Panelling is a millwork wall covering constructed from rigid or semi-rigid components. These are traditionally interlocking wood, but could be plastic or other materials, panelling was developed in antiquity to make rooms in stone buildings more comfortable. The panels served to insulate the room from the cold stone, in more modern buildings, such panelling is often installed for decorative purposes. The term wainscot originally applied to high quality riven oak boards, Wainscot oak came from large, slow-grown forest trees, and produced boards that were knot-free, low in tannin, light in weight, and easy to work with. It was preferred to home-grown oak, especially in Holland and Great Britain, because it was a far superior product, the Oxford English Dictionary states that it derives from the medieval German wagenschot as well as wageschot or wall-board. Johnsons Dictionary defined it thus, the inner wooden covering of a wall, to wainscot, to line the walls with boards A wainscot was therefore a board of riven oak, and wainscoting was the panelling made from it.
Also in the 18th century, the style of panelling changed from a covering to one in which only the lower part of the wall was covered. Hence wainscot or wainscoting became a panelling style applied to the lower 90 to 150 cm of a wall, below the dado rail or chair rail. It is traditionally constructed from tongue-and-groove boards, though bead-board or decorative panels, new manufacturing techniques are capable of milling large panels from one sheet, reducing seams and expansion/contraction cracks that have plagued traditional construction. Wainscoting may refer to materials used in a similar fashion. The original purpose of wainscoting was to cover the part of walls. Boiserie is the French term used to define ornate and intricately carved wood panelling, early examples of boiseries were unpainted, but the raised mouldings were often painted or gilded. Boiseries were popular in seventeenth and eighteenth century French interior design, the panels were not confined to just the walls of a room but were used to decorate doors, frames and shelves also.
Often pictures would be set into the boiseries, the framing the picture rather like a conventional frame. Moulding Ornament Panel edge staining Structural insulated panel Vacuum insulated panel Wainscot
Glued laminated timber
In North America the material providing the laminations is termed laminating stock or lamstock. By laminating a number of pieces of lumber, a single large, strong. These structural members are used as columns or horizontal beams. Glulam is readily produced in curved shapes and it is available in a range of species, connections are usually made with bolts or plain steel dowels and steel plates. Glulam optimizes the structural values of a renewable resource – wood, because of their composition, large glulam members can be manufactured from a variety of smaller trees harvested from second- and third-growth forests and plantations. Glulam provides the strength and versatility of large wood members without relying on the old growth-dependent solid-sawn timbers, Glulam has much lower embodied energy than reinforced concrete and steel, although of course it does entail more embodied energy than solid timber. However, the process allows timber to be used for much longer spans, heavier loads. Glulam is two-thirds the weight of steel and one sixth the weight of concrete – the embodied energy to produce it is six times less than the same strength of steel.
Glulam can be manufactured to a variety of straight and curved configurations so it offers architects artistic freedom without sacrificing structural requirements, the size is limited only by transportation and handling constraints. The building is now the Marriage Room of Southampton Register Office, the first industrial patented use was in Weimar, Germany. Here in 1872 Otto Hetzer set up a sawmill and carpentry business in Kohlstrasse. Beginning in 1892, he took out a series of patents, DRP No.63018 was for a ventilated timber floor deck that could be tightened laterally after installation, to compensate for shrinkage. Hetzer continued to patent various ingenious systems, but the first of these that could be compared with subsequently standardised horizontal glulam was DRP No and this entailed vertical columns which transitioned into curved glued laminated eaves zones, and became sloped rafters, all in a single laminated unit. Each component, bonded under pressure, comprised three or more horizontally arranged laminations, the result was the first glulam portal.
In 1895, Hetzer moved his company to Ettersburger Strasse, still in Weimar, at the height of production, in around 1917, he employed about 300 workers, and Müller includes a fine engraving of the railway sidings and works in 1921. In 1909, the Swiss engineering consultants Terner & Chopard purchased permission to use Hetzers patent and these included the distinctive bell-shaped roof dome of the former Hygiene Institute, Zurich,1911, now the main building of the University of Zurich. A significant development in the industry was the introduction of fully water-resistant phenol-resorcinol adhesive in 1942. This allowed glulam to be used in exposed exterior environments without concern of gluline degradation, the first U. S. manufacturing standard for glulam was Commercial Standard CS253-63, which was published by the Department of Commerce in 1963
In architecture, structural engineering or building, a purlin is any longitudinal, structural member in a roof except a type of framing with what is called a crown plate. In traditional timber framing there are three types of purlin, purlin plate, principal purlin and common purlin. A purlin plate in construction is called an arcade plate in European English, under purlin. The term plate means a major, supporting timber, purlin plates are beams which support the mid-span of rafters and are supported by posts. By supporting the rafters they allow longer spans than the rafters alone could span thus allowing a wider building, purlin plates are very commonly found in large, old barns in North America. A crown plate has similarities to a purlin plate but supports collar beams in the middle of a framed building. Principal purlins in wood construction, called major purlin, side purlin, principal purlins are supported by principal rafters and support common rafters in what is known as a double roof. S.
Example is known, ) are captured by a collar beam, through purlins are further categorized as trenched, back, or clasped, butt purlins are classified as threaded, and/or staggered. Common purlins in wood construction, called a major-rafter minor-purlin system, common purlins are typically trenched through the top sides of principal rafters and carry vertical roof sheathing. Common purlin roofs in North America are found in areas settled by Englishmen, no examples of framed buildings with common purlin roofs have been reported in England, however some stone barns in England have vertically boarded, common purlin roofs. Historically, these roofs are found in New England, the highest concentration in Maine, one of the oldest extant examples is in the Coffin House in Newbury, Massachusetts from 1678. The purpose of a purlin roof may be they allow a board roof. In steel construction, the term typically refers to roof framing members that span parallel to the building eave. The purlins are in turn supported by rafters or walls, purlins are most commonly used in Metal Building Systems, where Z-shapes are utilized in a manner that allows flexural continuity between spans.
Section designations can be regional and even specific to a manufacturer, in steel building construction, secondary members such as purlins and girts are frequently cold-formed steel C, Z or U sections, C sections. Cold formed members can be efficient on a weight basis relative to mill rolled sections for secondary member applications, additionally, Z sections can be nested for transportation bundling and, on the building, lapped at the supports to develop a structurally efficient continuous beam across multiple supports. Information on the origin of the term purlin is scant, the Oxford Dictionary suggests a French origin, with the earliest quote using a variation of purlin in 1447. Note, The sketches in this section reference terminology commonly used in the UK, girt Joist Roof construction Timber roof trusses This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
Wood grain is the longitudinal arrangement of wood fibers or the pattern resulting from this. R. Bruce Hoadley wrote that grain is a. confusingly versatile term, including the direction of the wood cells, surface appearance or figure, growth-ring placement, plane of the cut, rate of growth, relative cell size, and other meanings. Perhaps most important physical aspect of wood grain in woodworking is the direction or slope. The two basic categories of grain are straight and cross grain, straight grain runs parallel to the longitudinal axis of the piece. Cross grain deviates from the axis in two ways, spiral grain or diagonal grain. The amount of deviation is called the slope of the grain, for example, a stressed span is less likely to fail if tension is applied along the grain, rather than across the grain. Grain direction will affect the type of warping seen in the finished item, in describing the alignment of the wood in the tree a distinction may be made. Special grain alignments produce figure in wood and their rarity often promotes the value of both the raw material, and the finished work it becomes a part of.
Edge grain, quarter-sawn or rift-sawn or straight-grained, and end grain, strictly speaking, grain is not always the same as the figure of wood. There is irregular grain in burr wood or burl wood, Grain painting Grain filler Knee Wood art Wood finishing
A sarcophagus is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may be buried. The word sarcophagus comes from the Greek σάρξ sarx meaning flesh, since lithos is Greek for stone, lithos sarcophagos means, flesh-eating stone. The word came to refer to a kind of limestone that was thought to decompose the flesh of corpses trapped within it. Sarcophagi were most often designed to remain above ground, in Ancient Egypt, a sarcophagus acted like an outer shell. They are made of clay in shades of brown to pink. Added to the basin-like main sarcophagus is a broad, rectangular frame, often covered with a white slip and painted. The huge Lycian Tomb of Payava, now in the British Museum, is a tomb monument of about 360 BC designed for an open-air placing. However, there are many important Early Christian sarcophagi from the 3rd to 4th centuries, most Roman examples were designed to be placed against a wall and are decorated on three of the sides only.
More plain sarcophagi were placed in crypts, of which the most famous include the Habsburg Imperial Crypt in Vienna. The term tends to be often used to describe Medieval, Renaissance. They continued to be popular into the 1950s, at time the popularity of flat memorials made them obsolete. Nonetheless, a 1952 catalog from the industry still included 8 pages of them, broken down into Georgian and Classical detail, a Gothic and Renaissance adaptation. Shown on the right are sarcophagi from the late 19th century located in Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, the one in the back, the Warner Monument created by Alexander Milne Calder, features the spirit or soul of the deceased being released. In Sulawesi, waruga are a form of sarcophagus. Mont Allen, Sarcophagus, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, edited by Michael Gagarin, R. R. R. Smith, Sculptured for Eternity, Treasures of Hellenistic and Byzantine Art from Istanbul Archaeological Museum. Ewald, Living with Myths, The Imagery of Roman Sarcophagi, egyptian sarcophagi sarcaphagi in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum Chisholm, Hugh, ed.
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping. Furniture is used to hold objects at a convenient height for work, Furniture can be a product of design and is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furnitures functional role, it can serve a symbolic or religious purpose and it can be made from many materials, including metal and wood. Furniture can be using a variety of woodworking joints which often reflect the local culture. People have been using natural objects, such as stumps and moss. Archaeological research shows that from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood, early furniture from this period is known from artwork such as a Venus figurine found in Russia, depicting the goddess on a throne. The first surviving extant furniture is in the homes of Skara Brae in Scotland, complex construction techniques such as joinery began in the early dynastic period of ancient Egypt.
This era saw constructed wooden pieces, including stools and tables, sometimes decorated with valuable metals or ivory. The evolution of furniture design continued in ancient Greece and ancient Rome, with thrones being commonplace as well as the klinai, multipurpose couches used for relaxing, the furniture of the Middle Ages was usually heavy and ornamented. Furniture design expanded during the Italian Renaissance of the fourteenth and fifteenth century, the seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent, often gilded Baroque designs. The nineteenth century is defined by revival styles. The first three-quarters of the century are often seen as the march towards Modernism. One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is a return to natural shapes and textures, the English word furniture is derived from the French word fourniture, the noun form of fournir, which means to supply or provide. Thus fourniture in French means supplies or provisions, the practice of using natural objects as rudimentary pieces of furniture likely dates to the beginning of human civilisation.
Early humans are likely to have used tree stumps as seats, rocks as rudimentary tables, during the late palaeolithic or early neolithic period, from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood and animal bones. The earliest evidence for the existence of constructed furniture is a Venus figurine found at the Gagarino site in Russia, a similar statue of a Mother Goddess was found in Catal Huyuk in Turkey, dating to between 6000 and 5500 BC. The inclusion of such a seat in the figurines implies that these were already common artefacts of that age, a range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae, a Neolithic village in Orkney, Scotland. Each house shows a degree of sophistication and was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards and beds to shelves, stone seats
A sawmill or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber. Prior to the invention of the sawmill, boards were rived and planed, the earliest known mechanical mill is the Hierapolis sawmill, a Roman water-powered stone mill at Hierapolis, Asia Minor dating back to the 3rd century AD. Other water-powered mills followed and by the 11th century they were widespread in Spain and North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia, the circular motion of the wheel was converted to a reciprocating motion at the saw blade. Generally, only the saw was powered, and the logs had to be loaded and moved by hand, an early improvement was the development of a movable carriage, water powered, to move the log steadily through the saw blade. Scrap lumber from the mill provided a source of fuel for firing the boiler, the arrival of railroads meant that logs could be transported to mills rather than mills being built besides navigable waterways. Besides the sawn timber, use is made of all the by-products including sawdust, wood chips, a sawmills basic operation is much like those of hundreds of years ago, a log enters on one end and dimensional lumber exits on the other end.
After trees are selected for harvest, the step in logging is felling the trees. Branches are cut off the trunk, logs are taken by logging truck, rail or a log drive to the sawmill. Logs are scaled either on the way to the mill or upon arrival at the mill, debarking removes bark from the logs. Decking is the process for sorting the logs by species, size, a sawyer uses a head saw to break the log into cants and flitches. Trimming squares the ends at typical lumber lengths, drying removes naturally occurring moisture from the lumber. This can be done with kilns or air-dried, planing smooths the surface of the lumber leaving a uniform width and thickness. Shipping transports the lumber to market. The Hierapolis sawmill, a Roman water-powered stone saw mill at Hierapolis and it is the earliest known machine to incorporate a crank and connecting rod mechanism. Water-powered stone sawmills working with cranks and connecting rods, but without gear train, are attested for the 6th century AD at the Eastern Roman cities Gerasa.
The earliest literary reference to a working sawmill comes from a Roman poet, at one point in the poem he describes the shrieking sound of a watermill cutting marble. Marble sawmills seem to be indicated by the Christian saint Gregory of Nyssa from Anatolia around 370/390 AD, sawmills became widespread in medieval Europe again, as one was sketched by Villard de Honnecourt in c. They are claimed to have introduced to Madeira following its discovery in c.1420
Wood flooring is any product manufactured from timber that is designed for use as flooring, either structural or aesthetic. Wood is a choice as a flooring material and can come in various styles, cuts. Bamboo flooring is often considered a form of wood flooring, although it is made from a rather than a timber. Solid hardwood floors are made of planks milled from a piece of timber. Solid hardwood floors were used for structural purposes, being installed perpendicular to the wooden support beams of a building known as joists or bearers. With the increased use of concrete as a subfloor in some parts of the world, solid wood floors are still common and popular. Solid wood floors have a thicker wear surface and can be sanded and finished more times than a wood floor. It is not uncommon for homes in New England, Eastern Canada, solid wood flooring is milled from a single piece of timber that is kiln or air dried before sawing. Depending on the look of the floor, the timber can be cut in three ways, flat-sawn, quarter-sawn, and rift-sawn.
The timber is cut to the dimensions and either packed unfinished for a site-finished installation or finished at the factory. The moisture content at time of manufacturing is carefully controlled to ensure the product does not warp during transport, a number of proprietary features for solid wood floors are available. Many solid woods come with grooves cut into the back of the wood that run the length of each plank, often called absorption strips, solid wood floors are mostly manufactured.75 inches thick with a tongue-and-groove for installation. This process involves treating the wood by boiling the log in water, after preparation, the wood is peeled by a blade starting from the outside of the log and working toward the center, thus creating a wood veneer. The veneer is pressed flat with high pressure and this style of manufacturing tends to have problems with the wood cupping or curling back to its original shape. Rotary-peeled engineered hardwoods tend to have an appearance in the grain.
This process begins with the treatment process that the rotary peel method uses. However, instead of being sliced in a fashion, with this technique the wood is sliced from the log in much the same manner that lumber is sawn from a log – straight through. The veneers do not go through the manufacturing process as rotary peeled veneers
Parquet is a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative effect. The two main uses of parquetry are as wood veneer patterns on furniture and block patterns for flooring, parquet patterns are entirely geometrical and angular—squares, lozenges. The most popular parquet flooring pattern is herringbone, the word derives from the Old French parchet, literally meaning a small enclosed space. Such parquets en losange were noted by the Swedish architect Daniel Cronström at Versailles, while not technically a wood, bamboo is a popular material for modern floors. Parquet floors were formerly usually adhered with hot bitumen, today modern cold adhesives are usually used. Wood floors may be brushed clean, and mopped when necessary, upright vacuum cleaners can scratch and wear the surface, as grit particles become embedded in the spinning brushes. Parquet floors are long lasting and require little or no maintenance. Bitumen-glued blocks require use of hot bitumen or a cold bitumen emulsion. Parquet floors are found in bedrooms and hallways.
They are considered better than regular floor tiles since they feel warmer underfoot, however they do little to absorb sounds such as walking, vacuum cleaning and television, which can cause problems in multi-occupancy dwellings. One of the most famous parquet floors is the one used by the Boston Celtics of the NBA, the floor remained intact and in use until it was cut up and sold as souvenirs in 1999, after the 1998 demolition of Boston Garden. The Celtics today play on a parquet floor inside TD Garden that combines old, similar square-paneled parquet floors were made for the Orlando Magic, Minnesota Timberwolves, Denver Nuggets, and New Jersey Nets. Of the four, only the Magic continue to use a square-paneled parquet floor, the Nets debuted their parquet at the Meadowlands Arena in 1988, and continued to use the floor until 1997. The said floor remained in use with the Seton Hall basketball team until 2007, the Nuggets used a parquet floor from 1990 to 1993 at the McNichols Sports Arena, while the Timberwolves played on the parquet from 1996 to 2008 at the Target Center.
In 1995, the Toronto Raptors debuted with a herringbone parquet, the Nets revived the use of the herringbone upon moving to the Barclays Center in 2012. While the Charlotte Hornets unveiled a parquet-like floor at the Time Warner Cable Arena for the 2014–15 season, it is not considered a true parquet floor. Instead, it simulated the pattern of the parquet by alternately painting light and dark trapezoid sections through the use of varnish, forming a beehive pattern that is synonymous with the franchise
A lath or slat is a thin, narrow strip of straight-grained wood used under roof shingles or tiles, on lath and plaster walls and ceilings to hold plaster, and in lattice and trellis work. Also reed mat was historically a lath material, the word is recorded from the late 13th century and is likely derived from the Old English word *læððe, a variant of the word lætt. It was improved in 1910 by the paper wrapping the edges, gypsum lath is commonly used in place of wood since it is noncombustible, easy to use, and gives better results. The popularity of the lath and plaster method declined in the 1950s, gypsum lath is available with a foil facing which acts as a vapor barrier and heat reflector, and as a veneer base for plaster veneer. Today, wooden-slat laths are still used in building construction to form a base or groundwork for plaster but modern lath and plaster applications are mostly limited to conservation projects. Individual laths were riven and nailed in place, 2) Accordion lath are thin, sawn boards partially split with a hatchet or axe, sometimes the laths need to be held off of a solid surface so the plaster can wrap around the lath.
Single pieces of lath applied to a surface for this purpose are sometimes called counter lath, laths were used to fix reed to a timber structure before plastering. Tiles and other coverings on roofs and walls are often fastened to laths, such strips of wood are employed to form lattice-work, or are used as the bars of venetian blinds, and window shutters. Lath is used on many farms in the Connecticut Valley as a means to carry. This is achieved by using one of two methods, hooking or spearing, a spear lath is just a regular lath that is held in an upright position, the worker mounts a spear on top and spears the tobacco onto the lath. The other form of lath is called Hook Lath, which just has small hooks attached that allows a worker to hook the stems of tobacco plants onto the lath, lath cut from spruce or balsam fir trees were used for building wooden lobster traps. Counter-lath is a used in roofing and plastering for a piece of wood placed perpendicular to the lath. In roofing a counter-lath is a piece of timber parallel with.
In plastering a counter lath is placed perpendicular to the lath as a fillet to space the lath off of the surface to allow the plaster to pass through the lath and key to the lath. Metal lath dates from the late 19th century and is used today with plaster and stucco in home. In these applications the lath adds strength and rigidity in addition to providing a matrix to which the stucco can adhere and this is similar to the way rebar is used to strengthen some concrete and masonry applications. Ribbed lath and expanded metal with V-shaped ribs which give it more stiffness, self-centering lath, Self-furring lath, an expanded metal lath which is dimpled to hold itself off from a solid surface. Wire lath, a welded or woven wire lath, similar to hardware cloth, paper backed wire lath, wire lath with a building paper attached
Wood shingles are thin, tapered pieces of wood primarily used to cover roofs and walls of buildings to protect them from the weather. Historically shingles were split from straight grained, knot free bolts of wood, today shingles are mostly made by being cut which distinguishes them from shakes which are made by being split out of a bolt. Wooden shingle roofs were prevalent in the North American colonies, while in central and southern Europe at the time, slate. In rural Scandinavia, wood shingle roofs were a common roofing material until the 1950s, Wood shingles are susceptible to fire and cost more than other types of shingle so they are not as common today as in the past. Distinctive shingle patterns exist in various regions created by the size, special treatments such as swept valleys, combed ridges, decorative butt ends, and decorative patterns impart a special character to each building. Historically, wooden shingles were usually thin, relatively narrow, of varying length, the traditional method for making wooden shingles before the 19th century was to rive them from straight grained, knot free, sections of logs pre-cut to the desired length known as bolts.
These bolts were quartered or split into wedges, a mallet and froe were used to split or rive out thin pieces of wood. The wood species varied according to available local woods, but only the more durable heartwood, or inner section, the softer sapwood generally was not used because it deteriorated quickly. This reworking was necessary to provide a roof over typically open shingle lath or sheathing boards. Shingle fabrication was revolutionized in the early 19th century by steam-powered saw mills, Shingle mills made possible the production of uniform shingles in mass quantities. The sawn shingle of uniform taper and smooth surface eliminated the need to hand dress, the supply of wooden shingles was therefore no longer limited by local factors. These changes coincided with the popularity of architectural styles such as Carpenter Gothic, Queen Anne, hand-split shingles continued to be used in many places well after the introduction of machine sawn shingles. There were, of course, other popular roofing materials, some western boom towns used sheet metal because it was light and easily shipped.
Slate and clay tile were used on ornate buildings, Wooden shingles, were never abandoned. Even in the 20th century, architectural styles such as the Colonial Revival, the simplest form of wood shingle is a rectangle about 16 inches long. The sides and butt of a shingle are often irregular, the sides may taper, Shingles that have been processed so that the butt is square to the sides are called rebutted and re-squared or rebutted and re-jointed shingles, often abbreviated R&R. Shingles and shakes may be tapered, split or sawn, different species and quality of wood are used as are different lengths and installation methods. Shakes and shingles may be treated with preservatives and fire retardants before or after installation
Lumber, or timber is wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber may refer to currently un-needed furniture, as in Lumber room, or an awkward gait, ultimately derived from the look of unfashionable, Lumber may be supplied either rough-sawn, or surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and it is available in many species, usually hardwoods, but it is readily available in softwoods, such as white pine and red pine, because of their low cost. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has other uses as well. It is classified more commonly as a softwood than as a hardwood, in Australia, New Zealand and Britain, the term timber describes sawn wood products, such as floor boards. In the United States and Canada, generally timber describes standing or felled trees, before they are milled into boards, Timber there describes sawn lumber not less than 5 inches in its smallest dimension.
The latter includes the often partly finished lumber used in timber-frame construction, remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of previously milled lumber. Specifically, it is cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not usually processed by a primary sawmill, resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing, structural lumber may be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock. Its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength, logs are converted into timber by being sawn, hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with grain and large knots. There are various types of sawing, Plain sawn —A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log, quarter sawn and rift sawn—These terms have been confused in history but generally mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber.
Boxed heart—The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure, heart center—the center core of a log. Free of heart center —A side-cut timber without any pith, free of knots —No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber that is cut to standardized width and depth, carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, and 4×4, the length of a board is usually specified separately from the width and depth