Minister for Foreign Affairs (Singapore)
The Minister for Foreign Affairs is head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, a member of the Cabinet of Singapore. The current Minister for Foreign Affairs is Vivian Balakrishnan. List of current foreign ministers Singapore Ministry of Foreign Affairs official site
The Cantonese people are subgroup of the Han Chinese people native to and/or originating from the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, in southern mainland China. Although more "Cantonese" refers only to the people from Guangzhou and its satellite cities and towns and/or native speakers of Standard Cantonese, rather than and referring to the people of the Liangguang region; the Cantonese people share a common native culture, history and language. They are referred to as "Hoa" in Vietnam, "Kongfu" in Malaysia and "Konghu" in Indonesia.". Centered on and predominating the Pearl River Basin shared between Guangdong and Guangxi, the Cantonese people are responsible for establishing their native language's usage in Hong Kong and Macau during the early migrations within the British and Portuguese colonial eras respectively. Today, Hong Kong and Macau are the only regions in the world where Cantonese is the official spoken language, with the mixed influences of English and Portuguese respectively. Cantonese is traditionally and remains today a majority language in Guangdong and Guangxi, despite the increasing influence of Mandarin.
There are around 9 million Cantonese speakers overseas. Taishanese people may be considered Cantonese but speak a distinct variety of Yue Chinese Taishanese. There have been a number of influential Cantonese figures throughout history, such as Yuan Chonghuan, Bruce Lee, Liang Qichao, Sun Yat-Sen, Lee Shau-kee, Ho Ching and Flossie Wong-Staal. "Cantonese" has been used to describe all Chinese people from Guangdong since "Cantonese" is treated as a synonym with "Guangdong" and the Cantonese language is treated as the sole language of the region. This is inaccurate as "Canton" itself technically only refers to Guangdong's capital Guangzhou and the Cantonese language refers to only the Guangzhou dialect of the Yue Chinese languages; the English name "Canton" derived from Portuguese Cantão or Cidade de Cantão, a muddling of dialectical pronunciations of "Guangdong". Although it and chiefly applied to the walled city of Guangzhou, it was conflated with Guangdong by some authors. Within Guangdong and Guangxi, Cantonese is considered the prestige dialect and is called baahk wá which means "vernacular".
In historical times, it was known as "Guangzhou speech" or Guangzhounese but due to Guangzhou's prosperity it has led people to conflate it with all Yue languages and many now refer to "Guangzhou speech" as "Guangdong speech". Similar cases where entire Chinese language families are thought to be a single language occur with non-specialists, conflating all Wu Chinese languages as just Shanghainese and its different forms, as it is the prestige dialect, or that Mandarin only refers to the Beijing-based Standard Chinese and that it is a single language rather than a large group of related varieties. There are many other Chinese languages spoken by the Han Chinese in these areas. In Guangxi, Southwestern Mandarin is spoken. In Guangdong, aside from other Yue Chinese languages, these non-Cantonese languages include Hakka, Leizhou Min, Tuhua. Non-Cantonese speaking Yue peoples are sometimes labelled as "Cantonese" such as the Taishanese people though Taishanese has low intelligibility to Standard Cantonese.
The Taishanese see themselves as people of Guangdong, but not Cantonese. Some literature uses neutral terminology such as Guangdongnese and Guangxinese to refer to people from these provinces without the cultural or linguistic affiliations to Cantonese; until the 19th century, Cantonese history was the history of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces. What is now Guangdong, Guangxi, was first brought under Qin influence by a general named Zhao Tuo, who founded the kingdom of Nanyue in 204 BC; the Nanyue kingdom went on to become the strongest Baiyue state in China, with many neighboring kingdoms declaring their allegiance to Nanyue rule. Zhao Tuo took the Han territory of Hunan and defeated the Han dynasty's first attack on Nanyue annexing the kingdom of Minyue in the East and conquering Âu Lạc, Northern Vietnam, in the West in 179 BC; the expanded Nanyue kingdom included the territories of modern-day Guangdong and Northern Vietnam, with the capital situated at modern-day Guangzhou. The native peoples of Liangguang remained under Baiyue control until the Han dynasty in 111 BC, following the Han–Nanyue War.
However, it was not until subsequent dynasties such as the Jin Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty that major waves of Han Chinese began to migrate south into Guangdong and Guangxi. Waves of migration and subsequent intermarriage meant that existing populations of both provinces were displaced, but some native groups like the Zhuangs still remained; the Cantonese call themselves "people of Tang". This is because of the inter-mixture between native and Han immigrants in Guangdong and Guangxi reached a critical mass of acculturation during the Tang dynasty, creating a new local identity among the Liangguang peoples. During the 4th–12th centuries, Han Chinese people from North China's Yellow River delta migrated and settled in the South of China; this gave rise to peoples including the Cantonese themselves and Hoklos, whose ancestors migrated from Henan and Shandong, to areas of southeastern coastal China such as Chaozhou and Zhangzhou and other parts of Guangdong during the Tang d
Shunmugam Jayakumar known as S. Jayakumar, is a former Singaporean politician and diplomat, he is of Tamil ancestry. A former member of the governing People's Action Party, he served as Singapore's Senior Minister in the Cabinet and the Co-ordinating Minister for National Security from 2009 to 2011, Deputy Prime Minister from 2004 to 2009, Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1994 to 2004, Minister for Home Affairs from 1988 to 1994, Minister for Law from 1988 to 2008, Minister for Labour from 1984 to 1985, he was a member of parliament for the constituency of Bedok within the East Coast Group Representation Constituency. In May 2011 he retired from politics due to health reasons. Jayakumar received his secondary education in Raffles Institution, before going on to the University of Singapore where he graduated with a Bachelor of Laws, he was admitted to the Bar in 1964, furthered his education at Yale Law School where he received a Master of Laws degree in 1966. Upon his return to Singapore, Jayakumar took on a lecturing position in the Faculty of Law at the National University of Singapore from 1964 to 1981, assuming the position of Dean of the Faculty in 1974.
Jayakumar served as Singapore's Permanent Representative to the United Nations and High Commissioner to Canada from 1971 to 1974, was a member of Singapore's delegation to the UN Law of the Sea Conference from 1974 to 1979. Jayakumar authored three books and 32 articles on the topics of constitutional law, international law and legal education, he was awarded the Public Service Star in 1980. In 1980, Jayakumar was elected a member of parliament for the constituency of Bedok, he was returned as the MP for the same constituency in 1984 as an incumbent, as one of the three MPs in the newly created Group Representation Constituency scheme in 1988. This was again as one of the four MPs in the same GRC in the 1991 General Election, he was re-elected as one of six MPs for the East Coast GRC in the 1997 General Election. In 2006, he was re-elected in the new five-member East Coast GRC. In 1981, Jayakumar was appointed as a Minister of State at the Ministry of Home Affairs and Ministry of Law, he entered the Cabinet of Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew in 1984 as the Minister for Labour with the additional portfolios of Second Minister for Home Affairs and Second Minister for Law.
Jayakumar was appointed Minister for Home Affairs and Second Minister for Law on 2 January 1985. In 1988, Jayakumar was appointed Minister for Minister for Home Affairs, he retained these portfolios when Goh Chok Tong became Prime Minister in 1990. In January 1994, Jayakumar was appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs and Minister for Law. On 12 August 2004 when it was his 65th birthday, Jayakumar was appointed Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Law in the Cabinet of the new Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong. On 1 September 2005, Jayakumar took over the role as Co-ordinating Minister for National Security from former President Tony Tan to oversee counter-terrorism policies in Singapore. Jayakumar stepped down as Minister for Law on 30 April 2008, as Deputy Prime Minister on 1 April 2009. Jayakumar was appointed a Senior Minister on 1 April 2009 before retiring from politics in 2011, he decided not to contest in the 2011 General Elections due to health reasons. After retirement, he serves as Chair of the National University of Singapore Faculty of Law's Advisory Council and Patron of the NUS Centre for International Law.
He is presently a consultant with Drew & Napier. In 2015 he published a memoir titled'Be at the Table or Be on the Menu: A Singapore Memoir'. On April 2012, Jayakumar was awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun by the Japanese government. Jayakumar, S; the water issue: statement by Singapore Foreign Minister Prof S Jayakumar in Parliament, 25 Jan 2003, Singapore: Ministry of Foreign AffairsJayakumar, S. The Southeast Asian drama: evolution and future challenges: Georgetown University inaugural distinguished lecture on Southeast Asia, Washington DC, 22 April 1996, Singapore: Ministry of Foreign Affairs Jayakumar, S.. People's Action Party 1954–1984: Petir 30th anniversary issue. Singapore: Central Executive Committee, People's Action Party. Jayakumar, S. ed. Our heritage and beyond: a collection of essays on Singapore, its past and future, Singapore: Singapore National Trades Union Congress Jayakumar, S.. Constitutional law cases from Malaysia and Singapore. Singapore: Malayan Law Journal.
Jayakumar, S.. Constitutional law, with documentary materials. Singapore: Malaya Law Review, Faculty of Law, University of Singapore. Jayakumar, S.. Public international law cases from Malaysia and Singapore. Singapore: Singapore University Press. Official Biography of Prof. S. Jayakumar in the Cabinet of Singapore
Toa Payoh is a planning area and matured residential town located in the northern part of the Central Region of Singapore. Toa Payoh planning area borders Bishan and Serangoon to the north, the Central Water Catchment to the northwest, Kallang to the south, Geylang to the southeast, Novena to the west and Hougang to the east. Toa Payoh New Town is situated in the eastern portion of the Toa Payoh planning area; the latter occupies encompassing estates such as Potong Pasir and Bidadari. Toa Payoh, in the Hokkien dialect, translates as "big swamp"; the Malay word for swamp is paya. It is the Chinese equivalent of Paya Lebar. Toa Payoh's old Chinese name, was known as Ang Chiang San or "Burial Hill"; the area was called as such because of the presence of an old cemetery located in the area. John Turnbull Thomson, a government surveyor, refers to Toa Payoh in his 1849 agricultural report as Toah Pyoh Lye and Toah Pyoh. Unique to the rest to the housing estates in Singapore, roads in Toa Payoh are given Malay street suffixes, as when the town was conceived, Singapore was a state of Malaysia at that time.
Toa Payoh was once an notorious squatter district. Most squatters were engaged in rearing pigs; the others were factory workers, mechanics or domestic helpers. The squatters started moving out in 1962 as a result of increased compensation rates and other practical inducements offered by the Government. Clearance work was able to commence and the redevelopment started in early 1964. Toa Payoh New Town is Singapore's second oldest satellite town and the first to be built by the Housing and Development Board after the development of Queenstown by the Singapore Improvement Trust in the late 1950s. Before its time as a residential town, Toa Payoh was a squatter district, with a prominent agricultural heritage in the area. Throughout the 1960s up till the beginning of the 1980s, the town, much like Geylang today, was infamous for its vice, being home to some of Singapore's largest crime syndicates and gangs. Notable cases such as the horrific Toa Payoh ritual murders of 1981, brought the town widespread attention.
As such, Toa Payoh has been coined by the media as the "Chicago of the East" and the "Chicago of Singapore". Queen Elizabeth II visited the area in the years 1972 and 2006; the layout of the new town follows urban planning principles of the time. The housing estate is self-contained and has a town centre acting as a focal point for the shopping and entertainment needs of the residents. Industrial developments were built within the town to provide residents with job opportunities close to home while schools were built within the neighbourhoods; the town centre was the first prototype in Singapore. It is surrounded by separated neighbourhoods, each with its own shopping amenities and community centres, well served by a network of vehicular roads and generous open space separating them; the result, as in the English new towns of the 1950s, is that residents tend less to travel to the main town centre but rather to shop within their neighbourhood. With time, the Toa Payoh Town Centre has become popular.
It has a busy atmosphere because, as with many shopping malls of the time, all commercial activities are concentrated along a single mall with high point blocks on either side and major department stores at each end. The shopping mall is L-shaped and there are two plazas, one with a branch library and cinema, the other with an area office and a post office; each plaza has a department store at either end. The commercial development, HDB Hub, located at the Toa Payoh Town Centre was completed in 2002; the Housing and Development Board relocated its headquarters from its premises at Bukit Merah to the HDB Hub on 10 June 2002. The HDB Hub comprises two wings, an atrium, four commercial building blocks, a leisure and learning centre and a three-storey basement parking lot; the building accommodates Singapore's first air-conditioned Toa Payoh Bus Interchange and integrates it with the existing Toa Payoh MRT Station. Another landmark of Toa Payoh is the facility of Royal Philips Electronics. Philips established an extensive facility, parts of which are now owned by Jabil and NXP.
The facility has been used by Philips for developing, amongst others, televisions and DVD players for years. There are only 3 condominiums in Toa Payoh; the condominiums are Trellis and Oleander Towers. The Housing and Development Board decided to allocate a large area of Toa Payoh for a garden-landscaped park, the Toa Payoh Town Garden, despite the pressure on land here for housing; the town garden used to be popular with visitors who came from near and far to enjoy the display of willows and the brilliant reds and yellows of the Delonix regia trees. At the heart of the garden is a 0.8 ha carp pond which contains a waterfall and a cluster of islands linked by bridges. The islands are arranged to provide a sequence of delightful walking experiences not only by day but by night when the garden is lit; the garden is buffered from the noise and night-time glare of passing traffic along Jalan Toa Payoh by an elevated slope planted with thick rows of Angsanas. There are a children's playground, seating areas and outdoor chessboard, a tea kiosk and a 27-metre high viewing tower.
Toa Payoh Town Park was par
United Overseas Bank
United Overseas Bank Limited is a Singaporean multinational banking organisation headquartered in Singapore, with branches found in most Southeast Asian countries. Founded in 1935 as United Chinese Bank by Sarawak businessman Wee Kheng Chiang, the bank was set up together with a group of Chinese-born businessmen; the bank is the third largest bank in South East Asia by total assets. UOB provides commercial and corporate banking services, personal financial services, private banking and asset management services, as well as corporate finance, venture capital and insurance services, it has 68 branches in Singapore and a network of more than 500 offices in 19 countries and territories in Asia Pacific, Western Europe and North America On August 6, 1935, businessman Wee Kheng Chiang, together with six other friends, established the bank after raising S$1 million. The bank was named United Chinese Bank to emphasize its links to the Chinese population in Singapore. On October 1935, UCB opened for business in the three story Bonham Building.
In 1965, the bank was renamed to United Overseas Bank and opened its first overseas branch in Hong Kong. In 1970, UOB was listed on the Joint Stock Exchange of Singapore and Malaysia, at that time the stock exchange have office in both Singapore and Kuala Lumpur. After it was publicly listed, the bank went through a series of targeted acquisitions; the bank first acquired the controlling stake of Chung Khiaw Bank in 1971, which expanded its domestic presence and gave the bank offices in Malaysia and Hong Kong. A new logo for both United Overseas Bank and Chung Khiaw Bank was launched in January 1972. In 1973, UOB acquired Lee Wah Bank, which provided services in Malaysia and Singapore. In that same year, the bank built a new 30 storey office tower in place of the Bonham Building, named the UOB Building; the company continued with acquisitions, with Far Eastern Bank in 1984, Westmont Bank and Radanasin Bank in 1999. The bank merged with the Overseas Union Bank Limited in a deal estimated to be worth S$10 billion in 2001.
In 2002, UOB started expanding into the Chinese market by opening a new full service branch office in Shanghai and upgrading of its Beijing office to a full-service branch. The ten largest shareholders as of 1 March 2017 are: * Percentage is calculated based on the total number of issued ordinary shares, excluding treasury shares. UOB has branches and offices located across Asia Pacific, North America and Western Europe, with most of their operations located in Southeast Asian countries such as Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam. Headquartered in the UOB Building in Sydney, UOB Australia opened its first branch in MLC Centre as a merchant bank in 1986 to emphasize on trade and financing between Australia and Asia; the bank now has offices in Melbourne and Brisbane, in addition to the branch in Sydney and offers merchant bank services comprising current accounts, lending, asset finance, trade finance, structured finance, cash management, cross-border payments. UOB's operations in Brunei started under Overseas Union Bank.
When UOB acquired the Overseas Union Bank in January 2002, the operations of the branches in Brunei was handed over to UOB. On October 1, 2005, the bank relocated its branch office in Bandar Seri Begawan. In 2015, UOB sold its retail banking business to Baiduri Bank Berhad for S$65.044 million. The bank provides a full range of commercial and corporate banking services through the branch located in the country, it operates UOB Asset Management in Brunei, which offers investment management expertise to individuals and corporations. Operations in mainland China first started with a representative office in Beijing. Incorporated on December 18, 2007 as UOB and headquartered in Shanghai, UOB has 17 branches and sub-branches strategically located in major cities such as Shenyang, Beijing, Tianjin, Hangzhou, Guangzhou and Chongqing offering retail and wholesale banking services. UOB opened its first overseas branch in British Hong Kong in 1965, with the branch focusing on trade financing and corporate banking.
The bank has 3 branches, with a main branch offering full personal and corporate banking services. In the past 2 of the Hong Kong branches were under the subsidiary Chung Khiaw Bank. In December 2009, UOB opened its first branch in Mumbai, offering retail and wholesale banking services, including lending and trade finance products, to corporates, financial institutions and consumers. UOB Indonesia was founded on August 1956 as PT Bank Buana Indonesia. Headquartered in Jakarta, the bank offers commercial banking and treasury services, such as deposits taking, loans to small and medium enterprises, foreign exchange transactions; the company offers various fee-based services, such as purchase and sale of travellers cheques and banknotes. It has a network of 41 branches, 172 sub-branches and 173 ATMs located across 30 cities in Indonesia. Founded in December 1972, UOB Japan offers wholesale services which include corporate banking, debt securities investments, trade finance, current accounts and banknotes trading through its only branch in Tokyo.
Operations of OUB in Tokyo was integrated in 2002 when UOB acquired the bank in 2002. Incorporated in 1993, UOB Malaysia was integrated with Lee Wah Bank in 1994 to operate as a single entity. Lee Wah Bank was founded in 1920 in Singapore, with its first Malaysia
Huang is a Chinese surname that means "Yellow". While Huáng is the pinyin romanization of the word, it may be romanized as Hwang, Houang, Wong, Wan, Hwong, Hung, Bong, Eng, Ng, Uy, Wee, Oi, Oey, Oof, Ong, or Ung due to pronunciations of the word in different dialects and languages; this surname is known as Hwang in Korean. In Vietnamese, the name is known as Huỳnh. Huang is the 7th most common surname in China; the population of Huangs in China and Taiwan was estimated at more than 30 million in 2007. Huang is the pinyin romanization of the rare surname 皇. Huang 黃,皇 used in Mandarin Hwang 황,黃,皇 used in Korean Huỳnh or Hoàng, used in Vietnamese. Huỳnh is the cognate adopted in Southern and most parts of Central Vietnam because of a naming taboo decree which banned the surname Hoàng, due to similarity between the surname and the name of Lord Nguyễn Hoàng. Vong, anglicized from Hakka, used in Vietnamese Ng, Ong, Wee, Oi, Ooi or Uy, used in Minnan Ooi in Zhangzhou dialect and Penang Ng, used in Quanzhou dialect and Teochew Wong, used in Cantonese and Wu Oei or Oey, used among Teochews in Indonesia OENG or EUNG or UENG used in Cambodia EUNG or UENG used in Thailand Huang is an ancient surname.
According to tradition, there are several different sources of Huang surname origin, for example as descendants of Bo Yi, Lu Zhong or Tai Tai. There were at least three Huang Kingdoms 黃國 during Xia 夏朝, Shang 商朝 and Zhou 周朝 dynasties. Most of the people with surname Huang could track back their ancestors to one of the Huang Kingdoms. Ancient texts associated Huang people with the Dongyi tribes; the Dong Yi or Eastern Barbarians were ancient people who lived in eastern China during the prehistoric period. They were one of the Four Barbarians in Chinese culture, along with the Northern Di 北狄, the Southern Man 南蠻, the Western Rong 西戎; the Dong Yi tribe was the tribal alliance group that consisted of nine tribes in the Huai River Basin 淮水流域: Quan Yi 畎夷, Yu Yi 於夷, Fang Yi 方夷, Huang Yi 黃夷, Bai Yi 白夷, Chi Yi 赤夷, Xuan Yi 玄夷, Feng Yi 風夷 and Yang Yi 陽夷. The Dong Yi tribe people used different birds as their totems and for Huang Yi 黃夷 tribe, Yellow Oriole 黃鶯 was the totem; when the people from Huang Yi 黃夷 tribe moved and settled in different parts of China, they adopted Huang 黃 as their surname.
Shaohao 少皋 had a son, Gao Yao and Gao Yao had Bo Yi. Bo Yi helped Emperor Shun and Yu the Great control the Great Flood and got surname Ying at early Xia dynasty period. Bo Yi married Emperor Shun's youngest daughter and had three sons: Eldest Son Da Lian 大廉 - Founder of Huang Kingdom 黃國 Second Son Ruo Mu 若木 - Founder of Xu Kingdom 徐國 Third Son En Cheng 恩成 - Founder of Jiang Kingdom 江國Xia Yu awarded the Huang kingdom to Da Lian, his descendants are known as the Huangs. There are total of 14 clans derived from Bo Yi Ying Clan: Lian, Xu, Qin, Huang, Liang, Ma, Ge, Gu, Zhong, Qu. Rulers of Qin Kingdom, Zhao Kingdom, Qin dynasty and Song dynasty could trace back their ancestor to Bo Yi. Hata Clan of Japan, Aisin Gioro Clan, Irgen Gioro Clan and Gioro Clan of Manchuria were derived from Bo Yi Ying Clan; the lineage of Huang Clan from the Yellow Emperor is as follows: 1) Yellow Emperor 黃帝 -> 2) Chang Yi 昌意 -> 3) Zhuanxu Emperor 顓頊帝 -> 4) Da Ye 大業 -> 5) Shao Dian 少典 -> 6) Nu Shen 女莘 -> 7) Da Fei 大費 -> 8) Juan Zhang 卷章 -> 9) Wu Hui 吳回 -> 10) Lu Zhong 陸終 -> 11) Hui Lian 惠連.
Lu Zhong had six sons: Eldest Son Fan 樊 - Legendary Pottery Inventor and Founder of Kunwu Kingdom 昆吾國, Second Son Ding 定 - Founder of Huang Kingdom 黃國, Third Son Qian - Legendary God of Longevity and Founder of Da Peng Kingdom 大彭國, Fourth Son Qiu 求 - Founder of Kuai Kingdom 鄶國, Fifth Son Yan An 晏安 - Founder of Zhu Kingdom 邾國, Sixth Son Ji 季 - Founder of Chu Kingdom 楚國. In 2220 BC during the reign of Emperor Yao 帝堯, Hui Lian 惠連 scored merits in harnessing river floods. Emperor Yao conferred on Hui Lian the title of Viscount 子 and the state of Can'hu 參胡. Emperor Yao renamed Can'hu as State of Huang, bestowed on Hui Lian the surname Huang 黃 and the name "Yun" 雲. Hence, Hui Lian was known as Huang Yun 黃雲 or Nan Lu 南陆. Hui Lian became the Progenitor of the Huang surname clan. During Western Zhou dynasty, the rulers of the Huang State was given the title of Duke 公; the descendants of Huang Yun ruled the Huang State of Shanxi until the early Spring and Autumn period when it was conquered by the State of Jin.
Another lineage of Huang Clan from the Yellow Emperor is as follows: 1) Yellow Emperor 黃帝 -> 2) Shao Hao 少昊 -> 3) Jiao Ji 嬌極 -> 4) Hui Gong 揮公 -> 5) Mei 昧 -> 6) Tai Tai 臺駘. Tai Tai helped Zhuan Xu Emperor 顓頊, he and his descendants were enfeoffed with Fen Zhou 汾州 at Fen River 汾河 which was
Yale romanization of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese circulated in looseleaf form in 1952 but published in 1958. Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still used in books and dictionaries for foreign learners of Cantonese, it shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, is represented as p. Students attending The Chinese University of Hong Kong's New-Asia Yale-in-China Chinese Language Center are taught using Yale romanization. Only the finals m and ng can be used as standalone nasal syllables. Modern Cantonese has up to seven phonemic tones. Cantonese Yale represents these tones using a combination of diacritics and the letter h. Traditional Chinese linguistics treats the tones in syllables ending with a stop consonant as separate "entering tones".
Cantonese Yale follows modern linguistic conventions in treating these the same as the high-flat, mid-flat and low-flat tones, respectively. Sample transcription of one of the 300 Tang Poems by Meng Haoran: Cantonese phonology Jyutping Guangdong Romanization Cantonese Pinyin Sidney Lau romanisation S. L. Wong Barnett–Chao Romanisation Yale romanization of Mandarin Yale romanization of Korean Gwaan, Choi-wa 關彩華. English-Cantonese Dictionary - 英粤字典: Cantonese in Yale Romanization. Chinese University Press. ISBN 962-201-970-6. Matthews, Stephen & Yip, Virginia. Cantonese. A Comprehensive Grammar. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08945-X. Ng Lam, Sim-yuk & Chik, Hon-man. Chinese-English Dictionary 漢英小字典: Cantonese in Yale Romanization, Mandarin in Pinyin. Chinese University Press. ISBN 962-201-922-6. Comparison chart of Romanization for Cantonese with Yale, S. Lau, Toho and LSHK MDBG free online Chinese-English dictionary Online Chinese Character to Yale Romanization of Cantonese lookup Conversion tool