Viking ships were marine vessels of unique design, built by the Vikings during the Viking Age. The boat-types were quite varied, depending on what the ship was intended for and they were clinker built, which is the overlapping of planks riveted together. Some might have had a head or other circular object protruding from the bow and stern, for design. Viking ships were not just used for their military prowess but for long-distance trade, in the literature, Viking ships are usually seen divided into two broad categories, merchant ships and warships. These categories are overlapping, some kinds of merchant ships, built for transporting cargo specifically, were regularly deployed as warships. The majority of Viking ships were designed for sailing rivers and coastal waters, while a few types, such as the knarr, could navigate the open sea and even the ocean. The Viking ships ranged from the Baltic Sea to far from the Scandinavian homelands, to Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Newfoundland, the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and Africa.
Scandinavia is a region with relatively high mountain ranges, dense forests. Consequently, trade routes were operated via shipping, as inland travel was both more hazardous and cumbersome. The Viking kingdoms developed into cities, all of which were deeply dependent on the North Sea. Control of the waterways was of importance, and consequently advanced war ships were in high demand. But in fact, because of their importance, ships became a mainstay of the Viking pagan religion, as they evolved into symbols of power. Throughout the first millennium, respectable Viking chieftains and noblemen were commonly buried with an intact, the Hedeby coins, among the earliest known Danish currency, have ships as emblems, showing the importance of naval vessels in the area. Through such cultural and practical significance, the Viking ship progressed into the most powerful, a faering is an open rowboat with two pairs of oars, commonly found in most boat-building traditions in Western and Northern Scandinavia, dating back to the Viking Age.
Knarr is the Norse term for ships that were built for Atlantic voyages and they were cargo ships averaging a length of about 54 feet, a beam of 15 feet, and a hull capable of carrying up to 122 tons. Because of this, the knarr was used for longer voyages, ocean going transports, the design of the knarr influenced the design of the cog, used in the Baltic Sea by the Hanseatic League. Longships were naval vessels made and used by the Vikings from Scandinavia and Iceland for trade, commerce and warfare during the Viking Age. The longships design evolved over years, beginning in the Stone Age with the invention of the umiak and continuing up to the 9th century with the Nydam
Parquet is a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative effect. The two main uses of parquetry are as wood veneer patterns on furniture and block patterns for flooring, parquet patterns are entirely geometrical and angular—squares, lozenges. The most popular parquet flooring pattern is herringbone, the word derives from the Old French parchet, literally meaning a small enclosed space. Such parquets en losange were noted by the Swedish architect Daniel Cronström at Versailles, while not technically a wood, bamboo is a popular material for modern floors. Parquet floors were formerly usually adhered with hot bitumen, today modern cold adhesives are usually used. Wood floors may be brushed clean, and mopped when necessary, upright vacuum cleaners can scratch and wear the surface, as grit particles become embedded in the spinning brushes. Parquet floors are long lasting and require little or no maintenance. Bitumen-glued blocks require use of hot bitumen or a cold bitumen emulsion. Parquet floors are found in bedrooms and hallways.
They are considered better than regular floor tiles since they feel warmer underfoot, however they do little to absorb sounds such as walking, vacuum cleaning and television, which can cause problems in multi-occupancy dwellings. One of the most famous parquet floors is the one used by the Boston Celtics of the NBA, the floor remained intact and in use until it was cut up and sold as souvenirs in 1999, after the 1998 demolition of Boston Garden. The Celtics today play on a parquet floor inside TD Garden that combines old, similar square-paneled parquet floors were made for the Orlando Magic, Minnesota Timberwolves, Denver Nuggets, and New Jersey Nets. Of the four, only the Magic continue to use a square-paneled parquet floor, the Nets debuted their parquet at the Meadowlands Arena in 1988, and continued to use the floor until 1997. The said floor remained in use with the Seton Hall basketball team until 2007, the Nuggets used a parquet floor from 1990 to 1993 at the McNichols Sports Arena, while the Timberwolves played on the parquet from 1996 to 2008 at the Target Center.
In 1995, the Toronto Raptors debuted with a herringbone parquet, the Nets revived the use of the herringbone upon moving to the Barclays Center in 2012. While the Charlotte Hornets unveiled a parquet-like floor at the Time Warner Cable Arena for the 2014–15 season, it is not considered a true parquet floor. Instead, it simulated the pattern of the parquet by alternately painting light and dark trapezoid sections through the use of varnish, forming a beehive pattern that is synonymous with the franchise
The phrase bush carpentry is a familiar Australian usage, but finding an exact description of its practice is rare. The Macquarie Dictionary for example, defines a bush carpenter as an amateur carpenter. The Macquarie in turn defines rough-and-ready as rough, rude or crude, wannan says that a bush carpenter is a very rough, unorthodox artisan indeed, and includes a sardonic excerpt from Henry Lawson to exemplify it. In his Bushcraft series Ron Edwards describes hut and furniture building, Tocal Agricultural College offers a course in Traditional bush timber construction, The word traditional appears six times in the course outline, but not bush carpentry. Cox and Lucas, writing in 1978 of Australian pioneer buildings, perhaps because it has been the symbol of hardship and country toil, perhaps because it was thought too crude and rude to be treated seriously as architecture by the academics. There have been few books and articles written on the subject, the vernacular, often, is a fragile architectural form, evolved for expedience and resulting—especially in the case of the more primitive examples—in early decay and disappearance.
Within the vernacular building, function is the dominant factor, a similar and familiar phrase is traditional bush carpentry, this implies that its principles are well-known, but informally transmitted. Like folk music, bush carpentry exists within an oral and demotic culture, the tradition of Australian inventiveness, has an extensive literature. Vigorous attitudes to innovation prevailed in the Colonies in the nineteenth century, lessons from these attitudes both underline the continuing importance of the lone inventor and hold relevance for education and technology policies today. There is sometimes a sardonic sense included in the phrase bush carpentry, one which implies slip-shod work by a careless practitioner, the milk is set in dishes made of kerosene-tins, cut in halves, which are placed on bark shelves fitted round against the walls. The shelves are not level and the dishes are brought to a horizontal position by means of chips and bits of bark. The milk is covered by soiled sheets of old newspapers supported on sticks laid across the dishes and this protection is necessary, because the box bark in the roof has crumbled away and left fringed holes—also because the fowls roost up there.
Sometimes the paper sags, and the cream may have to be scraped off an article on dairy farming, in Australian parlance, the bush includes not only all remote and rural areas, but ways of living there, especially the limitations and hardships endured. The expression bush carpentry includes two criteria of remoteness, the first, that the builder is separated from regular methods of construction. The second, separation from regular resources such as milled timber, specialized tools and those in both remote circumstances are forced to invent and improvise. They produce a structure or object via unorthodox procedures, and it will be serviceable. These two criteria allow the use of manufactured materials—e. g, milled timber—in an irregular manner, and materials other than wood. The Australian Aborigines were probably the first bush carpenters, from the Aborigines, European settlers learned how to strip bark in large sheets from particular tree species, and use this for roofs and walls
Bow and arrow
The bow and arrow is a projectile weapon system that predates recorded history and is common to most cultures. Archery is the art, practice, or skill of applying it, a bow is a flexible arc that shoots aerodynamic projectiles called arrows. A string joins the two ends of the bow and when the string is drawn back, the ends of the bow are flexed, when the string is released, the potential energy of the flexed stick is transformed into the kinetic energy of the arrow. Archery is the art or sport of shooting arrows from bows, today and arrows are used primarily for hunting and for the sport of archery. Someone who makes bows is known as a bowyer, and one who makes arrows is a fletcher —or in the case of the manufacture of arrow heads. The bow and arrow appears around the transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic, at the site of Nataruk in Turkana County, obsidian bladelets found embedded in a skull and within the thoracic cavity of another skeleton, suggest the use of stone-tipped arrows as weapons.
After the end of the last glacial period, use of the bow seems to have spread to every inhabited continent, including the New World, the oldest extant bows in one piece are the elm Holmegaard bows from Denmark which were dated to 9,000 BCE. High-performance wooden bows are made following the Holmegaard design. Microliths discovered on the south coast of Africa suggest that arrows may be at least 71,000 years old, the bow was an important weapon for both hunting and warfare from prehistoric times until the widespread use of gunpowder in the 16th century. Organised warfare with bows ended in the mid 17th century in Europe, the British upper class led a revival of archery from the late 18th century. Sir Ashton Lever, an antiquarian and collector, formed the Toxophilite Society in London in 1781, under the patronage of George, the basic elements of a bow are a pair of curved elastic limbs, traditionally made from wood, joined by a riser. Both ends of the limbs are connected by a known as the bow string.
By pulling the string backwards the archer exerts compressive force on the section, or belly, of the limbs as well as placing the outer section, or back. While the string is held, this stores the energy released in putting the arrow to flight. The force required to hold the string stationary at full draw is used to express the power of a bow. Other things being equal, a draw weight means a more powerful bow. The various parts of the bow can be subdivided into further sections, the topmost limb is known as the upper limb, while the bottom limb is the lower limb. At the tip of each limb is a nock, which is used to attach the bowstring to the limbs, the riser is usually divided into the grip, which is held by the archer, as well as the arrow rest and the bow window
Marquetry is the art and craft of applying pieces of veneer to a structure to form decorative patterns, designs or pictures. The technique may be applied to case furniture or even seat furniture, to small objects with smooth. Marquetry differs from the ancient craft of inlay, or intarsia. The word derives from a Middle French word meaning inlaid work, the veneers used are primarily woods, but may include bone, turtle-shell, mother-of-pearl, brass or fine metals. Marquetry using colored straw was a specialty of some European spa resorts from the end of the 18th century, the French cabinet maker Andre-Charles Boulle specialized in furniture using metal and either wood or tortoiseshell together, the latter acting as the background. The simplest kind of marquetry uses only two sheets of veneer, which are glued together and cut with a fine saw. Marquetry as a craft most commonly uses knife-cut veneers. However, the technique usually requires a lot of time. For that reason, many marquetarians have switched to fret or scroll saw techniques, other requirements are a pattern of some kind, some brown gummed tape, PVA glue and a base-board with balancing veneers on the alternate face to compensate stresses.
Finishing the piece will require fine abrasive paper always backed by a sanding block, either ordinary varnish, special varnishes, modern polyurethane -oil or water based- good waxes and even the technique of french polish are different methods used to seal and finish the piece. Sand shading is a used to make a picture appear to be more three-dimensional. A piece of veneer to be incorporated into a picture is partially submerged into hot sand for a few seconds, another process is engraving fine lines into a picture and filling them with a mixture of India ink and shellac. The technique of veneered marquetry had its inspiration in 16th century Florence, Marquetry elaborated upon Florentine techniques of inlaying solid marble slabs with designs formed of fitted marbles and semi-precious stones. This work, called opere di commessi, has parallels in Central Italian Cosmati-work of inlaid marble floors, altars. The technique is known in English as pietra dura, for the used, jasper, lapis lazuli.
In Florence, the Chapel of the Medici at San Lorenzo is completely covered in a colored marble facing using this demanding jig-sawn technique, techniques of wood marquetry were developed in Antwerp and other Flemish centers of luxury cabinet-making during the early 16th century. Boulle marquetry dropped out of favor in the 1720s, but was revived in the 1780s, in the decades between, carefully matched quarter-sawn veneers sawn from the same piece of timber were arranged symmetrically on case pieces and contrasted with gilt-bronze mounts. Floral marquetry came into favor in Parisian furniture in the 1750s, employed by cabinet-makers like Bernard van Risenbergh, Jean-Pierre Latz, the most famous royal French furniture veneered with marquetry are the pieces delivered by Jean Henri Riesener in the 1770s and 1780s
A cabinet is a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors or drawers for storing miscellaneous items. Some cabinets stand alone while others are built into a wall or are attached to it like a medicine cabinet, cabinets are typically made of wood or, now increasingly, of synthetic materials. Commercial grade cabinets, which differ in the used, are called casework. Cabinets usually have one or more doors on the front, which are mounted with door hardware, many cabinets have doors and drawers or only drawers. Short cabinets often have a surface on top that can be used for display, or as a working surface. A cabinet intended for clothing storage is usually called a wardrobe or an armoire, before the advent of industrial design, cabinet makers were responsible for the conception and the production of any piece of furniture. In the last half of the 18th century, cabinet makers, such as Thomas Sheraton, Thomas Chippendale, cabinet Constructors, and George Hepplewhite, published books of furniture forms.
These books were compendiums of their designs and those of other cabinet makers, in parallel to this evolution there came a growing demand by the rising middle class in most industrialised countries for finely made furniture. This eventually resulted in a growth in the number of traditional cabinet makers. Before 1650, fine furniture was a rarity in Western Europe, people did not need it and for the most part could not afford it. They made do with simple but serviceable pieces, the arts and craft movement which started in the United Kingdom in the middle of the 19th century spurred a market for traditional cabinet making, and other craft goods. It rapidly spread to the United States and to all the countries in the British Empire and this movement exemplified the reaction to the eclectic historicism of the Victorian era and to the soulless machine-made production which was starting to become widespread. After World War II woodworking became a hobby among the middle classes. The more serious and skilled amateurs in this field now turn out pieces of furniture which rival the work of professional cabinet makers and this style of design is typified by clean horizontal and vertical lines.
Compared to other designs there is an absence of ornamentation. While Scandinavian design is easy to identify, it is more about the materials than the design. This style of design is very ornate, French Provincial objects are often stained or painted, leaving the wood concealed. Corners and bevels are often decorated with gold leaf or given some kind of gilding
Firewood is any wooden material that is gathered and used for fuel. Generally, firewood is not highly processed and is in some sort of recognizable log or branch form, Firewood can be seasoned or unseasoned. It can be classed as hardwood or softwood, demand for this fuel can outpace its ability to regenerate on a local or regional level. Good forestry practices and improvements in devices that use firewood can improve local wood supplies, harvesting or collecting firewood varies by the region and culture. Some places have specific areas for firewood collection, other places may integrate the collection of firewood in the cycle of preparing a plot of land to grow food as part of a field rotation process. Collection can be a group, family or an individual activity, the tools and methods for harvesting firewood are diverse. Some firewood is harvested in woodlots managed for that purpose, deadfall that has not started to rot is preferred, since it is already partly seasoned. Standing dead timber is considered better still, for it has less dirt on the trunk, allowing tools to stay sharper longer, harvesting this form of timber reduces the speed and intensity of bushfires, but it reduces habitat for snag-nesting animals such as owls and some rodents.
Harvesting timber for firewood is normally carried out by hand with chainsaws, longer pieces - requiring less manual labour, and less chainsaw fuel - are less expensive and only limited by the size of the firebox. In most of the United States, the measure of firewood is a cord or 128 cubic feet, however. The BTU value can affect the price, prices vary considerably with the distance from wood lots, and quality of the wood. Buying and burning firewood that was cut only a distance from its final destination prevents the accidental spread of invasive tree-killing insects. In most parts of the world, firewood is only prepared for transport at the time it is harvested, it is moved closer to the place it will be used as fuel and prepared there. The process of making charcoal from firewood can take place at the place the firewood is harvested, most firewood requires splitting, which allows for faster seasoning by exposing more surface area. Today most splitting is done with a hydraulic splitting machine, another method is to use a kinetic log splitter, which uses a rack and pinion system powered by a small motor and a large flywheel used for energy storage.
There are many ways to store firewood and these range from simple piles to free-standing stacks, to specialized structures. Usually the goal of storing wood is to keep away from it. Stacks, The simplest stack is where logs are placed next to and on top of each other, the height of the stack can vary, generally depending upon how the ends are constructed
The art of chainsaw carving is a fast-growing form of art that combines the modern technology of the chainsaw with the ancient art of woodcarving. The oldest chainsaw artist records go back to the 1950s, which include artists Ray Murphy, in 1952 Ray Murphy used his fathers chainsaw to carve his name into a piece of wood. In 1961 Ken Kaiser created 50 carvings for the Trees of Mystery, many new artists began to experiment with chainsaw carving, including Brenda Hubbard, Judy McVay, Don Colp, Cherie Currie, Susan Miller, Mike McVay, and Lois Hollingsworth. At this time chainsaw carvers started loading up their carvings in the back of their trucks, in the 1980s the art form really began to grow with Art Moe getting much exposure for the craft at the Lumberjack World Championships held in Hayward, Wisconsin. The addition of carving contests from the west coast to the east coast brought carvers together to test their skills, the first Chainsaw Carving World Championships was held in 1987 and won by 24-year-old Barre Pinske.
The 80s brought the first book on chainsaw carving and Profitable Chainsaw Carving by William Westenhaver and Ron Hovde, other books soon followed, including a book by Hal MacIntosh published in 1988 titled Chainsaw Art and in 2001 Chainsaw Carving, The Art and Craft. He published material on chainsaw carving that predated the popularity of the Internet, the first booking agency dedicated to promoting and preserving the integrity of performance chainsaw art was founded by Brian Ruth in 1992. It was appropriately named Masters of the Chainsaw, the company has represented some of the most respected artists in the U. S. such as Brian Ruth, Ben Risney, Josh Landry, Mark Tyoe and Marty Long, as well as select artists from other countries. In 2007, Masters of the Chainsaw, under the direction of Jen Ruth, featured in this all-female team are greats like Stephanie Huber, Angela Polglaze, Lisa Foster, Alicia Charlton, Uschi Elias, and Sara Winter. Brian Ruth introduced the art as an art to Japan in 1995.
Since then, he has established a division of Masters of the Chainsaw, although the general impression of the public is that it is largely performance art, there are a few chainsaw carvers now producing stunning works of art. These works can be produced in a fraction of the time that would normally be expected if only conventional tools such as mallet, although many carvers continue to use other tools alongside the chainsaw, the chainsaw remains the primary tool. With the growth of the Internet, chainsaw carving has become a phenomenon with chainsaw carvers all over the world. In the United Kingdom, the English Open Chainsaw Competition draws thousands of visitors annually, in 1989 Duncan Kitson was the first British carver, with notable success, to represent Wales and The UK in international competition. His work is recognized for its individual and tactile qualities, English chainsaw artist Matthew Crabb has carved the largest wooden statue of the Virgin Mary in the world, at 9 meters high, in Schochwitz, Germany.
Welsh veteran, Harry Thomas of Thomas Carving is highly respected in the industry and specialises in bears, Harry has appeared on ITVs Daybreak, where he carved Queen Elizabeth IIs head, in celebration of her Diamond Jubilee. In Canada, many wooden statues produced by the chainsaw artist Pete Ryan decorate the town of Hope. In Japan, the Toei Chainsaw Art Club established the World Chainsaw Art Competition, the 2011 World Chainsaw Art Competition at the Toei Dome was to be dedicated to raising money for disaster relief due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster that has affected the country
A sawmill or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber. Prior to the invention of the sawmill, boards were rived and planed, the earliest known mechanical mill is the Hierapolis sawmill, a Roman water-powered stone mill at Hierapolis, Asia Minor dating back to the 3rd century AD. Other water-powered mills followed and by the 11th century they were widespread in Spain and North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia, the circular motion of the wheel was converted to a reciprocating motion at the saw blade. Generally, only the saw was powered, and the logs had to be loaded and moved by hand, an early improvement was the development of a movable carriage, water powered, to move the log steadily through the saw blade. Scrap lumber from the mill provided a source of fuel for firing the boiler, the arrival of railroads meant that logs could be transported to mills rather than mills being built besides navigable waterways. Besides the sawn timber, use is made of all the by-products including sawdust, wood chips, a sawmills basic operation is much like those of hundreds of years ago, a log enters on one end and dimensional lumber exits on the other end.
After trees are selected for harvest, the step in logging is felling the trees. Branches are cut off the trunk, logs are taken by logging truck, rail or a log drive to the sawmill. Logs are scaled either on the way to the mill or upon arrival at the mill, debarking removes bark from the logs. Decking is the process for sorting the logs by species, size, a sawyer uses a head saw to break the log into cants and flitches. Trimming squares the ends at typical lumber lengths, drying removes naturally occurring moisture from the lumber. This can be done with kilns or air-dried, planing smooths the surface of the lumber leaving a uniform width and thickness. Shipping transports the lumber to market. The Hierapolis sawmill, a Roman water-powered stone saw mill at Hierapolis and it is the earliest known machine to incorporate a crank and connecting rod mechanism. Water-powered stone sawmills working with cranks and connecting rods, but without gear train, are attested for the 6th century AD at the Eastern Roman cities Gerasa.
The earliest literary reference to a working sawmill comes from a Roman poet, at one point in the poem he describes the shrieking sound of a watermill cutting marble. Marble sawmills seem to be indicated by the Christian saint Gregory of Nyssa from Anatolia around 370/390 AD, sawmills became widespread in medieval Europe again, as one was sketched by Villard de Honnecourt in c. They are claimed to have introduced to Madeira following its discovery in c.1420
Wood shingles are thin, tapered pieces of wood primarily used to cover roofs and walls of buildings to protect them from the weather. Historically shingles were split from straight grained, knot free bolts of wood, today shingles are mostly made by being cut which distinguishes them from shakes which are made by being split out of a bolt. Wooden shingle roofs were prevalent in the North American colonies, while in central and southern Europe at the time, slate. In rural Scandinavia, wood shingle roofs were a common roofing material until the 1950s, Wood shingles are susceptible to fire and cost more than other types of shingle so they are not as common today as in the past. Distinctive shingle patterns exist in various regions created by the size, special treatments such as swept valleys, combed ridges, decorative butt ends, and decorative patterns impart a special character to each building. Historically, wooden shingles were usually thin, relatively narrow, of varying length, the traditional method for making wooden shingles before the 19th century was to rive them from straight grained, knot free, sections of logs pre-cut to the desired length known as bolts.
These bolts were quartered or split into wedges, a mallet and froe were used to split or rive out thin pieces of wood. The wood species varied according to available local woods, but only the more durable heartwood, or inner section, the softer sapwood generally was not used because it deteriorated quickly. This reworking was necessary to provide a roof over typically open shingle lath or sheathing boards. Shingle fabrication was revolutionized in the early 19th century by steam-powered saw mills, Shingle mills made possible the production of uniform shingles in mass quantities. The sawn shingle of uniform taper and smooth surface eliminated the need to hand dress, the supply of wooden shingles was therefore no longer limited by local factors. These changes coincided with the popularity of architectural styles such as Carpenter Gothic, Queen Anne, hand-split shingles continued to be used in many places well after the introduction of machine sawn shingles. There were, of course, other popular roofing materials, some western boom towns used sheet metal because it was light and easily shipped.
Slate and clay tile were used on ornate buildings, Wooden shingles, were never abandoned. Even in the 20th century, architectural styles such as the Colonial Revival, the simplest form of wood shingle is a rectangle about 16 inches long. The sides and butt of a shingle are often irregular, the sides may taper, Shingles that have been processed so that the butt is square to the sides are called rebutted and re-squared or rebutted and re-jointed shingles, often abbreviated R&R. Shingles and shakes may be tapered, split or sawn, different species and quality of wood are used as are different lengths and installation methods. Shakes and shingles may be treated with preservatives and fire retardants before or after installation
Relief carving as a type of wood carving in which figures are carved in a flat panel of wood. The figures project only slightly from the rather than standing freely. Depending on the degree of projection, reliefs may be classified as high or medium relief, Relief carving can be described as carving pictures in wood. The process of carving involves removing wood from a flat wood panel in such a way that an object appears to rise out of the wood. Relief carving begins with an idea, usually put to paper in the form of a master pattern which is transferred to the wood surface. Most relief carving is done with hand tools - chisels and gouges - which often require a mallet to drive them through the wood, as wood is removed from the panel around the objects traced onto it from the pattern, the objects themselves stand up from the background wood. Modeling of the objects can take place as soon as enough background has been removed, in order to secure the wood panel, a workbench with fixtures like bench-dogs, carvers screw or clamps, is necessary.
Carving tools come in a variety of shapes and sizes, some aimed strictly at the hobbyist. Some carving tools are held one hand while the carving is held in the other. But most relief carving requires that the wood panel be secured so that both hands may be on the carving tool, much of the skill required for relief carving lies in learning to grip and manipulate tools to get the desired effect. Tool sharpening is a skill to learn, and dull tools are a severe obstacle to effective carving. Create a pattern, drawn on paper, prepare a wood panel for carving. This may be a piece of wood or a laminated panel. Transfer the pattern to the panel, using paper as the transfer medium. Remove wood around the objects that comprise the pattern, model the objects Detail the objects Tidy the background behind the objects Apply a suitable finish to the panel 1. High relief, usually between 1/2 and 2 in depth, bas relief, or Low relief usually under 1/2 in depth. Deep relief, usually over 2 in depth, pierced relief, where holes are carved clear through the wood.
Some carvers prefer to finish their carving with a clear finish, but others incorporate color and pyrography into their relief carvings
Woodturning is the craft of using the wood lathe with hand-held tools to cut a shape that is symmetrical around the axis of rotation. Like the potters wheel, the lathe is a simple mechanism which can generate a variety of forms. The operator is known as a turner, and the skills needed to use the tools were known as turnery. In pre-industrial England, these skills were sufficiently difficult to be known as the misterie of the turners guild. The skills to use the tools by hand, without a point of contact with the wood, distinguish woodturning. Industrial production has replaced many of products from the traditional turning shop. However, the lathe is still used for decentralized production of limited or custom turnings. A skilled turner can produce a variety of objects with five or six simple tools. The tools can be reshaped easily for the task at hand, in many parts of the world, the lathe has been a portable tool that goes to the source of the wood, or adapts to temporary workspaces. 21st-century turners restore furniture, continue folk-art traditions, produce custom architectural work, woodturning appeals to people who like to work with their hands, find pleasure in problem-solving, or enjoy the tactile and visual qualities of wood.
Wood lathes work with either reciprocating or continuous revolution, the reciprocating lathe is powered by a bow or a spring, rotating the wood first in one direction, and in the other. The turner cuts on just one side of the rotation, as with the pole lathe, the reciprocating lathe may be human-powered with a bow, as well as with spring mechanisms. The reciprocating lathe, while primitive technology requiring considerable dexterity to operate, is capable of excellent results in skilled hands, for example, reciprocating bow lathes are still used to turn beads for the Arabian lattice windows called Meshrebeeyeh that so charmed Holtzapffel in the 1880s. Continuous revolution of the workpiece can be human-powered with a wheel, or achieved with water, steam. The style of cutting does not have the pause required by the reciprocating lathes rotation, even with continuous revolution, the turner controls the contact of tool and wood entirely by hand. The cutters are not fixed, nor advanced automatically, as with the metal-working lathe, the nature of wood defines woodturning techniques.
The orientation of the grain, relative to the axis of the lathe, affects the tools. In spindle turning, the grain runs lengthwise along the lathe bed, grain is thus always perpendicular to the direction of rotation under the tool