from Wikivoyage