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Women's rights

Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, which formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the 19th century and feminist movement during the 20th century. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, behavior, whereas in others they are ignored and suppressed, they differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls, in favor of men and boys. Issues associated with notions of women's rights include the right to bodily integrity and autonomy. Women in ancient Sumer could buy, own and inherit property, they could engage in commerce, testify in court as witnesses. Nonetheless, their husbands could divorce them for mild infractions, a divorced husband could remarry another woman, provided that his first wife had borne him no offspring. Female deities, such as Inanna, were worshipped; the Akkadian poetess Enheduanna, the priestess of Inanna and daughter of Sargon, is the earliest known poet whose name has been recorded.

Old Babylonian law codes permitted a husband to divorce his wife under any circumstances, but doing so required him to return all of her property and sometimes pay her a fine. Most law codes forbade a woman to request her husband for a divorce and enforced the same penalties on a woman asking for divorce as on a woman caught in the act of adultery; the majority of East Semitic deities were male. In ancient Egypt, women enjoyed the same rights under the law as a man, however rightful entitlements depended upon social class. Landed property descended in the female line from mother to daughter, women were entitled to administer their own property. Women in ancient Egypt could buy, sell, be a partner in legal contracts, be executor in wills and witness to legal documents, bring court action, adopt children. Women during the early Vedic period enjoyed equal status with men in all aspects of life. Works by ancient Indian grammarians such as Patanjali and Katyayana suggest that women were educated in the early Vedic period.

Rigvedic verses suggest that women married at a mature age and were free to select their own husbands in a practice called swayamvar or live-in relationship called Gandharva marriage. Although most women lacked political and equal rights in the city states of ancient Greece, they enjoyed a certain freedom of movement until the Archaic age. Records exist of women in ancient Delphi, Thessaly and Sparta owning land, the most prestigious form of private property at the time. However, after the Archaic age, legislators began to enact laws enforcing gender segregation, resulting in decreased rights for women. Women in Classical Athens had no legal personhood and were assumed to be part of the oikos headed by the male kyrios; until marriage, women were under the guardianship of other male relative. Once married, the husband became a woman's kyrios; as women were barred from conducting legal proceedings, the kyrios would do so on their behalf. Athenian women could only acquire rights over property through gifts and inheritance, though her kyrios had the right to dispose of a woman's property.

Athenian women could only enter into a contract worth less than the value of a "medimnos of barley", allowing women to engage in petty trading. Women were excluded both in principle and in practice. Slaves could become Athenian citizens after being freed, but no woman acquired citizenship in ancient Athens. In classical Athens women were barred from becoming poets, politicians, or artists. During the Hellenistic period in Athens, the philosopher Aristotle thought that women would bring disorder and evil, therefore it was best to keep women separate from the rest of the society; this separation would entail living in a room called a gynaikeion, while looking after the duties in the home and having little exposure with the male world. This was to ensure that wives only had legitimate children from their husbands. Athenian women received little education, except home tutorship for basic skills such as spin, weave and some knowledge of money. Although Spartan women were formally excluded from military and political life they enjoyed considerable status as mothers of Spartan warriors.

As men engaged in military activity, women took responsibility for running estates. Following protracted warfare in the 4th century BC Spartan women-owned between 35% and 40% of all Spartan land and property. By the Hellenistic Period, some of the wealthiest Spartans were women. Spartan women controlled their own properties, as well as the properties of male relatives who were away with the army. Girls, as well as boys, received an education, but despite greater freedom of movement for Spartan women, their role in politics was just as the same as Athenian women. Plato acknowledged that extending civil and political rights to women would substantively alter the nature of the household and the state. Aristotle, taught by Plato, denied that women were slaves or subject to property, arguing that "nature has distinguished between the female and the slave", but he considered wives to be "bought", he argued that women's main economic activity is that of safeguarding the household property created by men.

According to Aristotle the


Maurício Poggi Villela known as Mauricinho is a former football striker who played professionally in Brazil, Japan and Spain. Born in Ribeirão Preto, Mauricinho began playing football with local side Comercial Futebol Clube, he appeared in more than 100 Campeonato Brasileiro matches while playing for CR Vasco da Gama, Clube Atlético Bragantino, Clube do Remo and Botafogo de Futebol e Regatas. In September 1989, Mauricinho signed with RCD Espanyol, where he would only make four Segunda División appearances before the club released him in December 1989. Mauricinho played for the Brazil team, he was named in the team of the tournament. That year, Mauricinho made an appearance for Brazil at the 1983 Pan American Games. Profile at

North Dakota Highway 1806

North Dakota Highway 1806 is a state highway in the U. S. state of North Dakota. ND 1806 and ND 1804 were named to reflect the years of Lewis and Clark's travels through the area, run along the southwest and northeast sides of the Missouri River, respectively. ND 1806 consists of four separate segments, running along Lake Sakakawea and the Missouri River in McKenzie, Mercer, Oliver and Sioux Counties. Within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in Sioux County, ND 1806 forms the northern segment of the Native American Scenic Byway, a national scenic byway. Other sections of the highway are known as part of the Clark Trail; the westernmost segment begins east of Watford City on North Dakota Highway 23, runs north its northern terminus at the Tobacco Gardens Recreation Area on the southern shore of Lake Sakakawea. The next segment of ND 1806 begins a few miles east-southeast of Tobacco Gardens and heads east before turning south and passing through Charlson; the southern end of this segment ends at ND 23.

The third segment runs east-west, begins at ND 8 between Halliday and Twin Buttes. This segment parallels the southern shore of Lake Sakakawea before ending at ND 200 southwest of Pick City; the fourth and final segment of ND 1806 is north-south, with its northern end near the Oliver-Morton county border north of Mandan. The highway intersects Interstate 94 and passes through downtown Mandan before following the Missouri River south through Morton County and onto the Standing Rock Indian Reservation; the highway is concurrent with North Dakota Highway 24 for much of its length in Sioux County, breaks with Highway 24 north of the North Dakota/South Dakota border. After entering South Dakota, the highway continues as South Dakota Highway 1806. In October 2016, protest activity on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation related to the Dakota Access Pipeline caused the highway to be shut down indefinitely between ND 24 and Fort Rice by the Morton County Sheriff's Department; the Backwater Bridge on ND 1806 served as the site of conflict between protesters and law enforcement, with protesters barricading themselves on the bridge and burning cars.

The entire section is in McKenzie County. The entire section is in McKenzie County

Alexander Grebenshchikov

Aleksandr Vasil'evich Grebenshchikov was a Soviet scholar of the Tungusic languages. He was interested in the origin and development of Manchu writing, he attended the Oriental Institute in Vladivostok beginning in 1902, where he was educated as a Sinologist, upon his graduation in 1907 began working as an instructor there. From 1908 until 1927 he made a number of trips to Northeast China to perform fieldwork, his focus on his work in collecting Manchu folklore led him to miss out on the extent of language shift to Chinese among the Manchu people. He moved to Leningrad in 1935 to work with the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. In 1936, he established the Manchu studies section of the IOS, became its first chairman, with B. I. Pankratov, K. M. Cheremisov, V. A. Zhebrovsky working under him, he died during the Siege of Leningrad. He was survived by his wife N. A. Grebenshchikova, who donated his personal archives to the IOS. Grebenshschikov was one of the last of the early 20th-century Soviet scholars of Manchu to have done his undergraduate education in Sinology.

His works on Tungusic languages numbered more than 50, including publication of his еarly collected manuscripts of some important Manchu oral folklore such as the Tale of the Nisan Shaman. Konakov, A. P. "Манчжуристика в россии и в СССР", Известия академии наук союза ССР: отделение литературы и языка, 6: 417–424 Pang, T. A. "Rare Manchu manuscripts from the collection of the St. Petersburg branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences", Manuscripta Orientala, 1: 33–46 Маньчжуроведение в Санкт-Петербургском Филиале Института Востоковедения Российской Академии Наук, St. Petersburg: Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2005-11-05, retrieved 2009-12-15

Edwards equation

The Edwards equation in organic chemistry is a two-parameter equation for correlating nucleophilic reactivity, as defined by relative rate constants, with the basicity of the nucleophile and its polarizability. This equation was first developed by John O. Edwards in 1954 and revised based on additional work in 1956; the general idea is that most nucleophiles are good bases because the concentration of negatively charged electron density that defines a nucleophile will attract positively charged protons, the definition of a base according to Brønsted–Lowry acid-base theory. Additionally polarizable nucleophiles will have greater nucleophilic character than suggested by their basicity because their electron density can be shifted with relative ease to concentrate in one area. Prior to Edwards developing his equation, other scientists were working to define nucleophilicity quantitatively. Brønsted and Pederson first discovered the relationship between basicity, with respect to protons, nucleophilicity in 1924: where log ⁡ k B = β n p K b + C where kb is the rate constant for nitramide decomposition by a base and βN is a parameter of the equation.

Swain and Scott tried to define a more specific and quantitative relationship by correlating nucleophilic data with a single-parameter equation derived in 1953: log 10 ⁡ = s n This equation relates the rate constant k, of a reaction, normalized to that of a standard reaction with water as the nucleophile, to a nucleophilic constant n for a given nucleophile and a substrate constant s that depends on the sensitivity of a substrate to nucleophilic attack. This equation was modeled after the Hammett equation. However, both the Swain–Scott equation and the Brønsted relationship make the rather inaccurate assumption that all nucleophiles have the same reactivity with respect to a specific reaction site. There are several different categories of nucleophiles with different attacking atoms and each of these atoms has different nucleophilic characteristics; the Edwards equation attempts to account for this additional parameter by introducing a polarizability term. The first generation of the Edwards equation was log ⁡ k k 0 = α E n + β H where k and k0 are the rate constants for a nucleophile and a standard.

H is a measure of the basicity of the nucleophile relative to protons, as defined by the equation: H = p K a + 1.74 where the pKa is that of the conjugate acid of the nucleophile and the constant 1.74 is the correction for the pKa of H3O+. En is the term, it is related to the oxidation potential of the reaction 2 X − ⇌ X 2 + 2 e − by the equation: E n = E 0 + 2.60 where 2.60 is the correction for the oxidative dimerization of water, obtained from a least-squares correlation of data in Edwards’ first paper on the subject. Α and β are parameters unique to specific nucleophiles that relate the sensitivity of the substrate to the basicity and polarizability factors. However, because some β’s appeared to be negative as defined by the first generation of the Edwards equation, which theoretically should not occur, Edwards adjusted his equation; the term En was determined to have some dependence on the basicity relative to protons due to some factors that affect basicity influencing the electrochemical properties of the nucleophile.

To account for this, En was redefined in terms of basicity and polarizability: E n = a P + b H where P ≡ log ⁡ R N R H 2 0 The values of a and b, obtained by the method of least squares, are 3.60 and 0.0624 respectively. With this new definition of En, the Edwards equation can be rearranged: log ⁡ k k 0 = A P + B H where A= αa and B = β + αb. However, because the second generation of the equation was the final one, the equation is sometimes written as log ⁡ k k 0 = α P + β H since it was republished in that form in a paper of Edwards’, leading to confusion over which parameters are being defined. A paper by Edwards and Pearson, following research done by Jencks and Carriuolo in 1960 led to the discovery of an additional

Andrei Grechko

Andrei Antonovich Grechko was a Soviet general, Marshal of the Soviet Union and Minister of Defense. Born in a small town near Rostov-on-Don on 17 October 1903, the son of Ukrainian peasants, he joined the Red Army in 1919, where he was a part of the "Budyonny Cavalry". After the Russian Civil War, Grechko was enrolled into the 6th Cavalry College in the city of Taganrog, which he graduated in 1926, he joined the Communist Party in 1928, graduated from the Frunze Military Academy in 1936. He next attended the Soviet General Staff Academy, graduating in 1941, just a few weeks before the beginning of Operation Barbarossa. Grechko's first command during the second world war was of the 34th Cavalry Division, which put up a valiant fight around Kremenchug in the Ukraine. On 15 January 1942, Grechko was put in command of the entire V Cavalry Corps. Starting 15 April 1942 and lasting until 16 October 1943, Grechko was placed in command of 12th Army, 47th Army, 18th Army, 56th Army. All of these units were part of the North Caucasus Front, Grechko led them all with distinction.

In October 1943, Grechko was promoted to Deputy Commander-in-Chief of 1st Ukrainian Front. On 14 December 1943, he was made the Commanding General of 1st Guards Army, a position he held until the end of the war; the First Guards Army was a part of the 4th Ukrainian Front, led by Col.-Gen. I. E. Petrov. Grechko led the 1st Guards in a number of offensive operations, predominantly in Hungary and into Austria. After the war, Grechko was the Commanding General of the Kiev Military District, until 1953. Between 1953 and 1957, Grechko was the Commander-in-Chief of Soviet Forces in East Germany. On 11 March 1955, along with five other high-ranking colleagues, all of whom had gained recognition during World War II, was promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union. From 1957-1960, Grechko was the Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces, from 1960–1967, he was the Commander-in-Chief of the Warsaw Pact Forces). On 12 April 1967, Grechko was made the Minister of Defense, taking over shortly after Marshal Rodion Malinovsky died.

Grechko served in this capacity until his death in 1976. During the 1970s, Grechko served as the chairman of the editorial commission that produced the official Soviet history of the Second World War. Grechko was an active member in the Communist Party, was a member of the Politburo; as Minister of Defense, Grechko helped modernize the Soviet Army, was responsible for maintaining the military strength of the Soviet state. As Defense minister, Grechko's most notable idea was his assumption that a Third World War would always go nuclear at some point, as such he planned that if World War III did begin, to launch all-out nuclear strikes against the NATO nations the moment that the war began. For Grechko, nuclear weapons would be weapons of first resort in a world war, not weapons of last resort; the urn containing his ashes is buried by the Kremlin Wall Necropolis. Hero of the Soviet Union, twice Six Orders of Lenin Order of the Red Banner, three times Order of Suvorov, 1st class, twice, 2nd class Order of Kutuzov, 1st class, twice Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, 1st class Honorary weapon with gold National Emblem of the Soviet Union Jubilee Medal "In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary since the Birth of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin" Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus" Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945" Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945" Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy" Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" Hero of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Virtuti Militari, 1st class Cross of Grunwald, 1st class Order of Klement Gottwald