Thomas Jefferson was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and served as the third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he was elected the second Vice President of the United States, Jefferson was primarily of English ancestry and educated in colonial Virginia. He graduated from the College of William & Mary and briefly practiced law and he became the United States Minister to France in May 1785, and subsequently the nations first Secretary of State in 1790–1793 under President George Washington. Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System, as President, Jefferson pursued the nations shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. He organized the Louisiana Purchase, almost doubling the countrys territory, as a result of peace negotiations with France, his administration reduced military forces.
Jeffersons second term was beset with difficulties at home, including the trial of former Vice President Aaron Burr, American foreign trade was diminished when Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act of 1807, responding to British threats to U. S. shipping. In 1803, Jefferson began a process of Indian tribe removal to the newly organized Louisiana Territory. Jefferson mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and he was a proven architect in the classical tradition. Jeffersons keen interest in religion and philosophy earned him the presidency of the American Philosophical Society and he shunned organized religion, but was influenced by both Christianity and deism. He was well versed in linguistics and spoke several languages and he founded the University of Virginia after retiring from public office. He was a letter writer and corresponded with many prominent and important people throughout his adult life. His only full-length book is Notes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson owned several plantations which were worked by hundreds of slaves.
Most historians now believe that, after the death of his wife in 1782, he had a relationship with his slave Sally Hemings and fathered at least one of her children. Various modern scholars are more critical of Jeffersons private life, pointing out the discrepancy between his ownership of slaves and his political principles, for example. Presidential scholars, consistently rank Jefferson among the greatest presidents, Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13,1743, at the family home in Shadwell in the Colony of Virginia, the third of ten children. He was of English and possibly Welsh descent and was born a British subject and his father Peter Jefferson was a planter and surveyor who died when Jefferson was fourteen, his mother was Jane Randolph. Peter Jefferson moved his family to Tuckahoe Plantation in 1745 upon the death of a friend who had named him guardian of his children, the Jeffersons returned to Shadwell in 1752, where Peter died in 1757, his estate was divided between his sons Thomas and Randolph.
Thomas inherited approximately 5,000 acres of land, including Monticello and he assumed full authority over his property at age 21
English country house
An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were owned by individuals who owned a town house. This allowed them to time in the country and in the city—hence, for these people. However, the term encompasses houses that were, and often still are, the formal business of the counties was transacted in these country houses. With large numbers of indoor and outdoor staff, country houses were important as places of employment for rural communities. In turn, until the agricultural depressions of the 1870s, the estates, of country houses were the hub. However, the late 19th and early 20th centuries were the swansong of the traditional English country house lifestyle, increased taxation and the effects of World War I led to the demolition of hundreds of houses, those that remained had to adapt to survive. While a château or a schloss can be a fortified or unfortified building, if fortified, it is called a castle, but not all buildings with the name castle are fortified.
The term stately home is subject to debate, and avoided by historians, as a description of a country house, the term was first used in a poem by Felicia Hemans, The Homes of England, originally published in Blackwoods Magazine in 1827. In the 20th century, the term was popularised in a song by Noël Coward. The books collection of homes includes George IVs Brighton town palace. The country houses of England have evolved over the last five hundred years, before this time, larger houses were usually fortified, reflecting the position of their owners as feudal lords, de facto overlords of their manors. The Tudor period of stability in the saw the building of the first of the unfortified great houses. Henry VIIIs Dissolution of the Monasteries saw many former ecclesiastical properties granted to the Kings favourites, woburn Abbey, Forde Abbey and many other mansions with abbey or priory in their name became private houses during this period. Other terms used in the names of houses to describe their origin or importance include palace, court, mansion, house and place.
Burghley House, Longleat House, and Hatfield House are among the best known examples of the prodigy house. Some of the best known of Englands country houses were built by one architect at one time, Montacute House, Chatsworth House. They finally ran out of funds in the early 20th century, an example of this is Brympton dEvercy in Somerset, a house of many periods that is unified architecturally by the continuing use of the same mellow, local Ham Hill stone
Caversham Park is a Victorian stately home with parkland in the suburb of Caversham, on the outskirts of Reading, England. Historically located in Oxfordshire, with boundary changes it became part of Berkshire in 1911, Caversham Park is home to BBC Monitoring and BBC Radio Berkshire. The history of Caversham Park goes back to at least Norman times, when Walter Giffard, the estate, Caversham Manor, was a fortified manor house or castle, probably nearer the Thames than the present house. The estate was registered in the Domesday Book, in an entry describing a property of 9.7 square kilometres worth £20, the estate passed to William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke and Protector of the Realm, in the late 12th century. Marshall, who in his final years acted as de facto regent under the reign of a young Henry III, it was occupied by the Earls of Warwick. In 1542, it was bought by Sir Francis Knollys, the treasurer of Queen Elizabeth I, however, he did not move here until over forty years later, when he completely rebuilt the house slightly to the north.
Sir Francis son, William Knollys, the Earl of Banbury, entertained Queen Elizabeth I, it became home to the Royalist Earl of Craven. During the Civil War, the house was confiscated and used to imprison Charles I, following the Civil War, the Elizabethan manor house was demolished because of its poor state of repair and rebuilt by Lord Craven after 1660, probably with William Winde as the architect. The estate was sold in 1697, passing by the 1720s into the hands of William, first Baron, William Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan started to have the house rebuilt in 1718. A friend of the Duke of Marlborough, he tried to rival the gardens at Blenheim Palace, a plan of the 1723 design was published by Colen Campbell in Vitruvius Britannicus III,1725. The house burned down in the late 18th century and was replaced with a smaller house and this was enlarged by Major Charles Marsack in the 1780s, in the Greek temple style, with an impressive Corinthian colonnade. Marsack was High Sheriff of Oxfordshire for 1787 and this house burnt down in 1850.
Crossing the whole breadth of a valley, the road is conducted along the bottom, continually winding in natural easy sweeps. An astute observer, Jeffersons account in his Notes of a Tour of English Gardens reads like this, a large lawn, separated by a sunk fence from the garden, appears to be part of it. A straight broad gravel walk passes before the front and parallel to it, terminated on the right by a Doric temple and this straight walk has an ill effect. The lawn in front, which is pasture, well disposed with clumps of trees, Jefferson undertook the tour in the company of John Adams, his close friend and predecessor as US president. Adams observations are far more general, however, he gives a fuller account of the route they were taking, Mr. The gentlemens seats were the highest entertainment we met with, stowe and Blenheim, are superb, Woburn and the Leasowes are beautiful
Stowe House is a Grade I listed country house located in Stowe, England. It is the home of Stowe School, an independent school and is owned by the Stowe House Preservation Trust who have to date spent more than £25m on the restoration of the house. Stowe House is regularly open to the public and can be explored by guided tour all year round or during the school holidays you can explore at your own pace with a multimedia guide. The gardens, a significant example of the English garden style, along part of the Park. The parkland surrounding the gardens is open 365 days a year, National Trust members have free access to the gardens but there is a charge for all visitors to the house which goes towards the costs of restoring the building. The Temple family fortune was based on farming, they were first recorded as such at Witney in Oxfordshire. Later from 1546 they had been renting a farm in Burton Dassett in Warwickshire. The Stowe estate was leased from 1571 by Peter Temple, his son John Temple bought the manor and estate of Stowe in 1589, in the late 17th century, the house was completely rebuilt by Sir Richard Temple, 3rd Baronet, on the present site.
This house is now the core of the mansion known today, the old medieval stronghold was located near Stowe Parish Church that is about 100 yards to the south-east of the current house. Having been redesigned subsequently over the years, the front is now 916 feet in length. A long, straight driveway ran from Buckingham all the way to the front of the house, the driveway approach to the house is still in use today, although it no longer runs through the arch. British and foreign aristocrats and royalty frequently stayed at the house throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, in 1725 The 3rd Earl of Carlisle and his wife stayed for a fortnight. The 1730s and 1740s saw visits by Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk, in 1750 The 1st Earl of Bristol attended a reception at the house. In 1754 Count Stanisław August Poniatowski visited the gardens, the 1760s saw two visits by Leopold III, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, as part of his tours of English gardens in preparation for the creation of the Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm.
1768 saw the visit of King Christian VII of Denmark, in July 1770 there was a house party lasting several days whose guests included Princess Amelia, The Hon. Horace Walpole, Lady Mary Coke and The 2nd Earl of Bessborough. The Prince Regent came in 1805 and 1808, King Louis XVIII came in January 1808 for several days, his party including, the Comte dArtois, Louiss brother and successor as King of France, the Duc dOrléans, and the Prince of Condé. 1810 saw the visit of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, tsar Alexander I of Russia visited in 1810 and in 1814 Grand Duke Michael of Russia visited. 1816 saw a visit by Hermann Graf Pückler, the Graf, a famous travel writer from Upper Lusatia, was elevated in the Prussian peerage as Hermann, Fürst von Pückler-Muskau
Alton Towers Resort, commonly referred to as Alton Towers, is a theme park, water park, and hotel complex in Staffordshire, England. It is operated by Merlin Entertainments Group, the site opened in 1860 with flower shows and garden tours until a theme park was built on the site, opening in 1980. Alton Towers Hotel opened in 1996, it was the first onsite accommodation to be built at the resort and it was followed in 2003 by the Caribbean-themed Splash Landings Hotel with an adjoining water park. The Enchanted Village opened in 2015 which includes 120 Lodges built, the complex includes conference facilities, crazy golf and a high ropes course. The new CBeebies Land Hotel is currently scheduled to open on 8 July 2017, the park hosts special events throughout the year, such as concert nights, a Scarefest event for Halloween, and an end-of-season fireworks display. Early ride time does not operate during Scarefest or Fireworks, Rides available for early ride time for 2017 are Nemesis, The Blade, Oblivion and the majority of CBeebies Land The Alton Towers estate was a former seat of the Earl of Shrewsbury.
Following its sale in 1924 a group of businessmen formed Alton Towers Ltd. In the 1950s this included the operation of a fairground, and by the 1970s included a boating lake, after millionaire property developer John Broome married the daughter of majority shareholder Denis Bagshaw in 1973, he bought out the controlling stake in Alton Towers. Over the next few years he laid the foundation for the theme park by installing various permanent rides. In the 1980s Broome marketed the park by installing a new ride every year - including Corkscrew, Pirate Ship, Alpine Bobsleigh, The Flume. Ride designer John Wardley was behind the concepts and layouts of the attractions in the 1990s that brought success to the themepark. 2005 saw the acquisition of Alton Towers by the investment group Dubai International Capital when it purchased Tussauds for £800 million, the Tussauds Group was bought by Merlin Entertainments in March 2007 for over £1billion from DIC, placing Alton Towers under their control. In July 2007, the resort and park was sold to Nick Leslau and his investment firm Prestbury who now lease the park back to Merlin Entertainments to operate on a 35-year lease.
the theme park is home to the historic Towers and Gardens. The SkyRide cable car system travels between Towers Street, Forbidden Valley, and Cloud Cuckoo Land and takes in views of the gardens, the parks maximum capacity at any one time is set at 28,000 guests. According to the TEA attendance report, the park was estimated to have attracted 1,925,000 people in 2015, the park has cited The Smilers crash in June as the main reason for the parks large decrease. The decrease demoted Alton Towers to Britains 2nd most visited theme park after Legoland Windsor, in 2014, it was Britains most visited theme park and the 9th most visited theme park in Europe. The launch of the Thirteen rollercoaster saw the park attract 3 million admissions in the 2010 season. Timeline of park areas Gallery Opened in 1986, Towers Street is the first area that visitors to the park encounter, themed loosely as a town street, it leads to views of the gardens and the Towers across the lake in the distance
Blenheim Palace is a monumental country house situated in Woodstock, England. It is the residence of the Dukes of Marlborough. The palace, one of Englands largest houses, was built between 1705 and circa 1722, Blenheim Palace was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. Designed in the rare, and short-lived, English Baroque style and it is unique in its combined use as a family home and national monument. The palace is notable as the birthplace and ancestral home of Sir Winston Churchill. At the end of the 19th century, the palace was saved from ruin by funds gained from the 9th Duke of Marlboroughs marriage to American railroad heiress Consuelo Vanderbilt, the exterior of the palace remains in good repair. John Churchill was born in Devon, although his family had aristocratic relations, it belonged to the minor gentry rather than the upper echelons of 17th-century society. In 1678, Churchill married Sarah Jennings, and in April that year, in May, Churchill was appointed the temporary rank of Brigadier-General of Foot, but the possibility of a continental campaign was eliminated with the Treaty of Nijmegen.
When Churchill returned to England, the Popish Plot resulted in a temporary three-year banishment for James Stuart, the Duke obliged Churchill to attend him, first to The Hague, in Brussels. On the death of Charles II in 1685, his brother, on Jamess succession Churchill was appointed governor of the Hudsons Bay Company. He had been affirmed Gentleman of the Bedchamber in April, following the Monmouth Rebellion, Churchill was promoted to Major General and awarded the lucrative colonelcy of the Third Troop of Life Guards. When William, Prince of Orange, invaded England in November 1688, accompanied by some 400 officers and men, when the King saw he could not even keep Churchill—for so long his loyal and intimate servant—he fled to France. As part of William IIIs coronation honours Churchill was created Earl of Marlborough, sworn to the Privy Council, during the War of the Spanish Succession Churchill gained a reputation as a capable military commander, and in 1702 he was elevated to the dukedom of Marlborough.
During the war he won series of victories, including the Battle of Blenheim, the Battle of Ramillies, the Battle of Oudenarde, and this flag is displayed by the Monarch on a 17th-century French writing table in Windsor Castle. Marlboroughs wife was by all accounts a cantankerous woman, though capable of great charm, the relationship between Queen and Duchess became strained and fraught, and following their final quarrel in 1711, the money for the construction of Blenheim ceased. For political reasons the Marlboroughs went into exile on the Continent until they returned the day after the Queens death on 1 August 1714, legend has obscured the manors origins. King Henry I enclosed the park to contain the deer, Henry II housed his mistress Rosamund Clifford there in a bower and labyrinth, a spring in which she is said to have bathed remains, named after her. The Duchess, as so often in her disputes with her architect, won the day, the architect selected for the ambitious project was a controversial one
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the state of New Mexico. It is the fourth-largest city in the state and is the seat of Santa Fe County and this area was occupied for at least several hundred years by indigenous peoples who built villages. The city of Santa Fe, founded by Spanish colonists in 1610, is known as the oldest state capital city in the United States, Santa Fe had a population of 69,204 in 2012. It is the city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. The citys full name when founded was La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the area of Santa Fe was originally occupied by indigenous Tanoan peoples, who lived in numerous Pueblo villages along the Rio Grande. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900, the river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway, as of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers.
Don Juan de Oñate led the first European effort to colonize the region in 1598, under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. In 1610, he designated it as the capital of the province, Santa Fe remained Spains provincial seat until the outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Louis, when the area was still under Spanish rule, the Chouteau brothers of Saint Louis gained a monopoly on the fur trade, before the United States acquired Missouri under the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis, the citys status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836, it claimed Santa Fe as part of the portion of Texas along the Rio Grande.
In 1841, a military and trading expedition set out from Austin. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was prepared and was easily captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico, brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into Santa Fe to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U. S. officially gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled Spain 1776. This showed that New Mexico had received munitions and other support under Mexican rule, some American visitors at first saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote, I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported, the country around it is barren
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII, Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the supremacy over the Church of England, he greatly expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were commonly used to quash dissent, and he achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich and his contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive and accomplished king, and he has been described as one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne.
He was an author and composer, as he aged, Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his life as a lustful, harsh. He was succeeded by his son Edward VI, born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Of the young Henrys six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales and Mary – survived infancy and he was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the Observant Franciscans close to the palace. In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. He was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, and was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York, in May 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. Henry was given an education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French.
Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king, as Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of sweating sickness, Arthurs death thrust all his duties upon his younger brother, the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was strictly supervised and did not appear in public, as a result, the young Henry would ascend the throne untrained in the exacting art of kingship
John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford
John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford KG PC JP was an English royal minister in the Tudor era. He served variously as Lord High Admiral and Lord Privy Seal, among the lands and property he was given by Henry VIII after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, were the Abbey and town of Tavistock, and the area that is now Covent Garden. Russell is the ancestor of all subsequent Earls and Dukes of Bedford and Earls Russell, including John Russell, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and philosopher Bertrand Russell. John Russell was born ca.1485 probably at Berwick-by-Swyre, jamess father was possibly William Russell, but more likely his brother John Russell by his wife Alice Froxmere, daughter of John Froxmere of Droitwich, Worcs. John was the son of Henry Russell, and Elizabeth Herring, great-grandfather of the 1st Earl, was a substantial wine merchant and shipper, who represented Weymouth in the House of Commons four times. In the deed Henry referred to himself as son and heir of Stephen Russell and this Alice appears to have been the heir general of the De la Tour family, which had long owned Berwick-by-Swyre, and by whom therefore the manor was brought into the Russell family.
In 1506 John Russell was of service to Archduke Philip of Austria and Juana his wife when they were shipwrecked off Weymouth and he was one of the most accomplished gentlemen of his time and so impressed them by his gracious manners that they praised him highly to King Henry VII. He was at the taking of Thérouanne and Tournai and he was knighted on 2 July 1522 after losing an eye at the taking of Morlaix in Brittany, and he witnessed the Battle of Pavia. Following his marriage in the Spring of 1526 he made alterations to his ancestral seat Chenies Manor House to reflect his new good fortunes and he now stood in favour with the King and Cardinal Wolsey, though he would not suffer disgrace at the fall of the latter. He was made High Sheriff of Dorset and Somerset in 1528 and served as Member of Parliament for Buckinghamshire 1529–1536, late in 1536, he was made a Privy Counsellor, and helped to suppress the Pilgrimage of Grace. The fall and execution of Henry Courtenay, Marquess of Exeter, left a vacuum in the south-western counties of England.
On 9 March 1538/1539 he was created Baron Russell, and appointed Lord President of the Council of the West, in the next month, he was made a Knight of the Garter. In July 1539 he was made High Steward of Cornwall, the Council of the West proved unsuccessful as an instrument of government, and did not survive the fall of Cromwell. Russell, remained a great magnate in the western counties, after Henry VIII met Anne of Cleves at Rochester, the next day he asked Russell if he thought her fair. Russell replied with his natural diplomacy and prudence that he took her not to be fair, in 1542, Russell himself resigned the Admiralty and succeeded to the Privy Seal on the death of Southampton. He was High Steward of the University of Oxford from 1543 till his death, during the Italian War of 1542, he unsuccessfully besieged Montreuil in 1544, and was Captain General of the Vanguard of the army for the attack on Boulogne in 1545. He was a companion of King Henry VIII during the last years of his reign.
On Henrys death, he was one of the executors of the Kings will, on 21 June 1553 he was one of the twenty-six peers who signed the settlement of the crown on Lady Jane Grey
John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford
John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford KG PC FRS was an 18th-century British statesman. He was the son of Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford, by his wife, Elizabeth and heiress of John Howland of Streatham. In the House of Lords he joined the Patriot Whig opposition hostile to the Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole, took a prominent part in public business. When Carteret, now Earl Granville, resigned office in November 1744, Bedford became First Lord of the Admiralty in the administration of Henry Pelham, and was made a privy councillor. He was very successful at the admiralty, but was not equally fortunate after he became Secretary of State for the Southern Department in February 1748, Pelham accused him of idleness and he was constantly at variance with his colleague The Duke of Newcastle. Newcastle engineered the dismissal of both of them, by sacking Sandwich in June 1751, Bedford resigned in protest, as Newcastle had calculated, allowing him to replace them with men he considered more loyal personally to him.
During his time in the post he was accused of spending far too much time at his country estate playing cricket, Bedford was very keen on cricket. The earliest surviving record of his involvement in the sport comes from 1741 when he hosted Bedfordshire v Northamptonshire & Huntingdonshire at Woburn Park, the combined Northamptonshire & Huntingdonshire team won. Bedford arranged the match with his friends George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax and John Montagu, a few days later, there was a return match at Cow Meadow and the combined team won again. By 1743, Bedford had developed Woburn Cricket Club into a team that was able to compete against London. The team was prominent in 1743 and 1744 but, after that, instigated by his friends, he was active in opposition to the government, becoming the leader of a faction named after him, the Bedford Whigs. After Newcastle’s resignation in November 1756, Bedford became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in the new government led by William Pitt and he retained this office after Newcastle, in alliance with Pitt, returned to power in June 1757.
His own courtly manners and generosity, and his wife’s good qualities, seem to have gained for him some popularity and he oversaw the Irish response to the threatened French invasion in 1759, and the landing of a small French force in northern Ireland. In March 1761 he resigned this office, the cabinet of Bute was divided over the policy to be pursued with regard to the war, but pacific counsels prevailed, and in September 1762 Bedford went to France to treat for peace. He was considerably annoyed because some of the negotiations were conducted through other channels. Resigning his office as Lord Privy Seal soon afterwards, various causes of estrangement arose between Bute and Bedford, and the subsequent relations of the two men were somewhat virulent. The duke refused to take office under George Grenville on Bute’s resignation in April 1763, during his term of office he had opposed a bill to place high import duties on Italian silks. He was consequently assaulted and his London residence attacked by a mob and he took some part in subsequent political intrigues, and although he did not return to office, his friends, with his consent, joined the ministry of the Duke of Grafton in December 1767
Dry rot is wood decay caused by certain species of fungi that digest parts of the wood which give the wood strength and stiffness. It was previously used to describe any decay of cured wood in ships, the life-cycle of dry rot can be broken down into four main stages. Dry rot begins as a spore which, in high enough concentrations. If the spores are subjected to sufficient moisture they will begin to grow fine white strands known as hyphae, as the hyphae germinate they will eventually form a large mass known as mycelium. The final stage is a body which pumps new spores out into the surrounding air. In other fields, the term has been applied to the decay of crop plants by fungi, Dry rot is the term given to brown rot decay caused by certain fungi that deteriorate timber in buildings and other wooden construction without an apparent source of moisture. The term is a misnomer because all wood decaying fungi need a minimum amount of moisture before decay begins, the decayed wood takes on a dark or browner crumbly appearance, with cubical like cracking or checking, that becomes brittle and can eventually crush the wood into powder.
Chemically, wood attacked by dry rot fungi is decayed by the process as other brown rot fungi. An outbreak of dry rot within a building can be a serious infestation that is hard to eradicate. Significant decay can cause instability and cause the structure to collapse, there has been no published experimental evidence to support the phenomena. Both species of fungi cause brown rot decay, preferentially removing cellulose and hemicellulose from the timber leaving a matrix of modified lignin. The term dry rot is somewhat misleading, as species of fungi Serpula lacrymans and Meruliporia incrassata require an elevated moisture content to initiate an attack on timber. Once established, the fungi can remain active in timber with a content of more than 20%. At relative humidities below 86 percent, growth of Serpula lacrymans is inhibited and these relative humidities correspond to equilibrium moisture contents of wood of 19 and 15 percent, respectively. An explanation of the dry rot circles around boatyards periodically.
In the age of ships, boats were sometimes hauled for the winter. The boats already had some amount of rot occurring in the wood members, as the wood dried out, the cell walls would crumble. Some have suggested the importance of these fungi providing their own source of nutrients as being more significant than providing a source of moisture
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (/sɪˈstɜːrʃən/, abbreviated as OCist or SOCist, a religious order of monks and nuns. They are variously called the Bernardines, after the highly influential St, the original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of their monasteries, after that the followers of the older pattern of life became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian, derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux and it was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order.
By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Scotland, Spain, Italy, the keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially field-work, Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy. The monastery church of Cluny Abbey, the largest in Europe, had become wealthy from rents, feudal rights and pilgrims who passed through Cluniac houses on the Way of St. James. On March 21,1098, Roberts small group acquired a plot of marshland just south of Dijon called Cîteaux, during the first year, the monks set about constructing lodging areas and farming the lands of Cîteaux, making use of a nearby chapel for Mass. In Roberts absence from Molesme, the abbey had gone into decline, and Pope Urban II, the remaining monks of Cîteaux elected Alberic as their abbot, under whose leadership the abbey would find its grounding.
Robert had been the idealist of the order, and Alberic was their builder, upon assuming the role of abbot, Alberic moved the site of the fledgling community near a brook a short distance away from the original site. Alberic discontinued the use of Benedictine black garments in the abbey and he returned the community to the original Benedictine ideal of manual work and prayer, dedicated to the ideal of charity and self sustenance. Alberic forged an alliance with the Dukes of Burgundy, working out a deal with Duke Odo of Burgundy concerning the donation of a vineyard as well as stones with which they built their church. The church was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary on November 16,1106, on January 26,1108, Alberic died and was soon succeeded by Stephen Harding, the man responsible for carrying the order into its crucial phase. The order was fortunate that Stephen was an abbot of extraordinary gifts, and he framed the original version of the Cistercian Constitution or regulations, the Carta caritatis.
Although this was revised on several occasions to meet needs, from the outset it emphasised a simple life of work, prayer. Cistercian abbeys refused to admit children, allowing adults to choose their religious vocation for themselves – a practice emulated by many of the older Benedictine houses