Women in film
Women in film describes the role of women as film directors, cinematographers, film producers, film critics, other film industry professions. The work of women in film criticism and scholarship, including feminist film theorists, is described. Women have statistically underrepresented in creative positions in the film industry. Most English-language academic study and media coverage focuses on the issue within the US film industry, however inequalities exist in other countries; this underrepresentation has been called the "celluloid ceiling", a variant on the employment discrimination term "glass ceiling". Women have always had a presence in film acting, but have been underrepresented, on average less well paid. On the other hand, many key roles in filmmaking were for many decades done entirely by men, such as directors and cinematographers. In modern times, women have made contributions to many of these fields; the 2013 Celluloid Ceiling Report conducted by the Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film at San Diego State University collected a list of statistics gathered from "2,813 individuals employed by the 250 top domestic grossing films of 2012."Women accounted for... "18% of all directors, executive producers, writers and editors.
This reflected no change from 2011 and only a 1% increase from 1998." "9% of all directors." "15% of writers." "25% of all producers." "20% of all editors." "2% of all cinematographers." "38% of films employed 0 or 1 woman in the roles considered, 23% employed 2 women, 28% employed 3 to 5 women, 10% employed 6 to 9 women."A New York Times article stated that only 15% of the top films in 2013 had women for a lead acting role. The author of the study noted that, "The percentage of female speaking roles has not increased much since the 1940s, when they hovered around 25 percent to 28 percent." "Since 1998, women’s representation in behind-the-scenes roles other than directing has gone up just 1 percent." Women "...directed the same percent of the 250 top-grossing films in 2012 as they did in 1998."In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female... This means it’s much rarer for women to get the sort of blockbuster role which would warrant the massive backend deals many male counterparts demand".
In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male’s dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that." Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes’ list of top-paid actors for that year made 2½ times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." Studies have shown that "...age and gender discrimination can yield an more significant wage gap." Young women actresses tend to make more than young male actors. However, "older actors make more than their female equals" in age, with "female movie stars mak the most money on average per film at age 34, while male stars earn the most at 51." According to actress Jennifer Lawrence, "...women negotiating for higher pay worry about seeming'difficult' or'spoiled.'"
2019 Update According to the Study of Women in Television and Film at San Diego State University, male characters continued to control on the big screen in 2018. - about only 35% of films contained 10 or more female characters in dialogue roles today, - about 82% had 10 or more male characters in speaking roles, unfair. It has only increase 1 percentage point from 34% since 2017; the percentage of highest grossing films featuring female protagonists increased to 31% in 2018 but before it was 37% in 2017. This shows how Women in Media are being seeing less. -Black females increased from 16% in 2017 to 21% in 2018 - Latinas decreased from 7% in 2017 to 4% in 2018 - Asian females increased from 7% in 2017 to 10% in 2018. Women's cinema film directors and, to a lesser degree, the work of other women behind the camera such as cinematographers and screenwriters. Although the work of women film editors, costume designers, production designers is not considered to be decisive enough to justify the term "women's cinema", it does have a large influence on the visual impression of any movie.
Some of the most distinguished women directors have tried to avoid the association with women's cinema in the fear of marginalization and ideological controversy. Alice Guy-Blaché made the first narrative film La Fée aux Choux in 1896. In Sweden, Anna Hofman-Uddgren debuted as the first female film director when she produced the silent film Stockholmsfrestelser in 1911. Lois Weber was a successful film director of the silent era. Women screenwriters included Anita Loos and June Mathis. In the 1920s, large banks assumed control of Hollywood production companies. Dorothy Arzner was the only woman filmmaker in this era. Germaine Dulac was a leading member of the French avant-garde film movement after World War I and Maya Deren did experimental cinema. Shirley Clarke was an independent American filmmaker in the 1950s; the National Film Board of Canada allowed many women to produce non-commercial films. Joyce Wieland was a Canadian experimental film maker. Early feminist films focused on personal experiences.
Wanda by Barbara Loden is a portrait of alienation. Resisting the oppressi
Women in philosophy
Women have engaged in philosophy throughout the field's history. While there were women philosophers since ancient times, a small number were accepted as philosophers during the ancient, medieval and contemporary eras during the 20th and 21st century no woman philosophers have entered the philosophical Western canon. In ancient philosophy in the West, while academic philosophy was the domain of male philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle, female philosophers such as Hipparchia of Maroneia, Arete of Cyrene and Aspasia of Miletus were active during this period. Notable medieval philosophers include St. Hildegard of Bingen and St. Catherine of Sienna. Notable modern philosophers included Sarah Margaret Fuller. Influential contemporary philosophers include Susanne Langer, Hannah Arendt, Simone de Beauvoir, Mary Midgley, Mary Warnock, Julia Kristeva, Patricia Churchland and Susan Haack. In the early 1800s, some colleges and universities in the UK and US began admitting women, giving rise to new generations of female academics.
U. S. Department of Education reports from the 1990s indicate that philosophy is one of the least proportionate fields in the humanities with respect to gender. Women make up as little as 17% of philosophy faculty in some studies. In 2014, Inside Higher Education described the philosophy "...discipline’s own long history of misogyny and sexual harassment" of women students and professors. Jennifer Saul, a professor of philosophy at the University of Sheffield, stated in 2015 that women are "...leaving philosophy after being harassed, assaulted, or retaliated against."In the early 1990s, the Canadian Philosophical Association claimed that there is gender imbalance and gender bias in the academic field of philosophy. In June 2013, a US sociology professor stated that "out of all recent citations in four prestigious philosophy journals, female authors comprise just 3.6 percent of the total." The editors of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy have raised concerns about the underrepresentation of women philosophers, they require editors and writers to ensure they represent the contributions of women philosophers.
According to Eugene Sun Park, "hilosophy is predominantly white and predominantly male. This homogeneity exists in all aspects and at all levels of the discipline." Susan Price argues that the philosophical "...canon remains dominated by white males—the discipline that...still hews to the myth that genius is tied to gender." According to Saul, "hilosophy, the oldest of the humanities, is the malest. While other areas of the humanities are at or near gender parity, philosophy is more overwhelmingly male than mathematics." In the early 1990s, the Canadian Philosophical Association claimed that "...there is compelling evidence" of "...philosophy’s gender imbalance" and "bias and partiality in many of its theoretical products." In 1992, the association recommended that "fifty percent of...positions should be filled by women.” In a 2008 article “Changing the Ideology and Culture of Philosophy: Not by Reason,” MIT philosophy professor Sally Haslanger stated that the top twenty graduate programs in philosophy in the US have from 4 percent to 36 percent women faculty.
In June 2013, Duke University professor of sociology Kieran Healy stated that "out of all recent citations in four prestigious philosophy journals, female authors comprise just 3.6 percent of the total." The editors of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy have raised concerns about the underrepresentation of women philosophers. The article states that a "...number of philosophers attribute the underrepresentation of women in philosophy to bias against women or some kind of wrongful discrimination". Evidence cited includes "gender disparities that increase along the path from undergraduate student to full-time faculty member". Sesardic and De Clercq argue that "proponents of the discrimination hypothesis, who include distinguished philosophers...have tended to present evidence selectively."American philosopher Sally Haslanger stated in 2008 that "...it is hard to find a place in philosophy that isn’t hostile towards women and minorities, or at least assumes that a successful philosopher should look and act like a man.”
Haslanger states that she experienced “occasions when a woman’s status in graduate school was questioned because she was married, or had a child, or was in a long-distance relationship". American philosopher Martha Nussbaum, who completed a PhD in philosophy at Harvard University in 1975, alleges that she encountered a tremendous amount of discrimination during her studies at Harvard, including sexual harassment and pro
Women in STEM fields
Many scholars and policymakers have noted that the fields of science, technology and mathematics have remained predominantly male with low participation among women since their origins during the Age of Enlightenment. Scholars are exploring the various reasons for the continued existence of this gender disparity in STEM fields; those who view this disparity as resulting from discriminatory forces are seeking ways to redress this disparity within STEM fields. Some proponents view diversity as an inherent human good, wish to increase diversity for its own sake, regardless of its historical origin or present cause. Studies suggest that many factors contribute to the attitudes towards the achievement of young men in mathematics and science, including encouragement from parents, interactions with mathematics and science teachers, curriculum content, hands-on laboratory experiences, high school achievement in mathematics and science, resources available at home. In the United States, research findings are mixed concerning when boys' and girls' attitudes about mathematics and science diverge.
Analyzing several nationally representative longitudinal studies, one researcher found few differences in girls' and boys' attitudes towards science in the early secondary school years. Students' aspirations to pursue careers in mathematics and science influence both the courses they choose to take in those areas and the level of effort they put forth in these courses. A 1996 USA study suggested girls begin to lose self-confidence in middle school because they believe that men possess more intelligence in technological fields; the fact that men outperform women in spatial analysis, a skillset many engineering professionals deem vital, generates this misconception. Feminist scholars postulate that boys are more to gain spatial skills outside the classroom because they are culturally encouraged to build and work with their hands. Research shows. A 1996 USA study of college freshmen by the Higher Education Research Institute shows that men and women differ in their intended fields of study. Of first-time college freshmen in 1996, 20 percent of men and 4 percent of women planned to major in computer science and engineering, while similar percentages of men and women planned to major in biology or physical sciences.
The differences in the intended majors between male and female first-time freshmen directly relate to the differences in the fields in which men and women earn their degree. At the post-secondary level, women are less than men to earn a degree in mathematics, physical sciences, or computer sciences and engineering; the exception to this gender imbalance is in the field of life science. In Scotland, a large number of women graduate in STEM subjects but fail to move onto a STEM career compared to men; the Royal Society of Edinburgh estimates that doubling women's high-skill contributions to Scotland's economy would benefit it by £170 million per annum. Female college graduates earned less on average than male college graduates though they shared the earnings growth of all college graduates in the 1980s; some of the differences in salary are related to the differences in occupations entered by women and men. Among recent science and engineering bachelor's degree recipients, women were less than men to be employed in science and engineering occupations.
There remains a wage gap between women in comparable scientific positions. Among more experienced scientists and engineers, the gender gap in salaries is greater than for recent graduates. Salaries are highest in mathematics, computer science, engineering, which are fields in which women are not represented. In Australia, a study conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics has shown that the current gender wage gap between men and women in STEM fields in Australia stands at 30.1 percent as of 2013, an increase of 3 percent since 2012. In addition, according to a study done by Moss, when faculty members of top research institutions in America were asked to recruit student applicants for a laboratory manager position, both men and women faculty members rated the male applicants as more hireable and competent for the position, as opposed to the female applicants who shared an identical resume with the male applicants. In the Moss study, faculty members were willing to give the male applicants a higher starting salary and career mentoring opportunities.
The percentage of PhDs in STEM fields in the U. S. earned by women is about 42%, whereas the percentage of PhDs in all fields earned by women is about 52%. Stereotypes and educational differences can lead to the decline of women in STEM fields; these differences start as early as the third grade according to Thomas Dee, with boys advancing in math and science and girls advancing in reading. UNESCO, among other agencies including the European Commission and The Association of Academies and Societies of Sciences in Asia, have been outspoken about the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields globally. Despite their efforts to compile and interpret comparative statistics, it is necessary to exercise caution. Ann Hibner Koblitz has commented on the obstacles regarding the making of meaningful statistical comparisons between countries: For a variety of reasons, it is difficult to obtain reliable data on international comparisons of women in STEM fields. Aggregate figures do not tell us much since terminology describing educational levels, content of majors, job categories, other markers varies from country to country.
When different countries use the same definitions of terms, the social significance
Women's writing (literary category)
The academic discipline of Women's Writing as a discrete area of literary studies is based on the notion that the experience of women has been shaped by their gender, so women writers by definition are a group worthy of separate study: "Their texts emerge from and intervene in conditions very different from those which produced most writing by men." It is not a question of the subject matter or political stance of a particular author, but of her gender, i.e. her position as a woman within the literary world. Women's writing, as a discrete area of literary studies and practice, is recognized explicitly by the numbers of dedicated journals, organizations and conferences which focus or on texts produced by women. Women's writing as an area of study has been developing since the 1970s; the majority of English and American literature programmes offer courses on specific aspects of literature by women, women's writing is considered an area of specialization in its own right. The broader discussion women's cultural contributions as a separate category has a long history, but the specific study of women's writing as a distinct category of scholarly interest is recent.
There are examples in the 18th century of catalogues of women writers, including George Ballard's Memoirs of Several Ladies of Great Britain Who Have Been Celebrated for their Writing or Skill in the Learned Languages and Sciences. Women have been treated as a distinct category by various misogynist writings best exemplified by Richard Polwhele's The Unsex'd Females, a critique in verse of women writers at the end of the 18th century with a particular focus on Mary Wollstonecraft and her circle. Earlier discussion of women's broader cultural contributions can be found as far back as the 8th century BC, when Hesiod compiled Catalogue of Women, a list of heroines and goddesses. Plutarch listed artistic women in his Moralia. In the medieval period, Boccaccio used mythic and biblical women as moral exemplars in De mulieribus claris, directly inspiring Christine de Pisan to write The Book of the City of Ladies. Women writers themselves have long been interested in tracing a "woman's tradition" in writing.
Mary Scott's The Female Advocate: A Poem Occasioned by Reading Mr Duncombe's Feminead is one of the best known such works in the 18th century, a period that saw a burgeoning of women writers being published. In 1803, Mary Hays published the six volume Female Biography. And, Virginia Woolf's A Room of One's Own exemplifies the impulse in the modern period to explore a tradition of women's writing. Woolf, sought to explain what she perceived as an absence. There were many to reclaim: it is common for the editors of dictionaries or anthologies of women's writing to refer to the difficulty in choosing from all the available material. Trade publishers have focused on women's writing recently: since the 1970s there have been a number of literary periodicals which are dedicated to publishing the creative work of women writers, there are a number of dedicated presses as well, such as the Second Story Press and the Women's Press. In addition and anthologies of women's writing continue to be published by both trade and academic presses.
The question of whether or not there is a "women's tradition". Further, women writers cannot be considered apart from their male contemporaries and the larger literary tradition. Recent scholarship on race and sexuality in literature further complicate the issue and militate against the impulse to posit one "women's tradition." Some scholars, such as Roger Lonsdale, maintain that something of a commonality exists and that "it is not unreasonable to consider" women writers "in some aspects as a special case, given their educational insecurities and the constricted notions of the properly'feminine' in social and literary behaviour they faced.". Using the term "women's writing" implies the belief that women in some sense constitute a group, however diverse, who share a position of difference based on gender. In the West, the second wave of feminism prompted a general revelation of women's historical contributions, various academic sub-disciplines, such as women's history and women's writing, developed in response to the belief that women's lives and contributions have been underrepresented as areas of scholarly interest.
Much of this early period of feminist literary scholarship was given over to the rediscovery and reclamation of texts written by women. Studies like Dale Spender's Mothers of the Novel and Jane Spencer's The Rise of the Woman Novelist were ground-breaking in their insistence that women have always been writing. Commensurate with this growth in scholarly interest, various presses began the task of reissuing long-out-of-print texts. Virago Press began to publish its large list of
Legal rights of women in history
The legal rights of women refers to the social and human rights of women. One of the first women's rights declarations was the Declaration of Sentiments; the dependent position of women in early law is proved by the evidence of most ancient systems. In the Mosaic law, for monetary matters, women's and men's rights were exactly equal. A woman was entitled to her own private property, including land, livestock and servants. A woman had the right to inherit whatever anyone bequeathed to her as a death gift, in the absence of sons would inherit everything. A woman could bequeath her belongings to others as a death gift. Upon dying intestate, a woman's property would be inherited by her children if she had them, her husband if she was married, or her father if she were single. A woman did not need a male to represent her. In some situations, women had more rights than men. For example, captive women had to be ransomed prior to any male captives. Though sons inherited property, they had a responsibility to support their mother and sisters from the estate, had to ensure that both mother and sisters were taken care of prior to their being able to benefit from the inheritance, if that wiped out the estate, the boys had to supplement their income from elsewhere.
When it came to specific religious or sacramental activities, women had fewer opportunities or privileges than men. For example, in monetary or capital cases women could not serve as witnesses. A woman could not serve as a kohen in the Temple. A woman could not serve as queen regnant, the monarch had to be male. A divorce could only be granted by the husband, upon which time she would receive the Ketubah and the return of significant portions of her dowry; the vow of an unmarried girl between the ages of 12 years and 12 years and six months might be nullified by her father and the vow of a wife that affected marital obligations may be annulled by her husband. In Ancient Egypt a woman shared the same rights and status as a man – at least, theoretically. An Egyptian woman was entitled to her own private property, which could include land, livestock and servants, etc, she had the right to inherit whatever anyone bequeathed to her, as well as bequeathing her belongings to others. She could divorce her husband, sue in court.
A husband can be fined for beating his wife. Most notably, a woman could do these legal matters without a male to represent her. However, the average woman still centered her time around the family. A few women became pharaohs, women held important positions in government and trade. In ancient Athenian law, women lacked many of the legal rights given to their male counterparts, they were excluded from participating in the assembly. They were legally prohibited from engaging in contracts worth any significant amount of money,There was an expectation that respectable women should not appear – or be talked about – in public. Historians doubt. Women in Classical Athens did have the right to divorce, though they lost all rights to any children they had by their husband upon divorce; the laws of ancient Rome law, like the laws of ancient Athens law, profoundly disfavored women. Roman citizenship was tiered, women could hold a form of second-class citizenship with certain limited legal privileges and protections unavailable to non-citizens, freedmen, or slaves, but not on par with men.
Roman society and law was sexist and patriarchal, the law prohibited women from voting, standing for public office, serving in most civic priesthoods or serving in any capacity in the Roman military. In the Early Republic, women were always under the legal control of some man; this was reformed somewhat under Augustus. All children born of marriage were the exclusive possession of their father — they inherited his social status and citizenship. In the event of divorce or the father's death, the children remained in the sole custody of the father or his family. Children born outside of marriage inherited the social status and citizenship of their mother unless and until the father legitimated them. In the Early Empire, daughters had the same right as sons to inherit. In the Early Republic, the legal control and property of a woman passed from her father to her husband, she became subject to her husband potestas. By the Late Republic, this sort of manus marriage was abandoned for the so-called "free marriage."
In this more common form, the bride remained under her father's potestas, her husband had limited legal power over her. To the extent a Roman woman in a free marriage lived beyond the daily supervision of her f
Women in dance
The important place of women in dance can be traced back to the origins of civilization. Cave paintings, Egyptian frescos, Indian statuettes, ancient Greek and Roman art and records of court traditions in China and Japan all testify to the important role women played in ritual and religious dancing from the start. In the Middle Ages, what has become known as ballet had its beginnings in Italian court festivals when women played the parts of men, it was however in late 17th-century France that the Paris Opera produced the first celebrated ballerinas. While women began to dominate the ballet scene in the 18th century, it was with the advent of Romantic ballet in the 19th century that they became the undisputed centre of attraction with stars playing the leading roles in the works of Marius Petipa, appearing in theatres across Europe from Milan's La Scala to the Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg. More women have played a leading role in developing various forms of modern dance including flamenco and expressionist dance.
Women have always played a predominant role in dance, as can be seen from its earliest history until the emergence of formal dances in the 15th century which developed into ballet. Cave paintings from as long ago as 6000 BC provide scenes of dancing women. Examples can be seen in the Roca dels Moros in Catalonia. In Ancient Egypt, women performed ritual dances for religious ceremonies such as funerals, as illustrated by frescos on the pharaohs' tombs; the oldest records of organised dance and of professional female dancers come from Egypt. In the Old Kingdom, women were organised into groups known as khener being joined by men only at a stage. In the Indian subcontinent too, there is early evidence of dancing women, most notably a bronze statuette from Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley dating from around 2500 BC. While men's early participation in dancing rituals appears to have been connected to hunting and fighting, women's dance was above all related to fertility, both agricultural and human.
Dance in classical Crete and Greece seems to have been influenced by the dances of Ancient Egypt. There are many examples of ancient Greek art from the 6th and 5th centuries BC depicting dancing women; the virgins of Delos danced in a circle to honour Apollo. In the 6th century BC, the choros became a lasting feature of Greek theatre while women known as the Dyonysiac depicted on Greek vases, dance in frensy, celebrating Dionysus, the god of wine. In Ancient Rome, female singers and dancers performed in the annual celebrations of Isis which included mystery plays representing the resurrection of Osiris; the Bible contains several accounts of women dancing, in particular the celebrations led by Miriam after the crossing of the Red Sea when women are said to have danced and played hand-drums. After David had returned from slaying Goliath, women came out dancing. In the New Testament, Matthew tells the story of how Salome danced for Herod in order to be given the head of John the Baptist. In China too there is a long recorded history of women dancers since the Zhou Dynasty reaching a peak in the Tang Dynasty.
The chorus dances performed by women in the Zhou dynasty were known as xi. The ancient theatrical spectacles called baixi involved dancing girls in dresses with fluttering silk sleeves. Texts from the Spring and Autumn period contain descriptions of professional dancing girls while the Nishang Yuyi dance, created by the Emperor Li Longji, stages virgin women dancing as if in a magic world. In 12th-century Japan, the Shirabyoshi were famous for their poetry. One of the most famous was the court dancer Shizuka who appears in the Japanese literature of the period. In the Middle Ages, with the spread of Christianity across Europe, the church frowned upon dance although there was dancing at folk festivals at the beginning of May. In France and Italy and circular dances such as the carole, the tresque were popular from the 4th to 14th centuries, they were danced in a closed circle with men and women interspersed and holding hands. In Italy, the lively saltarello from Naples became popular in the 15th centuries.
Groups of courtesans dressed. In the 15th century, court festivities in Italy became more elaborate featuring formal dances. One of the early masters was Domenico da Piacenza who compiled a manual of dance: De arte saltandi et choreas ducendi. In France, professional dancing began to take shape when dancers performed for Henry III of France at Fontainebleau in the early 1580s. Further presentations were made for Louis XIII, who took the main part himself, but it was, above all, during the reign of Louis XIV that the foundations were laid for what became known as ballet. The king not only had the rules of dance written down but established the Académie Royale de Danse in 1661, which developed into today's Paris Opera Ballet. Many of the early ballets were created by the Italian-French composer Jean Baptiste Lully and the French choreographer Pierre Beauchamp assisted by Molière. Female parts in the early ballets were taken by young men, she went on to be the leading ballerina in at least 18 other productions at the Paris Opera between 1681 and 1693, establishing the supreme importance of women in ballet.
De Lafontaine was succeeded by Marie-Thérèse de Subligny who became the first ballerina to perform in London when she appeared with Claude Ballon in 1699. Said to be the best balle
Feminism is a range of political movements and social movements that share a common goal: to define and achieve the political, economic and social equality of the genders. This includes fighting gender stereotypes and seeking to establish educational and professional opportunities for women that are equal to those for men. Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages or equal pay, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, to have maternity leave. Feminists have worked to ensure access to legal abortions and social integration, to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, domestic violence. Changes in dress and acceptable physical activity have been part of feminist movements; some scholars consider feminist campaigns to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights in the West, where they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffrage, gender neutrality in English, reproductive rights for women, the right to enter into contracts and own property.
Although feminist advocacy is, has been focused on women's rights, some feminists, including bell hooks, argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims because they believe that men are harmed by traditional gender roles. Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims; some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, college-educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism. Charles Fourier, a Utopian Socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word "féminisme" in 1837; the words "féminisme" and "féministe" first appeared in France and the Netherlands in 1872, Great Britain in the 1890s, the United States in 1910, the Oxford English Dictionary lists 1852 as the year of the first appearance of "feminist" and 1895 for "feminism".
Depending on the historical moment and country, feminists around the world have had different causes and goals. Most western feminist historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements when they did not apply the term to themselves. Other historians assert that the term should be limited to the modern feminist movement and its descendants; those historians use the label "protofeminist" to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movements is divided into three "waves"; each wave dealt with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave comprised women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, promoting women's right to vote; the second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the women's liberation movement beginning in the 1960s. The second wave campaigned for social equality for women; the third wave is a continuation of, a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, which began in the 1990s.
First-wave feminism was a period of activity during early twentieth century. In the UK and the US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage and property rights for women. By the end of the 19th century, a number of important steps had been made with the passing of legislation such as the UK Custody of Infants Act 1839 which introduced the Tender years doctrine for child custody arrangement and gave women the right of custody of their children for the first time. Other legislation such as the Married Women's Property Act 1870 in the UK and extended in the 1882 Act, these became models for similar legislation in other British territories. For example, Victoria passed legislation in 1884, New South Wales in 1889, the remaining Australian colonies passed similar legislation between 1890 and 1897. Therefore, with the turn of the 19th century activism had focused on gaining political power the right of women's suffrage, though some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexual and economic rights as well.
Women's suffrage began in Britain's Australasian colonies at the close of the 19th century, with the self-governing colonies of New Zealand granting women the right to vote in 1893 and South Australia granting female suffrage in 1895. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in 1902. In Britain the Suffragettes and the Suffragists campaigned for the women's vote, in 1918 the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned property. In 1928 this was extended to all women over 21. Emmeline Pankhurst was the most notable activist in England, with Time naming her one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century stating: "she shaped an idea of women for our time. In the U. S. notable leaders of this movement included Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote; these women were influenced by the