Get Carter is a 1971 British crime film directed by Mike Hodges and starring Michael Caine, Ian Hendry, Britt Ekland, John Osborne and Bryan Mosley. The screenplay was adapted by Hodges from Ted Lewis's 1970 novel Jack's Return Home. Producer Michael Klinger optioned the book and made a deal for the ailing Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio to finance and release the film, bringing in Hodges and Caine. Caine became a co-producer of the film. Get Carter was Hodges' first feature film as director, as well as being the screen debut of Alun Armstrong. MGM was scaling back its European operations and the film became the last project approved before the American company closed its Borehamwood studios; the film is set in north-east England and was filmed in and around Newcastle upon Tyne and County Durham. The story follows a London gangster, the eponymous Jack Carter, who travels back to his hometown to discover more about the events surrounding his brother Frank's accidental death. Suspecting foul play, he investigates and interrogates, regaining a feel for the city and its hardened-criminal element.
Caine and Hodges had ambitions to produce a more gritty and realistic portrayal of on-screen violence and criminal behaviour than had been seen in a British film. Caine incorporated his knowledge of real criminal acquaintances into his characterisation of Carter. Hodges and cinematographer Wolfgang Suschitzky drew on their backgrounds in documentary film. This—combined with Hodges' research into the contemporary criminal underworld of Newcastle, the use of hundreds of local bystanders as extras—produced a naturalistic feel in many scenes; the shoot was incident-free and progressed speedily, despite a one-day strike by the Association of Cinematograph and Allied Technicians. The production went from novel to finished film in eight months, with location shooting lasting 40 days. Get Carter suffered in its promotion, firstly from MGM's problems and secondly owing to the declining British film industry of the period, which relied on US investment. Initial UK critical reaction to the film was mixed, with British reviewers grudgingly appreciative of the film's technical excellence, but dismayed by the complex plotting, the excessive violence and amorality, in particular Carter's apparent lack of remorse at his actions.
Despite this the film produced a respectable profit. Conversely, US critics were more enthusiastic and praised the film, but it was poorly promoted in the States by United Artists and languished on the drive in circuit while MGM focused its resources on producing a blaxploitation version of the same novel, Hit Man. On its release Get Carter received no awards and did not seem to be well remembered, it was not available on home media until 1993. Subsequently, endorsements from a new generation of directors such as Quentin Tarantino and Guy Ritchie led to a critical reappraisal which saw it recognized as one of the best British movies ever. In 1999, Get Carter was ranked 16th on the BFI Top 100 British films of the 20th century. Get Carter was remade in 2000 by Warner Bros. under the same title, with Sylvester Stallone starring as Jack Carter, while Caine appears in a supporting role. This remake was not given a UK theatrical release. Newcastle-born gangster Jack Carter has lived in London for years in the employ of organised crime bosses Gerald and Sid Fletcher.
Jack is sleeping with Gerald's girlfriend Anna and plans to escape with her to South America, but he must first return to Newcastle and Gateshead to attend the funeral of his brother, who died in a purported drunk-driving accident. Unsatisfied with the official explanation, Jack investigates for himself. At the funeral Jack meets his teenage niece Doreen and Frank's evasive mistress Margaret. Jack goes to Newcastle Racecourse seeking old acquaintance Albert Swift for information about his brother's death, however Swift spots Jack and evades him. Jack encounters another old associate, Eric Paice, who refuses to tell Jack, employing him as a chauffeur. Tailing Eric leads him to the country house of crime boss Cyril Kinnear. Jack bursts in on Kinnear, playing poker, but learns little from him; as Jack leaves, Eric warns him against damaging relations between Kinnear and the Fletchers. Back in town, Jack is threatened by henchmen who want him to leave town, but he fights them off and interrogating one to find out who wants him gone.
He is given the name "Brumby". Jack knows Cliff Brumby as a businessman with controlling interests in local seaside amusement arcades. Visiting Brumby's house Jack discovers the man knows nothing about him and, believing he has been set up, he leaves; the next morning two of Jack's London colleagues – Con McCarthy and Peter the Dutchman – arrive, sent by the Fletchers to take him back, but he escapes. Jack meets Margaret to talk about Frank, he is rescued by Glenda who takes him in her sports car to meet Brumby at his new restaurant development at the top of a multi-storey car park. Brumby identifies Kinnear as being behind Frank's death explaining that Kinnear is trying to
A photographer is a person who makes photographs. As in other arts, the definitions of amateur and professional are not categorical. An amateur photographer takes snapshots for pleasure to remember events, places or friends with no intention of selling the images to others. A professional photographer is to take photographs for a session and image purchase fee, by salary or through the display, resale or use of those photographs. A professional photographer may be an employee, for example of a newspaper, or may contract to cover a particular planned event such as a wedding or graduation, or to illustrate an advertisement. Others, like fine art photographers, are freelancers, first making an image and licensing or making printed copies of it for sale or display; some workers, such as crime scene photographers, estate agents and scientists, make photographs as part of other work. Photographers who produce moving rather than still pictures are called cinematographers, videographers or camera operators, depending on the commercial context.
The term professional may imply preparation, for example, by academic study or apprenticeship by the photographer in pursuit of photographic skills. A hallmark of a professional is that they invest in continuing education through associations. Many associations offer the opportunity to test and exhibit acumen in order to attain credentials such as Certified Professional Photographer or Master Photographer. While there is no compulsory registration requirement for professional photographer status, operating a business requires having a business license in most cities and counties. Having commercial insurance is required by most venues if photographing a wedding or a public event. Photographers who operate a legitimate business can provide these items. Photographers can be categorized based on the subjects; some photographers explore subjects typical of paintings such as landscape, still life, portraiture. Other photographers specialize in subjects unique to photography, including street photography, documentary photography, fashion photography, wedding photography, war photography, aviation photography and commercial photography.
It is worth noting that the type of work commissioned will have pricing associated with the image's usage. The exclusive right of photographers to copy and use their products is protected by copyright. Countless industries purchase photographs on products; the photographs seen on magazine covers, in television advertising, on greeting cards or calendars, on websites, or on products and packages, have been purchased for this use, either directly from the photographer or through an agency that represents the photographer. A photographer uses a contract to sell the "license" or use of his or her photograph with exact controls regarding how the photograph will be used, in what territory it will be used, for which products; this is referred to as usage fee and is used to distinguish from production fees. An additional contract and royalty would apply for each additional use of the photograph; the contract may be for other duration. The photographer charges a royalty as well as a one-time fee, depending on the terms of the contract.
The contract may be for exclusive use of the photograph. The contract can stipulate that the photographer is entitled to audit the company for determination of royalty payments. Royalties vary depending on the industry buying the photograph and the use, for example, royalties for a photograph used on a poster or in television advertising may be higher than for use on a limited run of brochures. A royalty is often based on the size at which the photo will be used in a magazine or book, cover photos command higher fees than photos used elsewhere in a book or magazine. Photos taken by a photographer while working on assignment are work for hire belonging to the company or publication unless stipulated otherwise by contract. Professional portrait and wedding photographers stipulate by contract that they retain the copyright of their photos, so that only they can sell further prints of the photographs to the consumer, rather than the customer reproducing the photos by other means. If the customer wishes to be able to reproduce the photos themselves, they may discuss an alternative contract with the photographer in advance before the pictures are taken, in which a larger up front fee may be paid in exchange for reprint rights passing to the customer.
There are major companies who have maintained catalogues of stock photography and images for decades, such as Getty Images and others. Since the turn of the 21st century many online stock photography catalogues have appeared that invite photographers to sell their photos online and but for little money, without a royalty, without control over the use of the photo, the market it will be used in, the products it will be used on, time duration, etc. Commercial photographers may promote their work to advertising and editorial art buyers via printed and online marketing vehicles. Many people upload their photographs to social networking websites and other websites, in order to share them with a particular group or with the general public; those interested in legal precision may expl
A filming location is a place where some or all of a film or television series is produced, in addition to or instead of using sets constructed on a movie studio backlot or soundstage. In filmmaking, a location is any place where a film crew will be filming actors and recording their dialog. A location where dialog is not recorded may be considered as a second unit photography site. Filmmakers choose to shoot on location because they believe that greater realism can be achieved in a "real" place. Many films shoot exterior scenes on location, it is mistakenly believed that filming "on location" takes place in the actual location in which its story is set, but this is not the case. There are two main types of locations. Location shooting is the practice of filming in an actual setting Studio shoots in either a sound stage or back lot It is common for films or television series to be set in one place, but filmed in another for reasons of economy or convenience, but sometimes because the substitute location looks more appropriate.
Some substitute filming locations, the corresponding film setting, include: Almería, Spain - Southwest USA Cadiz, Spain - Havana, Cuba Hawaii - West Africa, Brazilian Amazon Madrid, Spain - Moscow, Russia Malta - Ancient Sparta. Location shooting Location manager Location scouting Location library Filmmaking
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London. Founded in 1824, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900; the Gallery is an exempt charity, a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture and Sport. Its collection belongs to the government on behalf of the British public, entry to the main collection is free of charge, it is among the most visited art museums in the world, after the Louvre, the British Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Unlike comparable museums in continental Europe, the National Gallery was not formed by nationalising an existing royal or princely art collection, it came into being when the British government bought 38 paintings from the heirs of John Julius Angerstein in 1824. After that initial purchase the Gallery was shaped by its early directors, notably Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, by private donations, which today account for two-thirds of the collection.
The collection is encyclopaedic in scope. It used to be claimed that this was one of the few national galleries that had all its works on permanent exhibition, but this is no longer the case; the present building, the third to house the National Gallery, was designed by William Wilkins from 1832 to 1838. Only the façade onto Trafalgar Square remains unchanged from this time, as the building has been expanded piecemeal throughout its history. Wilkins's building was criticised for the perceived weaknesses of its design and for its lack of space; the Sainsbury Wing, an extension to the west by Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown, is a notable example of Postmodernist architecture in Britain. The current Director of the National Gallery is Gabriele Finaldi; the late 18th century saw the nationalisation of royal or princely art collections across mainland Europe. The Bavarian royal collection opened to the public in 1779, that of the Medici in Florence around 1789, the Museum Français at the Louvre was formed out of the former French royal collection in 1793.
Great Britain, did not emulate the continental model, the British Royal Collection remains in the sovereign's possession today. In 1777 the British government had the opportunity to buy an art collection of international stature, when the descendants of Sir Robert Walpole put his collection up for sale; the MP John Wilkes argued for the government to buy this "invaluable treasure" and suggested that it be housed in "a noble gallery... to be built in the spacious garden of the British Museum" Nothing came of Wilkes's appeal and 20 years the collection was bought in its entirety by Catherine the Great. A plan to acquire 150 paintings from the Orléans collection, brought to London for sale in 1798 failed, despite the interest of both the King and the Prime Minister, Pitt the Younger; the twenty-five paintings from that collection now in the Gallery, including "NG1", arrived by a variety of routes. In 1799 the dealer Noel Desenfans offered a ready-made national collection to the British government.
This offer was declined and Bourgeois bequeathed the collection to his old school, Dulwich College, on his death. The collection opened in 1814 in Britain's first purpose-built public gallery, the Dulwich Picture Gallery; the Scottish dealer William Buchanan and the collector Joseph Count Truchsess, both formed art collections expressly as the basis for a future national collection, but their respective offers were declined. Following the Walpole sale many artists, including James Barry and John Flaxman, had made renewed calls for the establishment of a National Gallery, arguing that a British school of painting could only flourish if it had access to the canon of European painting; the British Institution, founded in 1805 by a group of aristocratic connoisseurs, attempted to address this situation. The members lent works to exhibitions that changed annually, while an art school was held in the summer months. However, as the paintings that were lent were mediocre, some artists resented the Institution and saw it as a racket for the gentry to increase the sale prices of their Old Master paintings.
One of the Institution's founding members, Sir George Beaumont, Bt, would play a major role in the National Gallery's foundation by offering a gift of 16 paintings. In 1823 another major art collection came on the market, assembled by the deceased John Julius Angerstein. Angerstein was a Russian-born émigré banker based in London. On 1 July 1823 George Agar Ellis, a Whig politician, proposed to the House of Commons that it purchase the collection; the appeal was given added impetus by Beaumont's offer, which came with two conditions: that the government buy Angerstein's collection, that a suitable building was to be found. The unexpected repayment of a war debt by Austria moved the government to buy Angerstein's collection, for £57,000; the National Gallery opened to the public on 10 May 1824, housed in Angerstein's former townhouse at No. 100 Pall Mall. Angerstein's paintings were joined in 1826 by those from Beaumont's collection, in 1831 by the Reverend
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
The Oracle (film)
The Oracle is a 1953 British comedy film directed by C. M. Pennington-Richards and starring Robert Beatty, Michael Medwin and Virginia McKenna; the screenplay concerns a journalist who goes on holiday to Ireland where he encounters a fortune-teller. It was based on a radio play To Tell You the Truth by Robert Barr, it was shot at Southall Studios on a budget of £43,000. Timothy Blake, a British reporter holidaying or a remote island offshore of Ireland, hears a man's voice coming from the bottom of a well; the voice turns out to be a modern-day Oracle, or fortune teller, whose predictions prove uncannily accurate. Bob is determined to get a story out of this, but his editor is less enthusiastic and promptly fires him; the newfound publicity though, means the once-sleepy Irish village is now invaded with curiosity seekers, those seeking the horse racing results. Robert Beatty as Bob Jefferson Michael Medwin as Timothy Blake Virginia McKenna as Shelagh Mervyn Johns as Tom Mitchum Arthur Macrae as Alan Digby Gillian Lind as Jane Bond Ursula Howells as Peggy Louise Hampton as Miss Turner John Charlesworth as Denis Joseph Tomelty as Terry Roche Lockwood West as Adams Maire O'Neill as Mrs Lenham John McBride as Mick Derek Tansley as Idiot Boy Patrick McAlinney as O'Keefe Lionel Marson as Announcer Jean St. Clair as Young Girl Jack May as Old Man Gilbert Harding as Voice of the Oracle Allmovie called it "A lesser comedy of the Ealing school".
Chibnall, Steve & McFarlane, Brian. The British'B' Film. Palgrave MacMillan, 2009. Harper, Sue & Porter, Vincent. British Cinema of the 1950s: The Decline of Deference. Oxford University Press, 2007; the Oracle on IMDb
The Photographers' Gallery
The Photographers' Gallery was founded in London in 1971, as the first public gallery in the UK devoted to photography. It is home to the Deutsche Börse Photography Prize, established in 1996 to identify and reward photographic talent and innovation, the Bar-Tur Photobook Award. Founder and director Sue Davies established the original home of the Photographers' Gallery in a converted Lyon's Tea Bar at No. 8 Great Newport Street in London's Covent Garden. Free to the public, the gallery offered a dedicated space for photography and photographers – the first of its kind in the UK; the inaugural exhibition on 14 January 1971 was The Concerned Photographer, an exhibition first shown in New York and curated by photojournalist Cornell Capa. In 1980 the Gallery acquired a neighbouring space at No. 5 Great Newport Street, extending its exhibition spaces and providing room for a bookshop and café. It was able to accommodate an area for print sales, which focused on promoting and selling the work of British and international photographers with proceeds going towards supporting the public programme.
Over the next four decades, the Gallery delivered a programme of exhibitions and educational activities aimed to stimulate engagement with and learning through photography as well as explore its role. The gallery has introduced international photographers Juergen Teller, Robert Capa, Sebastião Salgado, Andreas Gursky, Shirana Shahbazi and Taryn Simon to British audiences, while championing the work of UK based photographers including Martin Parr, Zineb Sedira, Melanie Manchot, Nick Knight, Corinne Day and Nick Waplington. In May 2012 after a major capital campaign and redevelopment plan, The Photographers’ Gallery opened its doors to its new and current home in a former textiles warehouse in Ramillies Street, London. Designed by Irish architects O'Donnell and Tuomey, this building in the West End, offers three exhibition spaces, a print sales gallery, an education and learning studio, digital media screen, enhanced areas for the bookshop and café; the Deutsche Börse Photography Foundation Prize annually rewards a photographer who has made the most significant contribution to the photographic medium in Europe during the past year.
The prize was set up in 1996 by The Photographers' Gallery. Between 1997 and 2004, the prize was known as the Citigroup Photography Prize. Deutsche Börse has sponsored the competition with a £ 30,000 prize, it has been described as "the biggest of its kind in photography in Europe" and "the most prestigious". Past winners of the £30,000 award include Andreas Gursky, Juergen Teller Luc Delahaye, Robert Adams, Walid Raad, Sophie Ristelhueber, artists’ duo Adam Broomberg & Oliver Chanarin, Richard Mosse; the 2017 winner was Dana Lixenberg. The Bar-Tur Photobook Award was created in 2014 in memory of Lesley-Ann Bar Tur, it supports photographers and artists in realising a photobook project through provision of a £20,000 production fee and partnership with an independent publisher. The inaugural award went to Angus Fraser who published Santa Muerte with Trolley Books in 2014. In 2015, Jack Latham won with Sugar Paper Theories, published by Here Press; the Photographers' Gallery publishes books for some of its exhibitions.
Loose Associations is a quarterly publication from The Photographers’ Gallery which commissions and publishes essays and artist projects related to but not defined by its programme. Official website Bar-Tur Photobook Award Photographers' Gallery on Artabase "Chris Steele-Perkins presents England, My England: the Host recording" Steele-Perkins talks about the gallery's activities and funding, at Foto8