Maramureș County is a county of Romania, in the Maramureș region. The county seat is Baia Mare. In Hungarian it is known as Máramaros megye, in Ukrainian as Мараморо́щина, in German as Kreis Marmarosch. In 2011 the county had a population of 461,290 and a population density of 73.17 inhabitants per square kilometre. Romanians - 82.38% Hungarians - 7.53% Ukrainians - 6.77% Romani - 2.73% Germans - 0.27%, others. In 1910, 18.4% of the county were Jewish. Maramureș County is situated in the northern part of Romania, has a border with Ukraine; this county has a total area of 6,304 square kilometres, of which 43% is covered by the Rodna Mountains, with its tallest peak, Pietrosul, at 2,303 metres altitude. Together with Gutâi and Țibleș mountain ranges, the Rodna mountains are part of the Eastern Carpathians; the rest of the county are hills and valleys. The county is crossed by Tisa River and its main tributaries: Iza, Vișeu, Mara rivers. Suceava County to the East. Satu Mare County to the West. Ukraine to the North - Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast and Zakarpattia Oblast.
Sălaj County, Cluj County and Bistrița-Năsăud County to the South. Maramureș is known for its pastoral and agricultural traditions unscathed by the industrialisation campaign, carried on during Romania's communist period. Ploughing, planting and hay making and handling are done through manual labour; the county is home to a strong mining industry of extraction of metals other than iron. The industrial plants built around Baia Mare during the communist period polluted the area in the past, but due to the decline of the city's industrial activity, the area is less polluted; the region is known for its beautiful rural scenery, local small woodwork and craftwork industry as well as for its churches and original rural architecture. There are not many paved roads in rural areas, most of them are accessible; the county's main tourist attractions: The cities of Baia Mare and Sighetu Marmației. The villages on the Iza, Vișeu Valleys; the Wooden churches of Maramureș The Wooden churches of Lăpuș The Wooden churches of Chioar The Merry Cemetery of Săpânța The Rodna Mountains.
The landscape of Cavnic. The Maramureș County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 35 councilors, with the following party composition: Maramureș County has 2 municipalities, 11 towns and 63 communes. Municipalities Baia Mare - county seat. In the 12th century by the separation from Borsova Máramaros County in created in the north-eastern border of the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1241 the Tatar invasion decimated about half of the local population. Inthe 14th century Duke Bogdan of Maramureș said to be founder of Moldavia. In the Middle Ages, the historical region of Máramaros was known for its salt mines and for its lumber. In 1920 after the Treaty of Trianon, the northern part of the county became part of newly formed Czechoslovakia; the southern part became part of the Kingdom of Romania. After the administrative unification law in 1925, the county remained as it was, with the identical name and territory. In 1938 King Carol II promulgated a new Constitution, subsequently he had the administrative division of the Romanian territory changed.
10 ținuturi were created to be ruled by rezidenți regali - appointed directly by the King - instead of the prefects. Maramureș County became part of Ținutul Crișuri. In 1940 the county was transferred back to Hungary with the rest of Northern Transylvania under the Second Vienna Award. Beginning in 1944, Romanian forces with Soviet assistance recaptured the ceded territory and reintegrated it into Romania, re-establishing the county. Romanian jurisdiction over the county per the Treaty of Trianon was reaffirmed in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947; the county was disestablished by the communist government of Romania in 1950, re-established in 1968 when Romania restored the county administrative system. In 1930, the county was divided into three districts: Plasa Iza Plasa Sighet Plasa Vișeu Subsequently the Iza and Sighet districts were reorganized into three districts, adding one: Plasa Şugatag According to the 1930 census, the county's population was 194,619, 57.9% Romanian, 20.9% Jews, 11.9% Ruthenians, 6.9% Hungarians, 2.0% Germans, as well as other minorities.
The following composition was recorded from the religious point of view: 64.4% Greek Catholic, 21.0% Jewish, 6.4% Roman Catholic, 5.3% Eastern Orthodox, 1.8% Reformed, as well as other minorities. In 1930 the county's urban population ethnically consisted of 38.6% Jews, 35.4% Romanians, 19.9% Hungarians, 4.5% Ruthenians, as well as other minorities. Yiddish was spoken by 36.6% of the urban population, followed by Romanian, Ukrainian, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban inhabitants were Jewish, Greek Catholics, Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, as well as other minorities. Natives of the county include: Augustin Buzura Ștefan Hrușcă Gheorghe Pop de Băsești Paula Seling Elie Wiesel
Transylvania is a historical region, located in central Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains; the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but parts of the historical regions of Crișana and Maramureș, the Romanian part of Banat. The region of Transylvania is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history, it contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Sibiu, Târgu Mureș, Bistrița. The Western world associates Transylvania with vampires, because of the influence of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula and its many film adaptations. Historical names of Transylvania are: Latin: Ultrasilvania, Transsilvania Romanian: Ardeal, Transilvania Russian: Ардял, translit. Ardjal, Трансильвания Transil'vanija Hungarian: Erdély Ukrainian: Семигород, translit. Semyhorod, Залісся Zalissja, Трансильванія Transyl'vanija Serbian: Ердељ, translit. Erdelj, Трансилванија Transilvanija Croatian: Sedmogradska, Transilvanija Bulgarian: Седмоградско, translit.
Sedmogradsko, Трансилвания Transilvanija Slovak: Sedmohradsko German: Siebenbürgen, Transsilvanien Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjen Polish: Siedmiogród, Transylwania Turkish: Erdel, Transilvanya Romani: TransilvaniyaIn Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal or Transilvania. The earliest known reference to Transylvania appears in a Medieval Latin document in 1075 as ultra silvam, meaning "beyond the forest". Transylvania, with an alternative Latin prepositional prefix, means "on the other side of the woods". Hungarian historians claim that the Medieval Latin form Ultrasylvania Transsylvania, was a direct translation from the Hungarian form Erdő-elve; that was used as an alternative name in German überwald and Ukrainian Залісся. The German name Siebenbürgen means "seven castles", after the seven Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region; this is the origin of the region's name in many other languages, such as the Croatian Sedmogradska, the Bulgarian Седмиградско, Polish Siedmiogród and the Ukrainian Семигород.
The Hungarian form Erdély was first mentioned in the 12th-century Gesta Hungarorum as Erdeuleu or Erdő-elve. The word Erdő means forest in Hungarian, the word Elve denotes a region in connection with this to the Hungarian name for Muntenia. Erdel, Erdelistan, the Turkish equivalents, or the Romanian Ardeal were borrowed from this form as well; the first known written occurrence of the Romanian name Ardeal appeared in a document in 1432 as Ardeliu. The Romanian Ardeal is derived from the Hungarian Erdély. Transylvania has been dominated by several different countries throughout its history, it was once the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia. In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi, Huns, Gepids and Slavs. From 9th to 11th century Bulgarians ruled Transylvania, it is a subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania through the Post-classical Era or the first Vlachs/Romanians appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration from the Balkan Peninsula.
There is an ongoing scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest. The Magyars conquered much of Central Europe at the end of the 9th century. According to Gesta Hungarorum, the Vlach voivode Gelou ruled Transylvania before the Hungarians arrived; the Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula. Some historians assert Transylvania was settled by Hungarians in several stages between the 10th and 13th centuries, while others claim that it was settled, since the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century. Between 1003 and 1526, Transylvania was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of János Szapolyai. In 1570, the kingdom transformed into the Principality of Transylvania, ruled by Calvinist Hungarian princes.
During that time, the ethnic composition of Transylvania transformed from an estimated near equal number of the ethnic groups to a Romanian majority. Vasile Lupu estimates their number more than one-third of the population of Transylvania in a letter to the sultan around 1650. For most of this period, maintaining its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire; the Habsburgs acquired the territory shortly after the Battle of Vienna in 1683. In 1687, the rulers of Transylvania recognized the suzerainty of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I, the region was attached to the Habsburg Empire; the Habsburgs acknowledged Principality of Transylvania as one of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, but the territory of principality was administratively separa
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list
The Zakarpattia Oblast is an administrative oblast located in southwestern Ukraine, coterminous with the historical region of Carpathian Ruthenia. Its administrative centre is the city of Uzhhorod. Other major cities within the oblast include Mukachevo, Khust and Chop, home to railroad transport infrastructure. Zakarpattia Oblast was established on 22 January 1946, after the resignation of Czechoslovakia on the territory of Subcarpathian Ruthenia, annexed forcibly by the Soviet Union and attached to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, under a treaty between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union; some scholars say that during the Ukrainian independence referendum held in 1991, Zakarpattia Oblast voters were given a separate option on whether or not they favoured autonomy for the region. Although a large majority favoured autonomy, it was not granted. However, this referendum was about self-government status, not about autonomy. Situated in the Carpathian Mountains of western Ukraine, Zakarpattia Oblast is the only Ukrainian administrative division which borders upon four countries: Poland, Slovakia and Romania.
The Carpathian Mountains play a major part in the oblast's economy, making the region an important tourist and travel destination housing many ski and spa resorts. With its 13,000 square kilometres, the oblast is ranked 23rd by area and 15th by population as according to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, the population of Zakarpattia Oblast is 1,254,614; this total includes people of many different nationalities of which Hungarians and Rusyns constitute significant minorities in some of the province's cities, while in others, they form the majority of the population. The oblast is referred to as the Transcarpathian Oblast, Zakarpattia, or as Subcarpathian Rus'. In other languages the oblast is named: Rusyn: Подкарпатьска област, translit. Podkarpat’ska oblast. Hungarian: Kárpátalja or translit. From the official Ukrainian Kárpátontúli terület Czech: Zakarpatská oblast Slovak: Zakarpatská oblasť Polish: Obwód zakarpacki Romanian: Maramureșul de Nord or Regiunea Transcarpatia Russian: Закарпатская область, translit.
Zakarpatskaya oblastWhile the name Transcarpathia is a translation of the Ukrainian version of the name, the Hungarian name translates as Subcarpathia, following the Hungarian language logic "feet of the mountains", naming a territory after its geographic location at the lower section of a mountain range. The Transcarpathia name and its versions reflect the East Slavic language logic, while some Western languages follow the same logic as the Hungarian: English: Subcarpathia, Subcarpathian Rus', Subcarpathian Ruthenia, Sub-Carpathian Ukraine French: Ukraine Subcarpathique, Russie subcarpathiqueOther Western languages follow their own logic in creating a name for the region: German: Karpatenrussland, Karpathenland, Karpatho-Russland, Karpato-UkraineThe coat of arms of Zakarpattia was created in the end of the 1910s in the Czechoslovakia; the Zakarpattia Oblast has a total area of 12,800 km2 and is located on southwestern slopes and foothills of the Carpathian Mountains covering around 80% of area in the region.
The rest of the region is covered by the Transcarpathian Lowland, part of the Pannonian plain. Zakarpattia is the only Ukrainian oblast to have boundaries with four countries: Poland, Slovakia and Romania. On the West it borders the Prešov and Košice Regions of Slovakia and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Counties of Hungary, on the South—the Satu Mare and Maramureş Counties of Romania, on the East and Northeast—Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, on the North—Lviv Oblast and the Subcarpathian Voivodeship of Poland; the Zakarpattia Oblast consists of mountains and small hills covered with deciduous and coniferous forests, as well as alpine meadows. Mountains cover about 80% of the oblast's area, cross from North-East to South-East; the Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians, part of which are located within Zakarpattia Oblast, were recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007. The largest rivers that flow through the oblast include the Tysa and the Tereblia. A high altitude lake is located in Rakhiv Raion, the highest in the region.
It is called Nesamovyte. The lake is located in the Hoverla preserve on the slopes of Turkul mountain; the lake's area is 3,000 square metres and it is located 1,750 metres above sea level. The region's climate is continental with about 700 -- 1,000 mm of rainfall per year; the average temperature in summer is − 4 ° С in winter. With an elevation of 2,061 metres above sea level, part of the Chornohora mountain range, is the highest point in the oblast; the lowest point, 101 m above sea level, is located in the village of Ruski Heyevtsi in the Uzhhorodskyi Raion. Four of the oblast's historical-cultural sites were nominated for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine competition in 2007: Palanok Castle, Museum upon the Chorna River, Mykhailiv Orthodox Church, the Nevytsky Castle; the lands of Transcarpathia were part of the Kingdom of Hungary since 895. In 895 the Hungarian tribes entered the Carpathian Basin from here through the Verecke pass; as such, it formed part of Austria-Hungary until the latter's demise at the end of World War I.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; the concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization, philosophy and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society. In the humanities, one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in the arts, education, or manners; the level of cultural sophistication has sometimes been seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are found in class-based distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture, popular culture, or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural capital.
In common parlance, culture is used to refer to the symbolic markers used by ethnic groups to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as body modification, clothing or jewelry. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of consumer culture that emerged in the 20th century; some schools of philosophy, such as Marxism and critical theory, have argued that culture is used politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the lower classes and create a false consciousness, such perspectives are common in the discipline of cultural studies. In the wider social sciences, the theoretical perspective of cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture arises from the material conditions of human life, as humans create the conditions for physical survival, that the basis of culture is found in evolved biological dispositions; when used as a count noun, a "culture" is the set of customs and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time.
In this sense, multiculturalism values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes "culture" is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a subculture, or a counterculture. Within cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of cultural relativism holds that cultures cannot be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is situated within the value system of a given culture; the modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the Ancient Roman orator Cicero in his Tusculanae Disputationes, where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or "cultura animi," using an agricultural metaphor for the development of a philosophical soul, understood teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human development. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection, his use, that of many writers after him, "refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, through artifice, become human."In 1986, philosopher Edward S.
Casey wrote, "The word culture meant'place tilled' in Middle English, the same word goes back to Latin colere,'to inhabit, care for, worship' and cultus,'A cult a religious one.' To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly." Culture described by Richard Velkley:... meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its modern meaning in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing Rousseau's criticism of "modern liberalism and Enlightenment". Thus a contrast between "culture" and "civilization" is implied in these authors when not expressed as such. In the words of anthropologist E. B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices and material expressions, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common.
The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is "the way of life the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." Terror management theory posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that Homo sapiens became aware of when they acquired a larger brain. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively; this ability arose with the evolution of behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000 years ago, is thought to be unique to humans, although some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complex, abilities for social learning. It is used to denote the co
Budești Josani church
The church of Saint Nicholas in Budești Josani in the village of Budeşti in the region of Maramureș, Cosău valley in Romania is representative of the characteristic wooden churches of Maramureș with double eaves. It is one of eight wooden churches of Maramureș; the wooden church at Budești Josani was dated by an inscription on the portal from 1643. The inscription was lost during the enlargement of the entrance in 1923; the inscription was verified dendrochronologically and the log structure was dated from the winter 1642-43, i.e. the moment the timbers were felled. This church appears to have been built by the same master carpenter who built the wooden churches at Slătioara and Sârbi Susani. Alexandru Baboș: Tracing a Sacred Building Tradition, Norrköping 2004. Romanian Monasteries Bilder aus Budesti
Church of the Archangels Michael and Gabriel, Plopiș
The Church of the Archangels Michael and Gabriel is a Romanian Orthodox church in Plopiș village, Șișești Commune, Maramureș County, Romania. Built in 1798, it is one of eight buildings that make up the wooden churches of Maramureș UNESCO World Heritage Site, is listed as a historic monument by the country's Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs