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Woman's Christian Temperance Union

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union is an active international temperance organization, among the first organizations of women devoted to social reform with a program that "linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied Christianity." It plays an influential role in the temperance movement. The organization supported the 18th Amendment and was influential in social reform issues that came to prominence in the progressive era; the WCTU was organized on December 23, 1873, in Hillsboro and declared at a national convention in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1874. It operated at an international level and in the context of religion and reform, including missionary work and woman's suffrage. Two years after its founding, the American WCTU sponsored an international conference at which the International Women's Christian Temperance Union was formed; the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union was founded in 1883 and became the international arm of the organization, which has now affiliates in Australia, Germany, India, New Zealand, South Korea, United Kingdom, the United States, among others.

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union conducts a White Ribbon Recruit ceremony, in which babies are dedicated to the cause of temperance through a white ribbon being tied to their wrists, with their adult sponsors pledging to help the child live a life free from alcohol and other drugs. At its founding in 1874, the stated purpose of the WCTU was to create a "sober and pure world" by abstinence and evangelical Christianity. Annie Wittenmyer was its first president; the constitution of the WCTU called for "the entire prohibition of the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors as a beverage."Frances Willard, a noted feminist, was elected the WCTU's second president in 1879 and Willard grew the organization to be the largest organization of women in the world by 1890. She remained president until her death in 1898, its members were inspired by the Greek writer Xenophon, who defined temperance as "moderation in all things healthful. In other words, should something be good, it should not be indulged in to excess.

The WCTU perceived alcohol as a cause and consequence of larger social problems rather than as a personal weakness or failing. The WCTU agitated against tobacco; the American WCTU formed a "Department for the Overthrow of the Tobacco Habit" as early as 1885 and published anti-tobacco articles in the 1880s. Agitation against tobacco continued through to the 1950s; as a consequence of its stated purposes, the WCTU was very interested in a number of social reform issues, including labor, public health and international peace. As the movement grew in numbers and strength, members of the WCTU focused on suffrage; the WCTU was instrumental in organizing woman's suffrage leaders and in helping more women become involved in American politics. Local chapters, known as "unions", were autonomous, though linked to state and national headquarters. Willard pushed for the "Home Protection" ballot, arguing that women, being the morally superior sex, needed the vote in order to act as "citizen-mothers" and protect their homes and cure society's ills.

At a time when suffragists were viewed as radicals and alienated most American women, the WCTU offered a more traditionally feminine and "appropriate" organization for women to join. Although the WCTU had chapters throughout North America with hundreds of thousands of members, the "Christian" in its title was limited to those with an evangelical Protestant conviction and the importance of their role has been noted; the goal of evangelizing the world, according to this model, meant that few Catholics, Muslims, Buddhists or Hindus were attracted to it, "even though the last three had a pronounced cultural and religious preference for abstinence". As the WCTU grew internationally, it developed various approaches that helped with the inclusion of women of religions other than Christianity. But, it was always and still is, a Christian women's organization; the WCTU's work extended across a range of efforts to bring about social moral reform. In the 1880s it worked on creating legislation to protect working girls from the exploitation of men, including raising Age of Consent laws.

It focused on keeping Sundays as Sabbath days and restrict frivolous activities. In 1901 the WCTU said; the WCTU wanted to aid immigrants coming into the United States through "Americanization" activities. Between 1900 and 1920, much of their budget was given to their center on Ellis Island, which helped to start the Americanization process; the WCTU promoted the idea that immigrants were more prone to alcoholism than Native Americans, focusing on Irish and German immigrant communities as the source of the problem. The WCTU was concerned about trying to alleviate poverty, through abstinence from alcohol. Through journal articles, the WCTU tried to prove. A fictional story in one of their journal articles illustrates this fact: Ned has applied for a job, but he is not chosen, he finds. Jack is a kindly man but he spends his money on drink and cigarettes. Ned has been seen drinking and smoking; the employer thinks that Ned Fisher lacks the necessary traits of industriousness which he associates with abstinence and self-control.

The Woman's Christian Temp

Guo Feixiong

Guo Feixiong is the pen name of Yang Maodong, a Chinese human rights lawyer from Guangdong province, identified with the Weiquan movement. Guo is known as a dissident writer and "barefoot lawyer", who has worked on several controversial issues to defend the rights of marginalized groups. Prior to his 2006 imprisonment, Guo worked as a legal advisor to the Shanghai Shengzhi Law Firm. In 2005 and 2006, human rights groups reported that Guo was taken into custody and beaten on multiple occasions for his human rights advocacy, including his work on the Taishi village standoff; the beating of Guo Feixiong was one of the catalysts behind a rolling nationwide hunger strike organized by Guo's friend and associate Gao Zhisheng. Guo was arrested on 30 September 2006 and detained on charges of "illegal business activity" connection with the publication of a book on a political scandal in Liaoning province, Shenyang Political Earthquake. After being held in pre-trial detention for 17 months, he was sentenced to five years of imprisonment at the Meizhou Prison on 14 November 2007 in what was characterized as a "trial marked with serious procedural irregularities."

In addition to his sentence, Guo was fined 40,000 yuan. Family members reported that Guo was tortured in custody, deprived of sleep, shocked with electric batons. Guo was released on 13 September 2011, stated that he remained committed to the cause of human rights advocacy. On 8 August 2013, Guo was again arrested on suspicion of "gathering a crowd to disrupt order in a public place". On 10 December 2013, the Tianhe District Branch of the Guangzhou Municipal Public Security Bureau recommended that Guo be indicted for the crime of "gathering a crowd to disrupt order in a public place", along with Sun Desheng, another activist. On 29 October 2013, the United States House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations held a hearing on the circumstances surrounding China's detention of Guo Feixiong. Guo is the recipient of the 2015 Front Line Defenders Award for Human Rights Defenders at Risk. Weiquan movement

Atrocity (band)

Atrocity is a German heavy metal band from Ludwigsburg that formed in 1985. First started in 1985 as Instigators and playing grindcore, Atrocity arose as a death metal band with their debut EP, Blue Blood, in 1989, followed soon by Hallucinations, a concept album about drug use, their second album, ventured into death metal classics with a cover of "Archangel" by the band Death. Their musical scope broadened over the years, incorporating medieval and horror influences on their 1994 Dracula-based concept album Atrocity's Blut. Atrocity's Blut was followed by Calling the Rain, an MCD with female vocals by guest singer Yasmin Krull and acoustic music; the 1996 release Willenskraft introduced industrial elements, with the special bonus CD of the album's special edition including electronic remixes of the songs. The releases were less and less metallic. Unusual MCD-releases and experimental songs like "Lili Marlene" covers estranged many of their original metal fans. After 2000, nothing seemed to have disbanded.

However, they returned after four years with a new concept album, centered on the myths of the sunken continent of Atlantis. The album features the vocals of Alexander's wife, Liv-Kristine Espanaes Krull; the band members formed the atmospheric metal band Leaves' Eyes, which features Liv Kristine as lead singer. The release of the eleventh album After the Storm in 2010 started a new era for the band in the Ethno Metal genre. Yasmin Krull returned a second time as guest instrumentalist for the project. On 11 November 2007, Atrocity announced that bassist Chris Lukhaup was leaving the band for personal reasons and that drummer Moritz Neuner was taking another turn in his working career. Seven Antonopolous was named as the new drummer in late October 2008. Alexander Krull - vocals, samples Thorsten Bauer - guitars, bass Joris Nijenhuis - drums Pete Streit - guitars René Tometschek - bass Gernot Winkler - drums Mathias Röderer - guitars Frank Knodel - guitars Oliver Klasen - bass Michael Schwarz - drums Richard Scharf - guitars Markus Knapp - bass Christian Lukhaup - bass Martin Schmidt - drums Moritz Neuner - drums Alla Fedynitch - bass Seven Antonopoulos - drums Nicholas Barker - drums JB van der Wal - bass Roland Navratil - drums Sander van der Meer - guitars 1990: Hallucinations 1992: Todessehnsucht 1994: Blut 1996: Willenskraft 2000: Gemini 2004: Atlantis 2010: After the Storm 2013: Okkult 2018: Okkult II 1995: Calling the Rain 1995: Die Liebe 1996: Kraft & Wille 1997: Werk 80 1999: Non Plus Ultra: 1989-1999 2008: Werk 80 II 2012: Die Gottlosen Jahre 1988: Instigators 1993: Promo'93 1996: The Hunt 1996: The Definition of Kraft and Wille 2017: Masters of Darkness 2019: Spell of Blood Official website Atrocity at Napalm Records

Michel Arrivé

Michel Arrivé was a French novelist, short story writer and academic. He was a Professor of Linguistics and Semiotics at Paris Nanterre University from 1983 to 2006, he authored short stories. Michel Arrivé was born on 7 December 1936 in Neuilly-sur-Seine near Paris, his father was an engineer and his mother was a schoolteacher. His father was arrested in 1940, Arrivé was raised by his extended family during the war. Arrivé earned his Baccalauréat at 16, he passed Khâgne at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand and earned the agrégation at 21. Arrivé began his career as a high school teacher in Pontoise, he subsequently became Frédéric Deloffre's assistant at the University of Paris. He taught linguistics at the University of Tours, until he became a Professor of Linguistics and Semiotics at Paris Nanterre University in 1983, he retired in 2006. During the course of his career, he published academic research about Alfred Jarry, Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Ferdinand de Saussure. Arrivé was a novelist and short story writer in 1977.

Arrivé got married at 19 and had his first child at 20. He died on 3 April 2017 in Saint-Cloud near Paris. Arrivé, Michel. Lire Jarry. Brussels: Éditions Complexe. ISBN 9782870270042. OCLC 848501836. Arrivé, Michel. Linguistique et psychanalyse: Freud, Hjelmslev, Lacan et les autres. Paris: Méridiens/Klincksieck. ISBN 9782865631605. OCLC 642211196. Arrivé, Michel. Langage et psychanalyse, linguistique et inconscient. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 9782130464648. OCLC 231640366. Arrivé, Michel. À la recherche de Ferdinand de Saussure. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 9782130559702. OCLC 237134934. Arrivé, Michel. Du côté de chez Saussure. Limoges: Lambert-Lucas. ISBN 9782915806885. OCLC 602011289. Arrivé, Michel. L'Éphémère ou la mort comme elle va. Paris: Méridiens Klincksieck. ISBN 9782865632237. OCLC 490028123. Arrivé, Michel. Les Remembrances du vieillard idiot. Paris: Flammarion. ISBN 9782080640024. OCLC 461828897. Arrivé, Michel. La Réduction de peine. Paris: Flammarion. ISBN 9782080641120. OCLC 5241561.

Arrivé, Michel. L'Horloge sans balancier. Paris: Flammarion. ISBN 9782080645821. OCLC 417154902. Arrivé, Michel. Une très vieille petite fille. Seyssel: Editions Champ Vallon. ISBN 9782876734470. OCLC 421526748. Arrivé, Michel. La Walkyrie et le professeur. Seyssel: Editions Champ Vallon. ISBN 9782876734685. OCLC 173671452. Arrivé, Michel. Un bel immeuble. Seyssel: Editions Champ Vallon. ISBN 9782876735224. OCLC 631751867. Arrivé, Michel. L'Homme qui achetait les rêves. Seyssel: Editions Champ Vallon. ISBN 9782876735606

St Paul's Church, Brookhouse

St Paul's Church is in the village of Brookhouse, Caton-with-Littledale, England. It is an active Anglican parish church in the deanery of Tunstall, the archdeaconry of Lancaster, the diocese of Blackburn; the church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building. The earliest record of a church or chapel on the site is before 1230; the tower dates from the 16th century. The rest of the church was rebuilt in 1865–67 to a design by the Lancaster architect E. G. Paley, its estimated cost was £4,000. Paley worshipped in the church, as he had a country house nearby, when his son Harry died, he was buried in the churchyard; the church is constructed with a slate roof. Its plan consists of a four-bay nave with a clerestory and south aisles, a south porch, a north transept containing the organ chamber, a chancel at a lower level, a west tower; the tower is Perpendicular in style, has three stages, diagonal buttresses, an embattled parapet. On the west side is a doorway, over, a three-light window with Perpendicular tracery.

The bell openings have three lights. On the south side of the church is the porch, with four bays to the east; the bays are separated by buttresses and each contains a three-light window with Perpendicular tracery. To the left of the easternmost window is a priest's door. Along the clerestory are four windows; the east window has three lights with Perpendicular tracery. In the west wall of the north aisle is a blocked Norman doorway containing a tympanum carved with human figures, it is filled in with medieval cross slabs. The four-bay arcades are carried on octagonal piers; the reredos is a copy of an Annunciation by Filippo Lippi, carved by a local artist. Its gilded frame was made by Hunt; some of the stained glass is by Shrigley and Hunt, with other windows by Abbott and Company. Some of the memorials have been moved from the earlier church; the earliest of these date from 1775 and 1795, the others dating from the early and mid-19th century. The organ was built by Conacher. Grade II* listed buildings in Lancashire Listed buildings in Caton-with-Littledale List of ecclesiastical works by E. G. Paley Citations Sources


Slidex was a hand-held, paper-based encryption system used at a low, front line level in the British Army during the Cold War period. It was replaced by the BATCO tactical code, which, in turn has been made obsolete by the Bowman secure voice radios. Slidex used a series of vocabulary cards arranged in a grid of 17 columns; each of the 204 resulting cells has a phrase, as well as a letter or number. The latter allowed the system to transmit numbers; the cards were stored in a folding case. Messages were encrypted and decrypted using code strips that could be placed in holder along the top and left side of the vocabulary card. Blank vocabulary cards were provided to allow units to create a word set for a specific mission. Encryption algorithm Military intelligence "The Slidex RT Code", Cryptologia 8, April 1984 Photographs and description of Slidex Photographs of Slidex