Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome; the scope of the profession includes landscape design. A practitioner in the profession of landscape architecture is called a landscape architect. Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field, incorporating aspects of botany, the fine arts, industrial design, soil sciences, environmental psychology, geography and civil engineering; the activities of a landscape architect can range from the creation of public parks and parkways to site planning for campuses and corporate office parks, from the design of residential estates to the design of civil infrastructure and the management of large wilderness areas or reclamation of degraded landscapes such as mines or landfills. Landscape architects work on structures and external spaces with limitations toward the landscape or park aspect of the design - large or small, urban and rural, with "hard" and "soft" materials, while integrating ecological sustainability.
The most valuable contribution can be made at the first stage of a project to generate ideas with technical understanding and creative flair for the design and use of spaces. The landscape architect can conceive the overall concept and prepare the master plan, from which detailed design drawings and technical specifications are prepared, they can review proposals to authorize and supervise contracts for the construction work. Other skills include preparing design impact assessments, conducting environmental assessments and audits, serving as an expert witness at inquiries on land use issues; the variety of the professional tasks that landscape architects collaborate on is broad, but some examples of project types include: Parks of General design and public infrastructure Sustainable development Stormwater management including rain gardens, green roofs, groundwater recharge, Green infrastructure, constructed wetlands. Landscape design for educational function and site design for public institutions and government facilities Parks, botanical gardens, arboretums and nature preserves Recreation facilities.
Coastal and offshore developments and mitigation Ecological Design any aspect of design that minimizes environmentally destructive impacts by integrating itself with natural processes and sustainabilityLandscape managers use their knowledge of landscape processes to advise on the long-term care and development of the landscape. They work in forestry, nature conservation and agriculture. Landscape scientists have specialist skills such as soil science, geomorphology or botany that they relate to the practical problems of landscape work, their projects can range from site surveys to the ecological assessment of broad areas for planning or management purposes. They may report on the impact of development or the importance of particular species in a given area. Landscape planners are concerned with landscape planning for the location, scenic and recreational aspects of urban and coastal land use, their work is embodied in written statements of policy and strategy, their remit includes master planning for new developments, landscape evaluations and assessments, preparing countryside management or policy plans.
Some may apply an additional specialism such as landscape archaeology or law to the process of landscape planning. Green roof designers design extensive and intensive roof gardens for storm water management, evapo-transpirative cooling, sustainable architecture and habitat creation. For the period before 1800, the history of landscape gardening is that of master planning and garden design for manor houses and royal properties, religious complexes, centers of government. An example is the extensive work by André Le Nôtre at Vaux-le-Vicomte for King Louis XIV of France at the Palace of Versailles; the first person to write of making a landscape was Joseph Addison in 1712. The term landscape architecture was invented by Gilbert Laing Meason in 1828, John Claudius Loudon was instrumental in the adoption of the term landscape architecture by the modern profession, he took up the term from Meason and gave it publicity in his Encyclopedias and in his 1840 book on the Landscape Gardening and Landscape Architecture of the Late Humphry Repton.
The practice of landscape architecture spread from the Old to the New World. The term "landscape architect" was
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business
The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business known as AACSB International, is an American professional organization. It was founded in 1916 to provide accreditation to schools of business, it was known as the American Association of Collegiate Schools of Business and as the International Association for Management Education. Not all members of the association are accredited. In 2016 it lost recognition by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation; the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business was founded as an accrediting body in 1916 by a group of seventeen American universities and colleges. The first accreditations took place in 1919. For many years the association accredited only American business schools, but in the latter part of the twentieth century it advocated a more international approach to business education; the first school it accredited outside the United States was the University of Alberta in 1968, the first outside North America was the French business school ESSEC, in 1997.
Robert S. Sullivan, dean of Rady School of Management, became chair of the association in 2013; the association struggled with its Council for Higher Education Accreditation recognition in 2016. At a board meeting on January 26, 2015, the council deferred recognition pending satisfaction of its policy requirements; the association withdrew from CHEA recognition on September 23, 2016, in pursuit of ISO certification in order to pivot towards a more global presence. List of AACSB-accredited schools Regional accreditation Triple accreditation Andrea Everard, Jennifer Edmonds, Kent Pierre; the Longitudinal Effects of the Mission - Driven Focus on the Credibility of the AACSB. Journal of Management Development 32:995–1003 W. Francisco, T. G. Noland, D. Sinclari. AACSB Accreditation: Symbol of Excellence or march toward Mediocrity. Journal of College Teaching & Learning 5:25–30 Harold Hamilton. AACSB Accreditation: Are the Benefits worth the Cost for a Small School? A Case Study. Proceedings of the American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences Track Section of Management February 17-21, 2000, Las Vegas, Nevada: 205–206 Anthony Lowrie, Hugh Willmott.
Accreditation Sickness in the Consumption of Business Education: The Vacuum in AACSB Standard Setting. Management Learning 40:411–420 N. Orwig, R. Z. Finney. Analysis of the Mission Statements of AACSB – Accredited Schools. Competitiveness Review 17:261–273 E. J Romero. AACSB Accreditation: Addressing Faculty Concerns. Academy of Management Learning and Education 7:245~255 J. A. Yunker. Doing Things the Hard Way – Problems with Mission-Linked AACSB Accreditation Standards and Suggestions for Improvement. Journal of Education for Business 75:348–353
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Papa (2018 film)
Papa is a 2018 American drama film directed by Dan Israely and Emilio Roso. The film stars Robert Scott Wilson, Paul Sorvino, Daryl Hannah, Mischa Barton, Frankie Avalon, Ann-Margret, Michael Madsen and Eric Roberts. Filming took place in Bakersfield and Los Angeles in 2015. A young man, Ben Freidman raised by wealthy adoptive Jewish parents in Beverly Hills, decides that he is ready to meet his biological parents, he faces disappointment upon learning of the death of his biological mother. His biological father, resides in a psychiatric care unit. Robert Scott Wilson as Ben Freidman David Proval as David Dresner Paul Sorvino as Danny Daryl Hannah as Sarah Freidman Frankie Avalon as Jack Freidman Mischa Barton as Jennifer Ann-Margret as Barbara Vincent Pastore as Frankie Vincent Eric Roberts as Dr. Eric Owens Michael Madsen as Ivan Rachel Reilly as Tiffany Dar Zuzovsky as Sheila Rene Michelle Aranda as RobinSeveral of the cast members have worked together on previous film projects. Daryl Hannah, Paul Sorvino and Eric Roberts all appear in Sicilian Vampire.
Hannah and Michael Madsen appeared alongside each other for their roles in Quentin Tarantino's Kill Bill: Vol. 1 and Kill Bill: Vol. 2. Papa marks the third screen appearance that Mischa Barton and Eric Roberts have made together, they appeared together in Starcrossed and L. A. Slasher. Official website Papa on IMDb
Helen Gurley Brown
Helen Gurley Brown was an American author and businesswoman. She was the editor-in-chief of Cosmopolitan magazine for 32 years. Helen Marie Gurley was born February 18, 1922 in Green Forest, the daughter of Cleo Fred and Ira Marvin Gurley. At one time her father was appointed Commissioner of the Arkansas Fish Commission. After his election to the Arkansas state legislature the family moved to Arkansas, he died in an elevator accident on June 18, 1932. In 1937, her sister Mary Eloine, their mother moved to Los Angeles, California. A few months after moving, Mary contracted polio. While in California, Brown attended John H. Francis Polytechnic High School. After Gurley's graduation, the family moved to Georgia, she attended one semester at Texas State College for Women and moved back to California to attend Woodbury Business College, from which she graduated in 1941. In 1947, Cleo and Mary moved to Cleo's native Osage, while Helen stayed in Los Angeles. After working at the William Morris Agency, Music Corporation of America, Jaffe talent agencies, Gurley worked for Foote, Cone & Belding advertising agency as a secretary.
Her employer recognized her writing skills and moved her to the copywriting department, where she advanced to become one of the nation's highest-paid ad copywriters in the early 1960s. In 1959, she married David Brown. In 1962, Brown's book Sex and the Single Girl was published in 28 countries, stayed on the bestseller lists for over a year. In 1964 the book inspired the film of the same name starring Natalie Wood. In 1965, Brown became editor-in-chief of Cosmopolitan a literary magazine famed for high-toned content, reinvented it as a magazine for the modern single career-woman. In the 1960s, Brown was an outspoken advocate of women's sexual freedom and sought to provide women with role models in her magazine, she claimed that women could have it all – "love and money". As a result of her advocacy, fashion-focused women were sometimes called "Cosmo Girls", her work played a part in what is called the sexual revolution. In 1997, Brown was ousted from her role as the U. S. replaced by Bonnie Fuller.
When she left, Cosmopolitan ranked sixth at the newsstand and, for the 16th straight year, ranked first in bookstores on college campuses. However, she stayed on at Hearst publishing and remained the international editor for all 59 international editions of Cosmo until her death on August 13, 2012. In September 2008, Brown was named the 13th-most-powerful American over the age of 80 by Slate magazine. In 1965, Gurley took over as editor-in-chief of Cosmopolitan magazine and was in that position until 1997. Brown revamped the magazine by taking it from a women's magazine written by men to one of the most sold women's magazines, now available in more than 100 countries; when she began at the magazine, Brown had no editing experience. Her take on the magazine was to be frank. Sex and the Single Girl gave Brown the formula, today's Cosmopolitan, she gave women the freedom to know. The New York Times described the Cosmo Girl that Brown was after as "self-made and supremely ambitious.... She looked great, wore fabulous clothes and had an unabashedly good time when those clothes came off."
After being let go, in 1996 at age 74 due to her increasing disconnection from young women, Helen Gurley Brown went on to be editor of the international Cosmopolitan magazines. Betty Friedan, author of The Feminine Mystique, disliked what Brown had done in her book and in the magazine. Friedan said that what Brown was doing was "anti-feminist" and an "immature teenage-level sexual fantasy". Feminist views of the magazine were re-evaluated in the 1990s, with New York Times media reporter Randall Rothenberg writing, "In retrospect, the magazine played an important role in helping young women redefine their roles in society." Audie Cornish from NPR said that Helen "has been called a bad girl, a pioneer in Prada, a revolutionary in stilettos." Brown looked at herself as a feminist. After a brief hospitalization, Helen Gurley Brown died August 13, 2012 at the McKeen Pavilion at New York–Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia, she was 90. In a statement announcing the news of her death, Hearst Publications noted that "Helen was one of the world's most recognized magazine editors and book authors, a true pioneer for women in journalism – and beyond."
The cause of her death was not disclosed. Entertainment Weekly said that "Gurley Brown will be remembered for her impact on the publishing industry, her contributions to the culture at large, sly quips like her famous line:'Good girls go to heaven. Bad girls go everywhere.'" Then-New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg in a statement said, "Today New York City lost a pioneer who reshaped not only the entire media industry, but the nation's culture. She was a role model for the millions of women whose private thoughts and dreams she addressed so brilliantly in print."Brown's husband David preceded her in death, passing away on February 1, 2010 at the age of 93. In late November 2012, Brown and her husband were buried in adjacent graves at Sisco Cemetery, her maternal family cemetery, in Carroll County, Arkansas. Seven months prior to her death, continuing the work started with her husband in forming the Helen Gurley Brown Trust, Brown established the Brown Institute for Media Innovation; this institution is housed at both the Columbia University Graduate School of Jo
Interior Architecture is the design of a building or shelter inside out, type home that can be fixed. It can be the initial design and plan for use later redesign to accommodate a changed purpose, or a revised design for adaptive reuse of the building shell; the latter is part of sustainable architecture practices, conserving resources through "recycling" a structure by adaptive redesign. Referred to as the spatial art of environmental design and practice, interior architecture is the process through which the interiors of buildings are designed, concerned with all aspects of the human uses of structural spaces. Put Interior Architecture is the design of an interior in architectural terms. Interior Architecture may refer to: The art and science of designing and erecting building and their interiors as a licensed architect and related physical features; the practice of an interior architect, where architecture means to offer or render professional services in connection with the design and construction of a building's interior that has as its principal purpose human occupancy or use.
A general term to describe related physical features. A style or method of design and construction of building interiors and related physical features. Although the original spatial hierarchy of a building is always established by its first architect, subsequent iterations of the interior may not be, for obvious reasons, older structures are modified by designers of a different generation according to society’s changing needs as our cities evolve; this process re-semanticizes the building as a consequence, is predicated on the notion that buildings can never be complete and unalterable. An altered building may look the same on the exterior, but its interior may be different spatially; the interior architect must therefore be sensitive not only to the place of the building in its physical and socio-political context, but to the temporal requirements of changing owners and users. In this sense, if the building has “good bones” the original architectural idea is therefore the first iteration of an internal spatial hierarchy for that structure, after which others are bound to follow Cities are now dense with such buildings originally built as banks that are now restaurants industrial mills that are now loft apartments, or railway stations that have become art galleries.
In each case the collective memory of the shape and character of the city is held to be more desirable than the possibility of a new building on the same site, although economic forces apply. It is possible to speculate that there might well be further new interiors for these structures in future years, but for each alteration the technical and technological expertise of the era will determine the extent to which the building is modified in its building life cycle. Certain structure's interiors remain unaltered over time due to historic preservation, unchanged use, or financial limitations. Most buildings have only three possible long-range internal futures: First, designated important to maintain visually unchanged, only accommodating unseen modern utilities and structural stabilization, restoration needs. Second, demolished to make way for a new building on the same site, or abandoned, becoming ruins. Redesigned and altered to accommodate new uses. There are many different degrees of alteration – a minor one to enable the building to conform to new legal codes is to prolong the first iteration of interior space, but a major alteration, such as the retention of only the facade, is to all intents and purposes a new building.
All possibilities within and between the two extremes are the domain of the interior architect. If the practice of Architecture is concerned with the art and science of new building the practice of Interior Architecture is concerned with the alteration of existing buildings for new uses. A critical part in the evolution of interior architecture and design is sustainability and consciously thinking of the environment and the materials being sourced- energy use, site selection, water usage, material selection; this sub-category of Interior Architecture focuses on finding creative and holistic ways of building new or retro fitting existing structures that have little to no impact on the environment. The eco-friendly movement became an important issue around the 1970s when the major energy crisis struck, making individuals aware of their contributions and what can be done to help lighten the impacts. Sustainability in Interior Architecture has taken off in the last few decades with the help and advancements of technology, discovering new materials and efficient concepts that still lend the aesthetically pleasing aspect of a design.
In past years, when it came to eco-design it had a stale and lack of luxury and overall design. This is far from the case today with the overall known importance of being environmentally responsible, having an abundant amount of material options, wanting to withhold an aesthetic design. Sustainable design is now a preferred and desired way of thinking and building that has and will be an ever-expanding and growing field. Median annual wages of wage-and-salary architects were $70,320 in May 2008; the middle 50 percent earned between $53,480 and $91,870. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $41,320, the highest 10 percent earned more than $119,220; those just starting their internships can expect to earn less. Earnings of partners in established architectural firms may fluctuate because of changing business co