Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Britain Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Church of Scotland, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War. Presbyterian theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, the Presbyterian denomination was taken to North America by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants; the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the Reformed theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there is a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Local congregations of churches which use presbyterian polity are governed by sessions made up of representatives of the congregation. The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the Reformation of the 16th century, the example of John Calvin's Republic of Geneva being influential. Most Reformed churches that trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions in the World Communion of Reformed Churches; some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans and Methodists. Presbyterians in the United States came from Scottish immigrants, Scotch-Irish immigrants, from New England Yankee communities, Congregational but changed because of an agreed-upon Plan of Union of 1801 for frontier areas.
Along with Episcopalians, Presbyterians tend to be wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in United States, are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and politics. Presbyterian tradition that of the Church of Scotland, traces its early roots to the Church founded by Saint Columba, through the 6th century Hiberno-Scottish mission. Tracing their apostolic origin to Saint John, the Culdees practiced Christian monasticism, a key feature of Celtic Christianity in the region, with a presbyter exercising "authority within the institution, while the different monastic institutions were independent of one another." The Church in Scotland kept the Christian feast of Easter at a date different from the See of Rome and its monks used a unique style of tonsure. The Synod of Whitby in 664, ended these distinctives as it ruled "that Easter would be celebrated according to the Roman date, not the Celtic date." Although Roman influence came to dominate the Church in Scotland, certain Celtic influences remained in the Scottish Church, such as "the singing of metrical psalms, many of them set to old Celtic Christianity Scottish traditional and folk tunes", which became a "distinctive part of Scottish Presbyterian worship".
Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church and bore different denominations. Presbyterianism was influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, credited with the development of Reformed theology, the work of John Knox, a Scotsman and a Roman Catholic Priest, who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland, he brought back Reformed teachings to Scotland. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back to England and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom. In December 1560, the First Book of Discipline was published, outlining important doctrinal issues but establishing regulations for church government, including the creation of ten ecclesiastical districts with appointed superintendents which became known as presbyteries.
In time, the Scots Confession would be supplanted by the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which were formulated by the Westminster Assembly between 1643 and 1649. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization and worship; the origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism. Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups; some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which serves as an important confessional document – second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible – in Presbyterian churches. Presbyteria
Huntley & Palmers
Huntley & Palmers is a British firm of biscuit makers based in Reading, Berkshire. The company created one of the world's first global brands and ran what was once the world’s largest biscuit factory. Over the years, the company was known as J. Huntley & Son and Huntley & Palmer. In 2006, Huntley & Palmers was re-established in Sudbury, Suffolk. Since 1985, the New Zealand firm Griffin's Foods has made Huntley and Palmers biscuits under licence. In 2017 conservators found a 106-year-old fruitcake from the company in the artefacts from Cape Adare; the artefact is believed to have been part of the rations of Captain Robert Falcon Scott’s Terra Nova Expedition in 1910-1913. Huntley & Palmers was founded in 1822 by Joseph Huntley as J. Son; the business was a small biscuit baker and confectioner shop at number 119 London Street. A blue plaque is displayed outside; the building is now home to Age UK Berkshire. At this time London Street was the main stage coach route from London to Bristol and the West Country.
One of the main calling points of the stage coaches was the Crown Inn, opposite Joseph Huntley's shop, he started selling his biscuits to the travellers on the coaches. Because the biscuits were vulnerable to breakage on the coach journey, he started putting them in metal tins. Out of this innovation grew two businesses: Joseph's biscuit shop, to become Huntley & Palmers, Huntley and Stevens, a firm of biscuit tin manufacturers founded by his younger son called Joseph. In 1838 Joseph Huntley was forced by ill-health to retire, handing control of the business to his older son Thomas. In 1841, Thomas took as a business partner George Palmer, a distant cousin and member of the Society of Friends. George Palmer soon became the chief force behind its success, establishing sales agents across the country; the company soon outgrew its original shop and moved to a factory on King’s Road in 1846, near the Great Western Railway. The factory had an internal railway system with its own steam locomotives and one of these has been preserved near Bradford.
Thomas Huntley died in 1857, but George Palmer continued to direct the firm aided by his brothers, William Isaac Palmer and Samuel Palmer, subsequently by his sons, as heads of the company. They became biscuit makers to the British Royal Family and in 1865 expanded into the European continent, received Royal Warrants from Napoleon III and Leopold II of Belgium. At their height, they employed over 5,000 people and in 1900 were the world's largest biscuit firm; the origins of the firm's success lay in a number of areas. They provided a wide variety of popular products, producing 400 different varieties by 1903, mass production enabled them to price their products keenly. One source of flour was Hambleden Mill, a few miles down the Thames; every week Maid of the Mill brought flour upriver from the mill. The Palmers were notable local figures in Reading who generously gave money and land to Reading, including Palmer Park and the town was known as "biscuit town". Reading F. C. football team was known as the "biscuit men".
Another important part of their success was their ability to send biscuits all over the world preserved in locally produced, elaborately decorated, collectible biscuit tins. The tins proved to be a powerful marketing tool, under their recognisable image Huntley & Palmers biscuits came to symbolise the commercial power and reach of the British Empire in the same way that Coca-Cola did for the United States; the tins found their way as far abroad as the mountains of Tibet. During the First World War they produced biscuits for the war effort and devoted their tin-making resources to making cases for artillery shells. In 1970, following the merger of the Scottish biscuit companies, Crawford's, McVities and McFarlane Lang and in order to respond to that market competition, the three main English biscuit manufacturers, Huntley & Palmers, Peek Frean and Jacobs amalgamated together as Associated Biscuits. Manufacturing in Reading ceased in 1976. In 1982 Nabisco acquired Associated Biscuits. Production continued at Huyton until 1983.
After the closure of the Peek Frean factory at Bermondsey in 1989, Nabisco sold the Associated Biscuit brands to Danone. The firm manufactured over 400 different types of biscuits over the years and innovated many new types of biscuits including the Nice biscuit. A history of the company, Quaker Enterprise in Biscuits: Huntley & Palmers of Reading, 1822–1972 by T. A. B. Corley, was published in 1972 on the firm's 150th anniversary; the historic company archive is now housed at the Reading Museum, where there is a gallery devoted to the company. Some archive films of the Huntley & Palmers factory are available for viewing in the special Huntley & Palmers gallery in the museum in the Town Hall; the business archive is located at the Special Collections of the University of Reading. In the 21st century it came to light that one freelance artist commissioned to design biscuit tins for Huntley & Palmers had placed secret images in his designs, such as depictions of copulating dogs, copulating people, a man with a cannabis joint.
In 2006, Huntley & Palmers resumed operations from Sudbury in Suffolk. The management team included a former marketing director of Jacobs Bakery, which once owned the company, a founder of Vibrant, a successful packaging design company, they targeted the fine food sector. Since 2008, Huntley and Palmers have been owned by the Freeman family, with three generations in the biscui
Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism, or Catholic Anglicanism comprises people and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise the Catholic heritage and identity of the various Anglican churches. The term Anglo-Catholic was coined in the early 19th century, although movements emphasising the Catholic nature of Anglicanism had existed. Influential in the history of Anglo-Catholicism were the Caroline Divines of the seventeenth century and the leaders of the Oxford Movement, which began at the University of Oxford in 1833 and ushered in a period of Anglican history known as the "Catholic Revival". A minority of Anglo-Catholics, sometimes called Anglican Papalists, consider themselves under papal supremacy though they are not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church; such Anglo-Catholics in England celebrate Mass according to the contemporary Roman Catholic rite and are concerned with seeking reunion with the Roman Catholic Church. In addition, members of the personal ordinariates for former Anglicans created by Pope Benedict XVI are sometimes unofficially referred to as "Anglican Catholics".
Following the passing of the Act of Supremacy and Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of England continued to adhere to traditional Catholic teachings and did not make any alterations to doctrine. The Ten Articles were published in 1536 and constitute the first official Anglican articles of faith; the articles for the most part concurred with the teachings of the Church in England as they had been prior to the Protestant Reformation and defended, among other things, the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, the sacrament of Confession, the honouring and invocation of Christian saints and prayer for the dead. Belief in purgatory, was made non-essential; this was followed by the Institution of the Christian Man in 1537, a combined effort by numerous clergy and theologians which—though not Protestant in its inclinations—showed a slight move towards Reformed positions. The Bishops' Book was unpopular with conservative sections of the Church, grew to be disliked by Henry VIII as well.
The Six Articles, released two years moved away from all Reformed ideas and affirmed Catholic positions regarding matters such as transubstantiation and Mass for the dead. The King's Book, the official article of religion written by Henry in 1543 expressed Catholic sacramental theology and encouraged prayer for the dead. A major shift in Anglican doctrine came in the reign of Henry's son, Edward VI, who repealed the Six Articles and under whose rule the Church of England became more identifiably Protestant. Though the Church's practices and approach to the sacraments became influenced by those of continental reformers, it retained episcopal church structure; the Church of England was briefly reunited with the Roman Catholic Church under Mary, before separating again under Elizabeth I. The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was an attempt to end the religious divisions among Christians in England, is seen as an important event in Anglican history laying the foundations for the "via media" concept of Anglicanism.
The nature of early Anglicanism was to be of great importance to the Anglo-Catholics of the 19th century, who would argue that their beliefs and practices were common during this period and were inoffensive to the earliest members of the Church of England. The Caroline Divines were a group of influential Anglican theologians active in the 17th century who opposed Calvinism and Puritanism and stressed the importance of episcopal polity, apostolic succession and the sacraments; the Caroline Divines favoured elaborate liturgy and aesthetics. Their influence saw a revival in the use of statues in churches; the leaders of the Anglo-Catholic revival in the 19th century would draw from the works of the Caroline Divines. The modern Anglo-Catholic movement began with the Oxford Movement in the Victorian era, sometimes termed "Tractarianism". In the early 19th century, various factors caused misgivings among English church people, including the decline of church life and the spread of unconventional practices in the Church of England.
The British government's action in 1833 of beginning a reduction in the number of Church of Ireland bishoprics and archbishoprics inspired a sermon from John Keble in the University Church in Oxford on the subject of "National Apostasy". This sermon marked the inception of; the principal objective of the Oxford Movement was the defence of the Church of England as a divinely-founded institution, of the doctrine of apostolic succession and of the Book of Common Prayer as a "rule of faith". The key idea was that Anglicanism was not a Protestant denomination but a branch of the historic Catholic Church, along with the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox churches, it was argued that Anglicanism had preserved the historical apostolic succession of priests and bishops and thus the Catholic sacraments. These ideas were promoted in a series of ninety "Tracts for the Times"; the principal leaders of the Oxford Movement were John Keble, John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey. The movement gained influential support, but it was attacked by some bishops of the Church and by the latitudinarians within the University of Oxford, who believed in conforming to official Church of England practices but who felt that matters of doctrine, liturgical practice, ecclesiastical organization were of little importance.
Within the Oxford movement, there arose a much smaller group which tended towards submission
Magistrates' court (England and Wales)
In England and Wales, a magistrates' court is a lower court which holds trials for summary offences and preliminary hearings for more serious ones. Some civil matters are decided here, notably family proceedings. In 2015, there were 330 magistrates' courts in England and Wales, though the government was considering closing up to 57 of these; the jurisdiction of magistrates' courts and rules governing them are set out in the Magistrates' Courts Act 1980. All criminal proceedings start at a magistrates' court. Summary offences are smaller crimes that can be punished under the magistrates' courts limited sentencing powers – community sentences, short custodial sentences. Indictable offences, on the other hand, are serious crimes. Either-way offences will fall into one of the previous categories depending on how serious the particular crime in question is. Cases are heard by a paid district judge. Criminal cases are although not investigated by the police and prosecuted at the court by the Crown Prosecution Service.
Defendants may hire a solicitor or barrister to represent them paid for by legal aid. There are magistrates' courts in other common-law jurisdictions; the current magistrates' courts are a continuation of the system of courts of petty session. Magistrates previously presided in quarter sessions, but the abolition of these in 1972 removed the need for the distinction. In London the Middlesex Justices Act 1792 created a separate system of courts presided over by magistrates, staffed with constables – based on the Bow Street Runners; these became known as police courts. In criminal matters, magistrates’ courts in England and Wales have been organised to deal with minor offences in a speedy manner. All criminal cases start in the magistrates' court and over 95 per cent of them will end there – only the most serious offences go to Crown Court. Summary offences are the least serious criminal offences, they include driving offences, criminal damage of low value, low-level violent offences and being drunk and disorderly.
This kind of'lesser' criminality will be dealt with in summary proceedings at a magistrates' court, where the defendant has no right to a jury trial and no formal indictment is necessary. Both verdict and sentence are in the hands of district judges or magistrates; the sentencing powers of magistrates' courts are therefore limited to a maximum of six months' imprisonment. When dealing with two or more separate either-way offences, the maximum total custodial sentence is 12 months. However, should there be more than one summary only offence, the court's powers are limited to a maximum sentence of six months imprisonment, the nominal maximum sentencing powers of the magistrates' court; the maximum fine available used to be £5,000. However, this was raised by the Legal Aid and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 to allow unlimited fines from March 2015 for specified offences. There is no maximum aggregate fine; some driving offences are punished by endorsement and/or disqualification from driving for a period of time.
There are four types of sentence available to the magistrates - a discharge. The majority of sentences are non-custodial. For either-way offences, if the magistrates feel that their powers of sentencing are insufficient, they can send the case up to a judge at the Crown Court, who can impose more severe sentences; the point is to achieve restorative justice and reformation of the offenders. These alternative punishments are called community sentences. A community sentence would consist of community payback, a duty to work between 40 and 300 hours unpaid in the community; this is complemented by some kind of programme or treatment, offering a helping hand to offenders, engaging them at the same time – ending a drug habit, coping with a mental illness and qualifications for work, more. The judge may issue orders with rules such as curfew, restraining orders and many others. During serving of community sentences to suspended sentence, offenders will be supervised by a probation officer. Either way offences can be dealt by the magistrates' court or in the Crown Court.
There will be a hearing to decide on venue, hearing an outline of the case from both prosecution and defence. The guideline is whether, taking the prosecution case at its most serious, the court believes that a magistrates' court has sufficient powers of sentence. If so, the case will be accepted, a date will be held for a subsequent hearing in a magistrates' court – otherwise the case will be sent to the Crown Court, as with Indictable offences below; the maximum custodial sentence the magistrates can impose for an either-way offence is six month
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
A Recorder is a judicial officer in England and Wales and some other common law jurisdictions. In the courts of England and Wales the term Recorder has two distinct meanings; the senior circuit judge of a borough or city is awarded the title of "Honorary Recorder". However, "Recorder" is used to denote a barrister who sits as a part-time circuit judge. In England and Wales a recorder was a certain magistrate or judge having criminal and civil jurisdiction within the corporation of a city or borough; such incorporated bodies were given the right by the Crown to appoint a recorder. He was a person with legal knowledge appointed by the mayor and aldermen of the corporation to'record' the proceedings of their courts and the customs of the borough or city; such recordings were regarded as the highest evidence of fact. The appointment would be given to a senior and distinguished practitioner at the Bar, it was, therefore executed part-time only, by a person whose usual practice was as a barrister, it carried a great deal of power of patronage.
The recorder of a borough was entrusted by the mayor and corporation to nominate its Members of Parliament, as was the case with the Recorder of Barnstaple, who in 1545 nominated the two MPs to represent the Borough of Barnstaple. The only survival today of the historic office is the Recorder of London, still appointed by the Court of Aldermen of the Corporation of the City of London and thereby becomes a member of that court, he is a senior Circuit Judge sitting at the Central Criminal Court. The ancient recorderships of England and Wales now form part of a system of honorary recorderships which are filled by the most senior full-time circuit judges. At each Crown Court centre, a particular judge is appointed "resident judge", leads the team of judges who sit there and provides the essential link between the judiciary and the administration. In the larger city court centres, the resident judge is a senior circuit judge, recruited and appointed to that post. An exception is the Corporation of the City of London which still follows ancient custom as stated above.
In the many smaller towns and cities where the resident judge is not a senior circuit judge, the position is different. The resident judge is deployed to that post by the Lord Chief Justice from the ranks of the circuit bench, they hold office as resident judge for a set period four years, although such appointments are renewable. Whilst the appointment of an honorary recorder has lain with the borough council since the Courts Act 1971, in practice the resident judge is appointed as the honorary recorder. In a borough, coincident with an ancient assize the position is titular. In the case where the resident judge is a fixed-term appointment, it is expected that the city or borough council will appoint them as honorary recorder for the duration of their tenure as resident judge. Boroughs which had a power by charter to appoint a recorder before 1971, but which had no quarter sessions, have a preserved right to appoint anyone, including non-lawyers, as honorary recorder, but an honorary recorder, not a judge cannot sit as a judge in court or exercise any judicial functions.
The procedure to be followed is that laid down by the Lord Chief Justice in his "Guidelines for the Appointment of Honorary Recorders", which states that it has been the practice of most large city councils to appoint the resident judge to be honorary recorder of the city during his tenure of the office. Some new positions have been created for example for the Borough of Redbridge; the appointment of an honorary recorder is made by the borough council concerned, although it does not require the approval of a higher authority, the Lord Chief Justice has let it be known that he would be pleased if boroughs considering making such an appointment would first consult the Senior Presiding Judge for England and Wales. Due to the reorganisation of courts where local government reorganisation has occurred at the same time, some titles bestowed by one council may be held by the senior resident judge sitting in another borough; the protocol of the use of the title is that it is customary for an honorary recorder, when sitting in the Crown Court in the city or town where he holds that office, to be described as such in the published court lists.
This should not be done, when the judge is sitting in the Crown Court in another city or town, whether or not that city or town has an honorary recorder of its own. Honorary recorders who are senior circuit judges are authorised by the Lord Chief Justice to wear red robes when sitting in court; these robes are based on the design of the robes worn by judges of the county courts, but in red and black. They were designed for the recorders of Manchester and Liverpool in 1956; the right to wear them in court was extended in the 1980s to the other senior circuit judges appointed as honorary recorders, but has not been extended to those who are not senior circuit judges. Accordingly, when sitting in court, honorary recorders who are not senior circuit judges continue to wear the normal robes of a circuit judge sitting in the Crown Court. In addition, honorary recorders who are senior circuit judges are addressed in court as "My Lord/Lady" instead of "Your Honour" (as for other circuit judges, including senior circuit judges who are not honorary
Age of majority
The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as recognized or declared in law. It is the moment when minors cease to be considered such and assume legal control over their persons and decisions, thus terminating the control and legal responsibilities of their parents or guardian over them. Most countries set the age of majority at 18; the word majority here refers to having greater years and being of full age as opposed to minority, the state of being a minor. The law in a given jurisdiction may not use the term "age of majority"; the term refers to a collection of laws bestowing the status of adulthood. The age of majority does not correspond to the mental or physical maturity of an individual. Age of majority should not be confused with the age of maturity, age of sexual consent, marriageable age, school-leaving age, drinking age, driving age, voting age, smoking age, gambling age, etc. which each may be independent of and set at a different age from the age of majority. Although a person may attain the age of majority in a particular jurisdiction, they may still be subject to age-based restrictions regarding matters such as the right to vote or stand for elective office, act as a judge, many others.
Age of majority can be confused with the similar concept of the age of license, which pertains to the threshold of adulthood but in a much broader and more abstract way. As a legal term of art, "license" means "permission", it can implicate a enforceable right or privilege. Thus, an age of license is an age; the age of majority, on the other hand, is legal recognition. Age of majority pertains to the acquisition of the legal control over one's person and actions, the correlative termination of the legal authority of the parents over the child’s person and affairs generally. Many ages of license are correlated to the age of majority, but they are nonetheless distinct concepts. One need not have attained the age of majority to have permission to exercise certain rights and responsibilities; some ages of license are higher than the age of majority. For example, to purchase alcoholic beverages, the age of license is 21 in all U. S. states. Another example is the voting age, which prior to the 1970s was 21 in the US, as was the age of majority in all or most states.
In the Republic of Ireland the age of majority is 18, but one must be over 21 years of age to stand for election to the Houses of the Oireachtas. In Portugal the age of majority is 18, but one must be at least 25 years of age to run for public office and 35 years of age to run for president. A child, emancipated by a court of competent jurisdiction automatically attains to their maturity upon the signing of the court order. Only emancipation confers the status of maturity before a person has reached the age of majority. In all places, minors who are married are automatically emancipated; some places do the same for minors who are in the armed forces or who have a certain degree or diploma. In many countries minors can be emancipated: depending on jurisdiction, this may happen through acts such as marriage, attaining economic self-sufficiency, obtaining an educational degree or diploma, or participating in a form of military service. In the United States, all states have some form of emancipation of minors.
The following list the age of majority in countries in the order of lowest to highest