Rimsky Yuen Kwok-keung, GBM, SC, JP is a barrister who served as the third Secretary for Justice of Hong Kong from 2012 to 2018. He was the chairman of the Hong Kong Bar Association from 2007 to 2010, as well as a member of the Guangdong Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, prior to his appointment as Secretary for Justice, his time in office coincided with various political controversies. They include: the 2014–15 electoral reform which trigged the Occupy Central movement, the Legislative Council oath-taking saga which resulted in the disqualifications of six legislators, the 2017 imprisonment of Hong Kong democracy activists, the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link project, the subject of an ongoing judicial review challenge. Yuen was born into a grassroots family in 1964, he lived in Lower Wong Tai Sin Estate during his early life. He was educated at the University of Hong Kong, he was called to Bar in 1987 after serving pupillage under Mohan Tarachand Bharwaney and Lawrence Lok QC.
In 1995 he joined Temple Chambers, one of the largest barristers' chambers in Hong Kong, on the invitation of former Attorney General Michael Thomas QC and Ronny Tong QC. He specialised in civil litigation commercial disputes including advisory and court works relating to contract disputes and partners disputes and personal insolvency, trusts and financial products disputes, international trade and arbitration. In 1997, he earned an LLM at the City University of Hong Kong, studying Chinese laws under Wang Guiguo and Priscilla Leung. In 2003 he was appointed Senior Counsel after 15 years of practise; as a silk, his practice expanded to include judicial reviews. He served as an arbitrator in international arbitrations and a mediator in commercial disputes. In 2006 Yuen was appointed a Recorder of the Court of First Instance of the High Court, in which capacity he handled various civil litigations, he became involved in public service: he served as a member of the Judicial Officers Recommendation Commission, Non-Official Member of the Independent Commission Against Corruption Advisory Committee on Corruption, the Chairman of the Transport Advisory Committee, a Non-executive Director of Mandatory Provident Fund Schemes Authority and Council Member of the Hong Kong Institute of Education.
In 2007, Rimsky Yuen was elected chairman of the Hong Kong Bar Association. When he was re-elected in 2008, it was revealed that he was a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Guangdong Committee. Democratic Party chairman Albert Ho and Civic Party member Audrey Eu, called for Yuen to step down. Ronny Tong, who had declined a similar offer of appointment to the Guangdong CPPCC during his tenure as Bar Association chairman expressed his disappointment in Yuen and expressed his concerns over the potential for conflicts of interest. In contrast, legislator Kwong Chi-kin of the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions supported Yuen's appointment, stating that it would promote cooperation with mainland authorities. On 17 January 2008, he was re-elected unopposed. In 2012, he was appointed by the Chief Executive-elect Leung Chun-ying as the Secretary for Justice. In December 2013, Yuen was appointed by Leung Chun-ying as one of the three-member Task Force on Constitutional Development, alongside Chief Secretary for Administration Carrie Lam and Secretary for Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Raymond Tam, in relation to the consultation on the Methods for Selecting the Chief Executive in 2017 and for Forming the Legislative Council in 2016.
Yuen provided the legal opinion on the proposed constitutional reform. He opposed the "civil nomination" proposal advanced by pro-democrats, arguing that it might bypass the nominating committee and "turn it into a plastic stamp"On 21 October 2014 during the Occupy Central movement triggered by the NPCSC's August 31 Decision, the government and the HKFS held the first round of talks in a televised open debate in which Yuen took part as one of the five government representatives. During the talks, government representatives suggested the possibility of writing a new report on the students' concerns to supplement the government's last report on political reform to Beijing, but stressed that civil nomination, as proposed by the students, fell outside the framework of the Basic Law and the NPCSC decision; the government described the talks as "candid and meaningful" in a press release, while the students expressed their disappointment at the lack of concrete results. After the final legislative bill came out in January 2015, Yuen continued to lobby for support for the proposal.
On 25 April 2015 Yuen participated in a territory-wide bus parade to appeal for public support for the city's constitutional reform package on an open-top double-decker bus. The bill was defeated in the Legislative Council on 18 June. In October 2016, after the Legislative Council elections resulted in the election of certain pro-Hong Kong independence legislators to the Legislative Council and Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying took an unprecedented move to launch a legal challenge against the Legislative Council President Andrew Leung in order to seek the disqualification of two pro-independence Youngspiration legislators-elect Baggio Leung and Yau Wai-ching over the duo's controversial behaviour during the oath-taking ceremony at the inaugural meeting. Despite Yuen repeated statement of not seeking for the NPCSC interpretation of the Basic Law, in November NPCSC interpreted the Basic Law Article 104 and set a framework on how to take the oath a
Hong Kong Shue Yan University
Hong Kong Shue Yan University, founded in 1971 as Hong Kong Shue Yan College, is an educational institute that refers to itself as the "first private liberal arts university" in Hong Kong. The university offers 4-year degree programmes in Hong Kong. SYU was unilaterally recognised as the first and only private university in Hong Kong by the order of the Chief Executive on 19 December 2006. Hong Kong Shue Yan College was founded on 20 September 1971 by Dr Henry H. L. Hu Legislative Councillor, Dr Chung Chi-Yung, a prominent educationist. In 1971, Dr Chung resigned from her post as faculty head of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences of the Hong Kong Baptist College and planned to establish a kindergarten. However, her husband, Dr Hu, suggested founding a university instead and invested his savings from his work as a barrister in it, purchasing a three-story house at Sing Woo Road, Happy Valley as campus, they were concerned that provision for tertiary education in Hong Kong was made for less than 2% of the relevant age group and that the Cultural Revolution in mainland China would undermine traditional Chinese values.
The government of Hong Kong at the time was interested in the prospects of an independent, private liberal arts school, granted a piece of land at Braemar Hill to construct a permanent campus in 1978. The construction was completed in September 1985, various additions to the campus were constructed after that time. Due to Shue Yan's refusal to follow the government's model and plan for higher education in return for government funding in the late 1970s, Shue Yan development was restricted. Shue Yan's unrelenting position to offer four-year programmes meant that it had to operate as a private institution, without any government funding; because of this, Shue Yan cannot meet the three-year university degree requirement and has to refer itself as a college rather than a university. However it provided an opportunity to access higher education for students who were unable to secure a place at a local university. In 2000, the Education Bureau of Hong Kong provided a fund of HKD 4.6 million for academic accreditation.
In 2001, Hong Kong Shue Yan College passed the academic accreditation of the Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Academic and Vocational Qualifications and was allowed to offer three courses leading to different Honours bachelor's degrees. In the same year, the Hong Kong Government amended the Post Secondary Colleges Ordinance, allowing accredited post secondary colleges to award degrees under the approval of the Chief Executive-in-Council. Hong Kong Shue Yan College thus became the first private tertiary education institute in Hong Kong that can award Honours bachelor's degrees. On 19 December 2006, the Executive Council passed a resolution to recognise and accredit Hong Kong Shue Yan College as Hong Kong's first private university, with immediate effect. Hong Kong Shue Yan College subsequently rectified its name to Hong Kong Shue Yan University, it was the first time. All other universities in Hong Kong have been established by ordinance approved by the Legislative Council of the HKSAR.
As there is a shortage of government-funded degrees, there were plans for SYU and the OUHK to participate in JUPAS as alternatives for students. While the OUHK has accepted and designed some programmes for such students since 2006, SYU announced they would not be participating in JUPAS in the foreseeable future. SYU become the only university in Hong Kong that declined to join JUPAS and UGC. In January 2007, the HKSAR government offered a one-time grant of HKD200 million to establish a general development fund for SYU; the University may use the interest to support its academic development and improve the campus facilities. The SYU campus is situated on Braemar Hill on Hong Kong Island, offers a view of the Victoria Harbour; the land the campus rests on was granted by the Hong Kong Government in 1978, with the first building completed in 1985. The campus consists of three parts: Education and Administration Complex - Completed construction in 1985, the complex is 11 stories high and houses classrooms, computer labs, lecture halls, ceremony halls, sports facilities, staff offices.
Library Complex - Completed construction in 1995, the complex is 19 stories high, houses the campus library, car park, conference hall and apartments for academic staff. Residential & Amenities Complex - Completed construction in 2005, the complex is 29 stories high, houses student dormitories, student services, swimming pool, sports facilities, café, conference rooms, multipurpose facilities; the student union and student activities center are housed in this complex. Journalism and Mass Communication Chinese Language and Literature Economics & Finance English Language and Literature History Counselling & Psychology Psychology Sociology Accounting Law & Business Financial Services & Planning Concentration Marketing Concentration Human Resource Management Concentration China Business Studies Concentration Corporate Governance Concentration Counselling Psychology Academic Departments at SYU are grouped in faculties Department of Accounting Department of Business Administration Department of Economics Department of Law and Business Department of Journalism and Communication Department of Chinese Language & Literature Department of English Language & Literature Department of History Department of Counselling and Psychology Dep
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions. Barristers specialise in courtroom advocacy and litigation, their tasks include taking cases in superior courts and tribunals, drafting legal pleadings, researching the philosophy and history of law, giving expert legal opinions. Barristers are recognised as legal scholars. Barristers are distinguished from solicitors, who have more direct access to clients, may do transactional-type legal work, it is barristers who are appointed as judges, they are hired by clients directly. In some legal systems, including those of Scotland, South Africa, Pakistan, India and the British Crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man, the word barrister is regarded as an honorific title. In a few jurisdictions, barristers are forbidden from "conducting" litigation, can only act on the instructions of a solicitor, who performs tasks such as corresponding with parties and the court, drafting court documents. In England and Wales, barristers may seek authorisation from the Bar Standards Board to conduct litigation.
This allows a barrister to practise in a'dual capacity', fulfilling the role of both barrister and solicitor. In some countries with common law legal systems, such as New Zealand and some regions of Australia, lawyers are entitled to practise both as barristers and solicitors, but it remains a separate system of qualification to practise as a barrister. A barrister, who can be considered as a jurist, is a lawyer who represents a litigant as advocate before a court of appropriate jurisdiction. A barrister presents the case before a judge or jury. In some jurisdictions, a barrister receives additional training in evidence law and court practice and procedure. In contrast, a solicitor meets with clients, does preparatory and administrative work and provides legal advice. In this role, he or she may draft and review legal documents, interact with the client as necessary, prepare evidence, manage the day-to-day administration of a lawsuit. A solicitor can provide a crucial support role to a barrister when in court, such as managing large volumes of documents in the case or negotiating a settlement outside the courtroom while the trial continues inside.
There are other essential differences. A barrister will have rights of audience in the higher courts, whereas other legal professionals will have more limited access, or will need to acquire additional qualifications to have such access; as in common law countries in which there is a split between the roles of barrister and solicitor, the barrister in civil law jurisdictions is responsible for appearing in trials or pleading cases before the courts. Barristers have particular knowledge of case law and the skills to "build" a case; when a solicitor in general practice is confronted with an unusual point of law, they may seek the "opinion of counsel" on the issue. In most countries, barristers operate as sole practitioners, are prohibited from forming partnerships or from working as a barrister as part of a corporation. However, barristers band together into "chambers" to share clerks and operating expenses; some chambers grow to be large and sophisticated, have a distinctly corporate feel. In some jurisdictions, they may be employed by firms of solicitors, banks, or corporations as in-house legal advisers.
In contrast and attorneys work directly with the clients and are responsible for engaging a barrister with the appropriate expertise for the case. Barristers have little or no direct contact with their'lay clients' without the presence or involvement of the solicitor. All correspondence, invoices, so on, will be addressed to the solicitor, responsible for the barrister's fees. In court, barristers are visibly distinguished from solicitors by their apparel. For example, in Ireland and Wales, a barrister wears a horsehair wig, stiff collar, a gown. Since January 2008, solicitor advocates have been entitled to wear wigs, but wear different gowns. In many countries the traditional divisions between barristers and solicitors are breaking down. Barristers once enjoyed a monopoly on appearances before the higher courts, but in Great Britain this has now been abolished, solicitor advocates can appear for clients at trial. Firms of solicitors are keeping the most advanced advisory and litigation work in-house for economic and client relationship reasons.
The prohibition on barristers taking instructions directly from the public has been abolished. But, in practice, direct instruction is still a rarity in most jurisdictions because barristers with narrow specializations, or who are only trained for advocacy, are not prepared to provide general advice to members of the public. Barristers have had a major role in trial preparation, including drafting pleadings and reviewing evidence. In some areas of law, still the case. In other areas, it is common for the barrister to receive the brief from the instructing solicitor to represent a client at trial only a day or two before the proceeding. Part of the reason for this is cost. A barrister is entitled to a'brief fee' when a brief is delivered, this represents the bulk of her/his fee in relation to any trial, they are usually entitled to a'refresher' for each day of the trial after the first. But if a case is settled before the trial, the barrister is not needed and the brief fee would be wast
Wan Chai is a metropolitan area situated at the western part of the Wan Chai District on the northern shore of Hong Kong Island, in Hong Kong. Its other boundaries are Canal Road to the east, Arsenal Street to the west and Bowen Road to the south; the area north of Gloucester Road is referred to as Wan Chai North. Wan Chai is one of the busiest commercial areas in Hong Kong with offices of many small and medium-sized companies. Wan Chai North features office towers, hotels and an international conference and exhibition centre; as one of the first areas developed in Hong Kong, the locale is densely populated yet with noticeable residential zones facing urban decay. Arousing considerable public concern, the government has undertaken several urban renewal projects in recent years. There are various landmarks and skyscrapers within the area, most notably the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Central Plaza and Hopewell Centre. Wan Chai began as Ha Wan meaning "a bottom ring" or "lower circuit".
As one of the earliest developed areas in Hong Kong along the Victoria Harbour, Sheung Wan, Sai Wan and Wan Chai are collectively known as the four rings by the locals. Wan Chai means "a cove" in Cantonese from the shape of its coastal line; the area is no longer a cove, due to drastic city development and continual land reclamation. Wan Chai was first home to the many Chinese villagers living along the undisturbed coastlines in proximity to Hung Shing Temple. Most of them were fishermen, who worked around the area near Hung Shing Temple overlooking the entire harbour. Hung Shing Ye, the God of the Sea, was one of the deities worshiped by the locals. With the growth of the British Hong Kong administration, centred in old Victoria, Wan Chai attracted those on the fringes of society, such as "coolie" workers, who came to live on Queen's Road East. A focal point of development at that time was a red-light zone. By the 1850s the area was becoming a Chinese residential area. There were dockyards on McGregor Street for building and repairing ships.
The edge of Sun Street, Moon Street and Star Street was the original site of the first power station in Hong Kong, operated by the Hongkong Electric Company, which began supplying power in 1890. One of the first water-front hospitals was the Seaman's Hospital, built in 1843, funded by the British merchant group Jardine's, it was sold to the British Royal Navy in 1873 and subsequently redeveloped into the Royal Naval Hospital. After the Second World War, the hospital was revitalised as the Ruttonjee Hospital and became one of the main public hospitals in Hong Kong; the district was home to several well-known schools. One of these schools was established by Mo Dunmei. Started as a shushu in 1919, the school was renamed Dunmei School in 1934 after him, it taught Confucian ethics. In 1936, the Chinese Methodist Church moved its building from Caine Road, Mid-levels Central, to Hennessy Road, Wanchai, a thoroughfare of the district running from west to east; this church building became the landmark of the district.
In 1998, this building was replaced by a 23-storey building. During the Japanese occupation in the early 1940s, many bombardments took place in Wan Chai. There were abundant incidences of cannibalism, starvation and abuses of the local population by the Japanese soldiers, including the illegal use of child labour. Senior residents could recall vividly how they survived the hardships: this oral history became an important, first-hand source of the harsh life conditions in Hong Kong under the Japanese period; the Dunmei school was closed during the Japanese occupation period. After the war, the school continued to provide Chinese education for children from families of higher income. During the 1950s the pro-Communist underground cell network Hailiushe established their headquarters at the rooftop of a multi-story house on Spring Garden Lane; this group was raided by the Hong Kong police. Prostitution has been one of the oldest occupations in Wan Chai. There are numerous historical accounts of women trading sex for western merchandise with sailors from trading ships visiting this area.
In the 1960s, Wan Chai became legendary for its exotic night life for the US servicemen resting there during the Vietnam War. Despite rapid changes of Wan Chai's demography from reclamation and redevelopment, the presence of sex workers operating among ordinary residential areas has continued to be a distinctive feature; some of the lifestyle was illustrated in past movies such as The World of Suzie Wong. Wan Chai's HKCEC has been home to major economic events, it was the site of the Hong Kong handover ceremony in 1997, in which the last governor of Hong Kong, Chris Patten, formally concluded the British chapter and transferred Hong Kong to China. The WTO Ministerial Conference in 2005 was one of the largest international events hosted in Hong Kong, with delegates from 148 countries participating. In May 2009, 300 guests and staff members at the Metropark Hotel in Wan Chai were quarantined, suspected of being infected or in contact with the H1N1 virus during the global outbreak of swine flu.
A 25-year-old Mexican man who had stayed at the hotel was found to have caught the viral infection. He had travelled to Hong Kong from Mexico via Shanghai. Wan Chai's coastal line has been extended outward after a series of land reclamation schemes. Early in 1841, the coastline was located at Queen's Road East; the first reclamation took place and new land