Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P
Fulda is a city in Murray County, United States. The population was 1,318 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.11 square miles, of which 1.03 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles is water. The city is situated on the north end of Fulda Lake. U. S. Highway 59 and Minnesota State Highway 62 are two of the main routes in the city; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,318 people, 566 households, 324 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,279.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 615 housing units at an average density of 597.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.7% White, 0.8% African American, 0.2% Native American, 4.2% Asian, 1.5% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.3% of the population. There were 566 households of which 23.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.5% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.8% were non-families.
38.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 46.8 years. 21.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.1% male and 53.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,283 people, 528 households, 328 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,328.3 people per square mile. There were 568 housing units at an average density of 588.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.10% White, 0.08% African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 2.18% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.27% of the population. There were 528 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 4.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.7% were non-families.
35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 24.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 4.8% from 18 to 24, 23.4% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, 29.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,000, the median income for a family was $37,500. Males had a median income of $26,469 versus $18,750 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,184. About 4.1% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over. The city of Fulda was founded in 1881 along the Milwaukee Road by German settlers, though by Scandinavian and Irish; the community was named for Fulda in Germany.
Fulda is still predominantly an agricultural city. Although the rail line was discontinued in 1980, the two-story depot building, along with a section of track, has been preserved and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the lower level of the depot is used as an antique museum and store. The other building in the city on the National Register is the former Citizens State Bank building. Fulda has a Civil War cannon located in its city park; this cannon is a three-inch rifled gun and was purchased for $155 on June 25, 1892, by the Zach Taylor Post No. 42 of the Grand Army of the Republic. Fulda was the birthplace of Harold Hotelling, a mathematical statistician and influential economic theorist. Baseball Hall of Famer and Negro League pitcher Hilton Smith played for Fulda's semi-pro baseball team in 1949 and 1950. Sports columnist Patrick Reusse of the Minneapolis Star-Tribune spent his early years in Fulda; the Continental Co-ets, America's first touring all-girl rock & roll band, originated in Fulda in 1963.
Ted Winter, former Minnesota House Majority Leader and longtime state representative is from Fulda. Fulda promotes itself as the "Home of the Wood Duck" due to the large number of colorful wood ducks that migrate through the region, man-made nests attached to trees are a common sight in the area; the annual Wood Duck Festival is held in June, includes a parade, carnival attractions, musical and talent performances in the park. Local churches include First Presbyterian Church, Saint Gabriel's Catholic Church, Saint Paul's and Immanuel American Lutheran churches; the area is served by the Fulda Free Press as well as other regional newspapers. Local organizations include American Legion post 318, Boy Scout troop 123, Fish and Game Club, Jaycees, VFW post 9017. March 16, 2019 was the first annual “Corned Beef and Cabbage Comedy Show” featuring Elise Cole, Ben Marcotte, Casey Flesch, Fulda native Andrew Witzel; the show was a mild success. There are three schools in Fulda. Fulda Elementary School, Fulda Secondary School, the Fulda Lutheran School.
Running in Fulda was the St. Gabriel's Catholic School. Fulda Public Schools consists of Fulda Secondary School; the Fulda Public Schools' mascot is the "Raider" symbolized with a pirate on a crest with a sword behind it. Formerly
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
A swamp is a wetland, forested. Many swamps occur along large rivers where they are critically dependent upon natural water level fluctuations. Other swamps occur on the shores of large lakes; some swamps have hammocks, or dry-land protrusions, covered by aquatic vegetation, or vegetation that tolerates periodic inundation or soil saturation. The two main types of swamp swamp forests and "transitional" or shrub swamps. In the boreal regions of Canada, the word swamp is colloquially used for what is more termed a bog, fen, or muskeg; the water of a swamp may be brackish water or seawater. Some of the world's largest swamps are found along major rivers such as the Amazon, the Mississippi, the Congo. A marsh is a wetland composed of grasses and reeds found near the fringes of lakes and streams, serving as a transitional area between land and aquatic ecosystems. A swamp is a wetland composed of shrubs found along large rivers and lake shores. Swamps are characterized by slow-moving to stagnant waters.
Many adjoin rivers or lakes. Swamps are features of areas with low topographic relief. Humans have drained swamps to provide additional land for agriculture and to reduce the threat of diseases borne by swamp insects and similar animals. Many swamps have undergone intensive logging, requiring the construction of drainage ditches and canals; these ditches and canals contributed to drainage and, along the coast, allowed salt water to intrude, converting swamps to marsh or to open water. Large areas of swamp were therefore degraded. Louisiana provides a classic example of wetland loss from these combined factors. Europe has lost nearly half its wetlands. New Zealand lost 90 percent of its wetlands over a period of 150 years. Ecologists recognise that swamps provide valuable ecological services including flood control, fish production, water purification, carbon storage, wildlife habitat. In many parts of the world authorities protect swamps. In parts of Europe and North America, swamp restoration projects are becoming widespread.
The simplest steps to restoring swamps involve plugging drainage ditches and removing levees. Swamps and other wetlands have traditionally held a low property value compared to fields, prairies, or woodlands, they have a reputation for being unproductive land that cannot be utilized for human activities, other than hunting and trapping. Farmers, for example drained swamps next to their fields so as to gain more land usable for planting crops. Many societies now realize that swamps are critically important to providing fresh water and oxygen to all life, that they are breeding grounds for a wide variety of species. Indeed, floodplain swamps are important in fish production. Government environmental agencies are taking steps to protect and preserve swamps and other wetlands. In Europe, major effort is being invested in the restoration of swamp forests along rivers. Conservationists work to preserve swamps such as those in northwest Indiana in the United States Midwest that were preserved as part of the Indiana Dunes.
The problem of invasive species has been put into greater light such as in places like the Everglades. Swamps can be found on all continents except Antarctica; the largest swamp in the world is the Amazon River floodplain, significant for its large number of fish and tree species. The Sudd and the Okavango Delta are Africa's best known marshland areas; the Bangweulu Floodplains make up Africa's largest swamp. The Tigris-Euphrates river system is a large swamp and river system in southern Iraq, traditionally inhabited in part by the Marsh Arabs. In Asia, tropical peat swamps are located in mainland East Southeast Asia. In Southeast Asia, peatlands are found in low altitude coastal and sub-coastal areas and extend inland for distance more than 100 km along river valleys and across watersheds, they are to be found on the coasts of East Sumatra, West Papua, Papua New Guinea, Peninsular Malaya, Sarawak, Southeast Thailand, the Philippines. Indonesia has the largest area of tropical peatland. Of the total 440,000 km2 tropical peat swamp, about 210,000 km2 are located in Indonesia.
The Vasyugan Swamp is a large swamp in the western Siberia area of the Russian Federation. This is one of the largest swamps in the world; the Atchafalaya Swamp at the lower end of the Mississippi River is the largest swamp in the United States. It is an important example of southern cypress swamp but it has been altered by logging and levee construction. Other famous swamps in the United States are the forested portions of the Everglades, Okefenokee Swamp, Barley Barber Swamp, Great Cypress Swamp and the Great Dismal Swamp; the Okefenokee is located in extreme southeastern Georgia and extends into northeastern Florida. The Great Cypress Swamp is in Delaware but extends into Maryland on the Delmarva Peninsula. Point Lookout State Park on the southern tip of Maryland contains a large amount of swamps and marshes; the Great Dismal Swamp lies in extreme southeastern Virginia and extreme northeastern North Carolina. Both are National Wildlife Refuges. Another swamp area, Reelfoot Lake of extreme western Tennessee and Kentucky, was created by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes.
Caddo Lake, the Great Dismal and Reelfoot are swamps. Swamps are called bayous in the southeastern United States in the Gulf Coast region; the worl
The Anatidae are the biological family of water birds that includes ducks and swans. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring on all the world's continents; these birds are adapted for swimming, floating on the water surface, in some cases diving in at least shallow water. The family contains around 146 species in 43 genera, they are herbivorous, are monogamous breeders. A number of species undertake annual migrations. A few species have been domesticated for agriculture, many others are hunted for food and recreation. Five species have become extinct since 1600, many more are threatened with extinction; the ducks and swans are small- to large-sized birds with a broad and elongated general body plan. Diving species vary from this in being rounder. Extant species range in size from the cotton pygmy goose, at as little as 26.5 cm and 164 g, to the trumpeter swan, at as much as 183 cm and 17.2 kg. The wings are short and pointed, supported by strong wing muscles that generate rapid beats in flight.
They have long necks, although this varies in degree between species. The legs are short and set far to the back of the body, have a leathery feel with a scaly texture. Combined with their body shape, this can make some species awkward on land, but they are stronger walkers than other marine and water birds such as grebes or petrels, they have webbed feet, though a few species such as the Nene have secondarily lost their webbing. The bills are made of soft keratin with a sensitive layer of skin on top. For most species, the shape of the bill tends to be more flattened to a lesser extent; these contain serrated lamellae which are well defined in the filter-feeding species. Their feathers are excellent at shedding water due to special oils. Many of the ducks display sexual dimorphism, with the males being more brightly coloured than the females; the swans and whistling-ducks lack sexually dimorphic plumage. Anatids are vocal birds, producing a range of quacks, honks and trumpeting sounds, depending on species.
Anatids are herbivorous as adults, feeding on various water-plants, although some species eat fish, molluscs, or aquatic arthropods. One group, the mergansers, are piscivorous, have serrated bills to help them catch fish. In a number of species, the young include a high proportion of invertebrates in their diets, but become purely herbivorous as adults; the anatids are seasonal and monogamous breeders. The level of monogamy varies within the family. However, forced extrapair copulation among anatids are common, ocucurring in 55 species in 17 genera. Anatidae is a large proportion of the 3% of bird species to possess a penis, though they vary in size and surface elaboration. Most species are adapted for copulation on the water only, they construct simple nests from whatever material is close at hand lining them with a layer of down plucked from the mother's breast. In most species, only the female incubates the eggs; the young are precocial, are able to feed themselves from birth. One aberrant species, the black-headed duck, is an obligate brood parasite, laying its eggs in the nests of gulls and coots.
While this species never raises its own young, a number of other ducks lay eggs in the nests of conspecifics in addition to raising their own broods. Duck and goose feathers and down have long been popular for bedspreads, sleeping bags, coats; the members of this family have long been used for food. Humans have had a long relationship with ducks and swans. However, some anatids are damaging agricultural pests, have acted as vectors for zoonoses such as avian influenza. Since 1600, five species of ducks have become extinct due to the activities of humans, subfossil remains have shown that humans caused numerous extinctions in prehistory. Today, many more are considered threatened. Most of the historic and prehistoric extinctions were insular species, vulnerable due to small populations, island tameness. Evolving on islands that lacked predators, these species lost antipredator behaviours, as well as the ability to fly, were vulnerable to human hunting pressure and introduced species. Other extinctions and declines are attributable to overhunting, habitat loss and modification, hybridisation with introduced ducks.
Numerous governments and conservation and hunting organisations have made considerable progress in protecting ducks and duck populations through habitat protection and creation and protection, captive-breeding programmes. The family Anatidae was introduced by the English zoologist William Elford Leach in a guide to the contents of the British Museum published in 1820. While the status of the Anatidae as a family is straightforward, which species properly belong to it is little debated, the relationships of the di
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks and swans. Most modern species in the order are adapted for an aquatic existence at the water surface. With the exception of screamers, all have phalli, a trait, lost in the Neoaves. Due to their aquatic nature, most species are web-footed. Anseriformes are one of two types of modern bird thought to be confirmed present during the mesozoic alongside the other dinosaurs, in fact were among the few birds to survive their extinction, along with their cousins the galliformes; these two groups only occupied ecological niches during the mesozoic, living in water and on the ground, while the toothed enantiornithes were the dominant birds that ruled the trees and air. But the fireball, thought to have ended the era of the dinosaurs destroyed all trees as well as animals in the open, a condition that took years to recover.
The anseriformes and galliformes are thought to have survived in the cover of burrows and water, not to have needed trees for food and reproduction. The earliest cretaceous anseriform found so far is vegavis, a goose-like waterfowl thought to have lived as long as 99 million years ago; some members surviving the KT extinction event, including presbyornithids, thought to be the common ancestors of ducks, geese and screamers, the last group once thought to be galliformes, but now genetically confirmed to be related to geese. The first known duck fossils start to appear about 34 million years ago; the Anseriformes and the Galliformes are the most primitive neognathous birds, should follow ratites and tinamous in bird classification systems. Together they belong to the Galloanserae. Several unusual extinct families of birds like the albatross-like pseudotooth birds and the giant flightless gastornithids and mihirungs have been found to be stem-anseriforms based on common features found in the skull region, beak physiology and pelvic region.
The genus Vegavis for a while was found to be the earliest member of the anseriform crown group but a recent 2017 paper has found it to be just outside the crown group in the family Vegaviidae. Below is the general consensus of the phylogeny of their stem relatives. Anatidae systematics regarding placement of some "odd" genera in the dabbling ducks or shelducks, is not resolved. See the Anatidae article for more information, for alternate taxonomic approaches. Anatidae is traditionally divided into subfamilies Anserinae; the Anatinae consists of tribes Anatini, Aythyini and Tadornini. The higher-order classification below follows a phylogenetic analysis performed by Mikko's Phylogeny Archive and John Boyd's website. Order Anseriformes †Anatalavis Olson & Parris 1987? †Conflicto Claudia P. Tambussi et al. 2019? †Naranbulagornis Zelenkov 2019 Sub Order Anhimae Wetmore & Miller 1926 Genus †Chaunoides de Alvarenga 1999 Family Anhimidae Stejneger 1885 Genus Anhima Brisson 1760 Genus Chauna Illiger 1811 Sub Order Anseres Superfamily Anseranatoidea Family Anseranatidae Sclater 1880 Genus †Anserpica Mourer-Chauviré, Berthet & Hugueney 2004 Genus †Eoanseranas Worthy & Scanlon 2009 Genus †Anatalavis Olson & Parris 1987 Genus Anseranas Lesson 1828 Superfamily Anatoidea Family †Presbyornithidae Wetmore 1926 ^ Genus †Teviornis Kuročkin, Dyke & Karhu 2002 Genus †Telmabates Howard 1955 Genus †Headonornis Harrison & Walker 1976 Genus †Presbyornis Wetmore 1926 Genus †Wilaru Boles et al. 2013 Family †Paranyrocidae Miller & Compton 1939 Genus †Paranyroca Miller & Compton 1939 Family Anatidae Leach 1820 Subfamily †Romainvilliinae Lambrecht 1933 Genus †Romainvillia Lebedinský 1927 Genus †Saintandrea Mayr & De Pietri 2013 Subfamily Dendrocygninae Reichenbach 1849–50 Genus Dendrocygna Swainson 1837 Genus Thalassornis Eyton 1838 Subfamily †Dendrocheninae Livezey & Martin 1988 Genus †Dendrochen Miller 1944 Genus †Manuherikia Worthy et al. 2007 Genus †Mionetta Livezey & Martin 1988 Subfamily Stictonettinae Genus Stictonetta Reichenbach 1853 Subfamily Anserinae Vigors 1825 sensu Livezey 1996 Genus †Anserobranta Kuročkin & Ganya 1972 Genus †Asiavis Nesov 1986 Genus †“Chenopis” De Vis 1905 Genus †Cygnavus Lambrecht 1931 Genus †Cygnopterus Lambrecht 1931 Genus †Eremochen Brodkorb 1961 Genus †Megalodytes Howard 1992 Genus †Paracygnus Short 1969 Genus †Presbychen Wetmore 1930 Genus †Cnemiornis Owen 1866 Genus Coscoroba Reichenbach 1853 Genus Cereopsis Latham 1801 Genus Cygnus Garsault 1764 Genus †Afrocygnus chauvireae Louchart et al. 2005 Genus Branta Scopoli 1769 Tribe Anserini Vigors 1825 Genus Anser Brisson 1760 [Chen Boie 1822.