Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
The United States Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is a high level civilian official in the United States Department of Defense. The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is the principal staff assistant and adviser to both the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense for all matters concerning the formation of national security and defense policy; the Under Secretary is appointed from civilian life by the President with the consent of the Senate to serve at the request of the President. The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is the principal staff element of the Secretary of Defense in the exercise of policy development, resource management and program evaluation responsibilities, the rank of Under Secretary, the USD is a Level III position within the Executive Schedule. Officials reporting to the USD include: Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Strategy and Capabilities is responsible for national security and defense strategy, leading the Quadrennial Defense Review, nuclear deterrence and missile defense policy, security cooperation plans and policies, force design and development planning.
The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Strategy and Force Development is responsible for providing long-term and strategic advice on security issues and the development policies, strategies and capabilities for national security and the United States Armed Forces. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Plans is responsible for the development of operational planning guidance, oversight of plan reviews, global force management policy, global posture planning for the United States Department of Defense; the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear and Missile Defense Policy is responsible for the development and review of policies for nuclear forces, global strike and missile defense capabilities, requirements for future capabilities, oversight of operational planning. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Security Cooperation is responsible for the bilateral and multilateral security cooperation activities; the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs is responsible for international security strategy, defense policy, oversight of security cooperation programs and foreign military sales programs relating to Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Eurasia, the Middle East and the Western Hemisphere.
The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for African Affairs provides advice on international security strategy, defense policy, oversight of security cooperation programs relating to Sub-Sahara Africa. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Middle East provides advice on international security strategy, defense policy, oversight of security cooperation programs relating to the Middle East and North Africa; the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Europe and NATO provides advice on international security strategy, defense policy, oversight of security cooperation programs relating to Europe and NATO. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Russia and Eurasia provides advice on international security strategy, defense policy, oversight of security cooperation programs relating to conventional arms control, Ukraine, Western Balkans, Eurasian nations; the Secretary of Defense Representative in the United States Mission to NATO. The Secretary of Defense Representative to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense and Global Security is responsible for the policy and implementation guidance for national and global security issues across countering weapons of mass destruction, cyber operations, homeland defense activities, continuity of government and mission assurance, defense support to civil authorities, space-related matters. The AD is responsible for the Protected Critical Infrastructure Program, the Domestic Preparedness Support Initiative, the Defense Critical Infrastructure Program; the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Cyber Policy is responsible for the development and implementation of cyber policies and plans to guide the United States Department of Defense including the United States Cyber Command. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Space Policy is responsible for the policy and guidance of space policy and space-related issues including international space cooperation of the United States Department of Defense; the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction is responsible for the policy and guidance for chemical, biological and nuclear protection, weapons of mass destruction countermeasures, counterproliferation and non-proliferation.
The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense Integration and Defense Support of Civil Authorities is responsible for the development and oversight of the integration and implementation of plans and policy for defense support of civil authorities and civil-military co-operation. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Defense Continuity and Mission Assurance is responsible for the development of policies and plans for continuity of operations, mission assurance, emergency management, critical infrastructure protection; the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations/Low-Intensity Conflict is responsible for the policy, strategic capabilities and force transformation, oversight of special operations and low-intensity conflict matters of the United States Department of Defense across counterterrorism, unconventional w
Richard Norman Perle is a former Assistant Secretary of Defense for Global Strategic Affairs who served under President Ronald Reagan. He began his political career as a senior staff member to Senator Henry "Scoop" Jackson on the Senate Armed Services Committee in the 1970s, he served on the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee from 1987 to 2004 where he served as chairman from 2001 to 2003 under the Bush Administration before resigning due to conflict of interests. He has been involved with several think-tanks throughout his career including the Washington Institute for Near East Policy Board of Advisors, the Center for Security Policy, the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, the neoconservative Project for the New American Century, the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs; until December 2015 He was a member of the Steering Committee of the Bilderberg Group. He is a patron of the Henry Jackson Society. Aside from these engagements, Perle is the former co-chairman and director of Hollinger, Inc. a partner of Trireme Partners, a non-executive director of Autonomy Corporation, is on the board of the global data collection firm RIWI Corp.
Perle has written extensively on a number of issues. His cited research interests including defense, national security, the Middle East. Perle was born in New York City, New York, the son of Jewish parents, Martha Gloria and Jack Harold Perle; as a child, he moved to California, where he attended Hollywood High School in Los Angeles – his classmates including actor Mike Farrell, singer Ricky Nelson, Joan Wohlstetter. Perle earned a B. A. in International Politics in 1964 from the University of Southern California. As an undergraduate he studied in Copenhagen at Denmark's International Study Program, he studied at the London School of Economics and obtained a M. A. in political science from Princeton University in 1967. From 1969 to 1980, Perle worked as a staffer for Democratic Senator Henry M. Jackson of Washington whom he met through Albert Wohlstetter. Perle recalls his early involvement with Wohlstetter: "Albert Wohlstetter phoned me one day. I was still a graduate student at Princeton... and he said, could you come to Washington for a few days and interview some people and draft a report on the current debate shaping up in the Senate over ballistic missile defense, a hot issue...
And he said, I've asked somebody else to do this too, maybe the two of you could work together. The someone else was Paul Wolfowitz. So Paul and I came to Washington as volunteers for a few days, to interview people, one of the people we interviewed was Scoop Jackson and it was love at first sight... I was there for eleven years." As a staffer, Perle drafted the Jackson–Vanik amendment to the 1972 International Grains Agreement, or "Russian Wheat Deal" negotiated by Richard Nixon and the Soviet Union which made for the first time by law a trade agreement contingent upon the fundamental human right of Soviet Jews to emigrate. He was considered as an knowledgeable and influential person in the Senate debates on arms control. By his own admission, Perle acquired the reputation of an influential figure who preferred to work in the background, a reputation that has followed him through the years in both the public and private sectors. At some point Perle acquired the nickname "The Prince of Darkness", used both as a slur by his critics and as a joke by supporters.
However, he has been quoted saying that. All I can do is sit down and talk to someone.... " Perle was considered a hardliner in arms reduction negotiations with the Soviet Union and has stated that his opposition to arms control under the Carter administration had to do with his view that the US was giving up too much at the negotiation table and not receiving nearly enough concessions from the Soviets. Perle called the arms talks under negotiation in the late 1970s "the rawest deal of the century". Perle's objection to the arms talks between the Carter administration and the Soviet Union revolved around Carter's agreement to halt all cruise missile development. Perle is credited for spearheading opposition to the treaty, never ratified by the Senate. Perle, with fellow neoconservative Paul Wolfowitz, played a supporting role in the ballistic missile defense project, launched in the 1980s called the Strategic Defense Initiative. Perle was influential in creating several organizations and think-tanks in order to pressure public opinion and sway policy makers on ballistic missile defense.
During the second Bush administration missile defense programs saw dramatic budget increases under the direction of Perle as chair of the Defense Policy Board. In 2010, Perle voiced opposition to the Obama administration's New START Treaty, comparing it unfavorably to the "watershed" 1987 INF Treaty signed by Ronald Reagan. However, Jonathan Chait has pointed out that Perle vehemently opposed the INF Treaty when it was signed, calling it "flawed enough to require renegotiation with the Soviets" and arguing that "the treaty does not do many of the key things the Administration says it does." Perle is a self-described neoconservative, like several around Henry M. "Scoop" Jackson, as he told Ben Wattenberg in an interview about him becoming a neoconservative. Ben Wattenberg: Now, Scoop was surrounded by people who and cer
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
United States Secretary of Defense
The Secretary of Defense is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U. S; the Secretary of Defense's position of command and authority over the U. S. military is second only to that of the Congress, respectively. This position corresponds to what is known as a Defense Minister in many other countries; the Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council. Secretary of Defense is a statutory office, the general provision in 10 U. S. C. § 113 provides that the Secretary of Defense has "authority and control over the Department of Defense", is further designated by the same statute as "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense". To ensure civilian control of the military, no one may be appointed as Secretary of Defense within seven years of serving as a commissioned officer of a regular component of an armed force.
Subject only to the orders of the President, the Secretary of Defense is in the chain of command and exercises command and control, for both operational and administrative purposes, over all Department of Defense forces — the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force — as well as the U. S. Coast Guard when its control is transferred to the Department of Defense. Only the Secretary of Defense can authorize the transfer of operational control of forces between the three Military Departments and the 10 Combatant Commands; because the Office of Secretary of Defense is vested with legal powers which exceed those of any commissioned officer, is second only to the President in the military hierarchy, its incumbent has sometimes unofficially been referred to as a de facto "deputy commander-in-chief". The Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of the Treasury are regarded as heading the four most important departments. Since January 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense has been Deputy Defense Secretary Patrick M. Shanahan, serving in an acting capacity.
His predecessor, Jim Mattis, resigned on December 20, 2018, effective February 2019, after failing to persuade President Donald Trump to reconsider a decision to withdraw U. S. troops from Syria. A few days Trump announced that Mattis would leave at the end of December. An Army and Marine Corps were established in 1775, in concurrence with the American Revolution; the War Department, headed by the Secretary of War, was created by Act of Congress in 1789 and was responsible for both the Army and Navy until the founding of a separate Department of the Navy in 1798. Based on the experiences of World War II, proposals were soon made on how to more manage the large combined military establishment; the Army favored centralization while the Navy had institutional preferences for decentralization and the status quo. The resulting National Security Act of 1947 was a compromise between these divergent viewpoints; the Act split the Department of War into the Department of the Army and Department of the Navy and established the National Military Establishment, presided over by the Secretary of Defense.
The Act separated the Army Air Forces from the Army to become its own branch of service, the United States Air Force. At first, each of the service secretaries maintained cabinet status; the first Secretary of Defense, James Forrestal, who in his previous capacity as Secretary of the Navy had opposed creation of the new position, found it difficult to exercise authority over the other branches with the limited powers his office had at the time. To address this and other problems, the National Security Act was amended in 1949 to further consolidate the national defense structure in order to reduce interservice rivalry, directly subordinate the Secretaries of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force to the Secretary of Defense in the chain of command, rename the National Military Establishment as the Department of Defense, making it one Executive Department; the position of the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the number two position in the department, was created at this time. The general trend since 1949 has been to further centralize management in the Department of Defense, elevating the status and authorities of civilian OSD appointees and defense-wide organizations at the expense of the military departments and the services within them.
The last major revision of the statutory framework concerning the position was done in the Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. In particular, it elevated the status of joint service for commissioned officers, making it in practice a requirement before appointments to general officer and flag officer grades could be made; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law the head of the Department of Defense, "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to Department of Defense", has "authority and control over the Department of Defense". Because the Constitution vests all military a
Council on Foreign Relations
The Council on Foreign Relations, founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U. S. foreign policy and international affairs. It is headquartered in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D. C, its membership, which numbers 4,900, has included senior politicians, more than a dozen secretaries of state, CIA directors, lawyers and senior media figures. The CFR meetings convene government officials, global business leaders and prominent members of the intelligence and foreign-policy community to discuss international issues. CFR publishes the bi-monthly journal Foreign Affairs, runs the David Rockefeller Studies Program, which influences foreign policy by making recommendations to the presidential administration and diplomatic community, testifying before Congress, interacting with the media, publishing on foreign policy issues. Towards the end of World War I, a working fellowship of about 150 scholars called "The Inquiry" was tasked to brief President Woodrow Wilson about options for the postwar world when Germany was defeated.
This academic band, including Wilson's closest adviser and long-time friend "Colonel" Edward M. House, as well as Walter Lippmann, met to assemble the strategy for the postwar world; the team produced more than 2,000 documents detailing and analyzing the political and social facts globally that would be helpful for Wilson in the peace talks. Their reports formed the basis for the Fourteen Points, which outlined Wilson's strategy for peace after war's end; these scholars traveled to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 and participated in the discussions there. As a result of discussions at the Peace Conference, a small group of British and American diplomats and scholars met on May 30, 1919 at the Hotel Majestic in Paris and decided to create an Anglo-American organization called "The Institute of International Affairs", which would have offices in London and New York. Due to the isolationist views prevalent in American society at the time, the scholars had difficulty gaining traction with their plan, turned their focus instead to a set of discreet meetings, taking place since June 1918 in New York City, under the name "Council on Foreign Relations."
The meetings were headed by the corporate lawyer Elihu Root, who had served as Secretary of State under President Theodore Roosevelt, attended by 108 “high-ranking officers of banking, manufacturing and finance companies, together with many lawyers.” The members were proponents of Wilson's internationalism, but were concerned about "the effect that the war and the treaty of peace might have on postwar business." The scholars from the inquiry saw an opportunity here to create an organization that brought diplomats, high-level government officials and academics together with lawyers and industrialists to engineer government policy. On July 29, 1921 they filed a certification of incorporation forming the Council on Foreign Relations. In 1922 Edwin F. Gay, former dean of the Harvard Business School and director of the Shipping Board during the war, spearheaded the Council's efforts to begin publication of a magazine that would be the "authoritative" source on foreign policy, he gathered $125,000 from the wealthy members on the council, via sending letters soliciting funds to "the thousand richest Americans".
Using these funds, the first issue of Foreign Affairs was published in September 1922, within a few years had gained a reputation as the "most authoritative American review dealing with international relations". In the late 1930s, the Ford Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation began contributing large amounts of money to the Council. In 1938 they created various Committees on Foreign Relations, which became governed by the American Committees on Foreign Relations in Washington, D. C. throughout the country, funded by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation. Influential men were to be chosen in a number of cities, would be brought together for discussions in their own communities as well as participating in an annual conference in New York; these local committees served to influence local leaders and shape public opinion to build support for the Council's policies, while acting as "useful listening posts" through which the Council and U. S. government could "sense the mood of the country". Beginning in 1939 and lasting for five years, the Council achieved much greater prominence within the government and the State Department, when it established the confidential War and Peace Studies, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation.
The secrecy surrounding this group was such that the Council members who were not involved in its deliberations were unaware of the study group's existence. It was divided into four functional topic groups: economic and financial and armaments, political; the security and armaments group was headed by Allen Welsh Dulles who became a pivotal figure in the CIA's predecessor, the Office of Strategic Services. The CFR produced 682 memoranda for the State Department, marked classified and circulated among the appropriate government departments. A critical study found that of 502 government officials surveyed from 1945 to 1972, more than half were members of the Council. During the Eisenhower administration 40% of the top U. S. foreign policy officials were CFR members. During the Kennedy administration, this number rose to 51%, peaked at 57% under the Johnson administration. In an anonymous piece called "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" that appeared in Foreign Affairs in 1947, CFR study group member George Kennan coined the term "containment".
Imperialism is policy or ideology of extending a nation's rule over foreign nations by military force or by gaining political and economic control of other areas. Imperialism was both normal and common worldwide throughout recorded history, the earliest examples dating from the mid-third millennium BC, diminishing only in the late 20th century. In recent times, it has been prohibited by international law. Therefore, the term is used in international propaganda to denounce an opponent's foreign policy; the term can be applied to the colonization of the Americas between the 15th and 19th centuries, as opposed to New Imperialism, which describes the expansion of Western Powers and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, both are examples of imperialism; the word imperialism originated from the Latin word imperium. It first became common with its current sense in Great Britain, during the 1870s and was used with a negative connotation; the word imperialism had been used to describe to what was perceived as Napoleon III's attempts of obtaining political support through foreign military interventions.
The term was and is applied to Western political and economic dominance in Asia and Africa, in the 19th and 20th centuries. Its precise meaning continues to be debated by scholars; some writers, such as Edward Said, use the term more broadly to describe any system of domination and subordination organised with an imperial center and a periphery. This definition encompasses both nominal empires and neocolonialism. "The word'empire' comes from the Latin word imperium. The greatest distinction of an empire is through the amount of land that a nation has conquered and expanded. Political power grows from conquering land. A distinction about empires is "that although political empires were built by expansion overland and cultural influences spread at least as much by sea"; some of the main aspects of trade that went overseas consisted of animals and plant products. European empires in Asia and Africa "have come to be seen as the classic forms of imperialism: and indeed most books on the subject confine themselves to the European seaborne empires".
European expansion caused the world to be divided by how developed and developing nation are portrayed through the world systems theory. The two main regions are the periphery; the core consists of areas of high profit. These critical theories of geo-politics have led to increased discussion of the meaning and impact of imperialism on the modern post-colonial world; the Russian leader Lenin suggested that "imperialism was the highest form of capitalism, claiming that imperialism developed after colonialism, was distinguished from colonialism by monopoly capitalism". This idea from Lenin stresses. Geopolitics now focuses on states becoming major economic players in the market; the term "imperialism" is conflated with "colonialism". Imperialism and colonialism have been used in order to describe one's perceived superiority and influence upon a person or group of people. Robert Young writes that while imperialism operates from the center, is a state policy and is developed for ideological as well as financial reasons, colonialism is the development for settlement or commercial intentions.
However, colonialism still includes invasion. Colonialism in modern usage tends to imply a degree of geographic separation between the colony and the imperial power. Edward Said distinguishes the difference between imperialism and colonialism by stating. Contiguous land empires such as the Russian or Ottoman have traditionally been excluded from discussions of colonialism, though this is beginning to change, since it is accepted that they sent populations into the territories they ruled. Imperialism and colonialism both dictate the political and economic advantage over a land and the indigenous populations they control, yet scholars sometimes find it difficult to illustrate the difference between the two. Although imperialism and colonialism focus on the suppression of an other, if colonialism refers to the process of a country taking physical control of another, imperialism refers to the political and monetary dominance, either formally or informally. Colonialism is seen to be the architect deciding how to start dominating areas and imperialism can be seen as creating the idea behind conquest cooperating with colonialism.
Colonialism is when the imperial nation begins a conquest over an area and eventually is able to rule over the areas the previous nation had controlled. Colonialism's core meaning is the exploitation of the valuable assets and supplies of the nation, conquered and the conquering nation gaining the benefits from the spoils of the war; the meaning of imperialism is to create an empire, by conquering the other state's lands and therefore increasing its own dominance. Colonialism is the builder and preserver of the colonial possessions in an area by a population coming from a for