The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. It is south of Westchester County. Since 1914, the borough has had the same boundaries as Bronx County, the third-most densely populated county in the United States; the Bronx has a land area of 42 square miles and a population of 1,471,160 in 2017. Of the five boroughs, it has the fourth-largest area, fourth-highest population, third-highest population density, it is the only borough predominantly on the U. S. mainland. The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a hillier section in the west, a flatter eastern section. East and west street names are divided by Jerome Avenue—the continuation of Manhattan's Fifth Avenue; the West Bronx was annexed to New York City in 1874, the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895. Bronx County was separated from New York County in 1914. About a quarter of the Bronx's area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden, the Bronx Zoo in the borough's north and center.
These open spaces are situated on land deliberately reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed north and east from Manhattan. The name "Bronx" originated with Jonas Bronck, who established the first settlement in the area as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639; the native Lenape were displaced after 1643 by settlers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Bronx received many immigrant and migrant groups as it was transformed into an urban community, first from various European countries and from the Caribbean region, as well as African American migrants from the southern United States; this cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of hip hop and rock. The Bronx contains the poorest congressional district in the United States, the 15th, but its wide diversity includes affluent, upper-income, middle-income neighborhoods such as Riverdale, Spuyten Duyvil, Pelham Bay, Pelham Gardens, Morris Park, Country Club; the Bronx the South Bronx, saw a sharp decline in population, livable housing, the quality of life in the late 1960s and the 1970s, culminating in a wave of arson.
Since the communities have shown significant redevelopment starting in the late 1980s before picking up pace from the 1990s until today. The Bronx was called Rananchqua by the native Siwanoy band of Lenape, while other Native Americans knew the Bronx as Keskeskeck, it was divided by the Aquahung River. The origin of the person of Jonas Bronck is contested; some sources claim he was a Swedish born emigrant from Komstad, Norra Ljunga parish in Småland, who arrived in New Netherland during the spring of 1639. Bronck became the first recorded European settler in the area now known as the Bronx and built a farm named "Emmanus" close to what today is the corner of Willis Avenue and 132nd Street in Mott Haven, he leased land from the Dutch West India Company on the neck of the mainland north of the Dutch settlement in Harlem, bought additional tracts from the local tribes. He accumulated 500 acres between the Harlem River and the Aquahung, which became known as Bronck's River or the Bronx. Dutch and English settlers referred to the area as Bronck's Land.
The American poet William Bronk was a descendant of Pieter Bronck, either Jonas Bronck's son or his younger brother. The Bronx is referred to with the definite article as "The Bronx", both and colloquially; the County of Bronx does not place "The" before "Bronx" in formal references, unlike the coextensive Borough of the Bronx, nor does the United States Postal Service in its database of Bronx addresses. The region was named after the Bronx River and first appeared in the "Annexed District of The Bronx" created in 1874 out of part of Westchester County, it was continued in the "Borough of The Bronx", which included a larger annexation from Westchester County in 1898. The use of the definite article is attributed to the style of referring to rivers. Another explanation for the use of the definite article in the borough's name stems from the phrase "visiting the Broncks", referring to the settler's family; the capitalization of the borough's name is sometimes disputed. The definite article is lowercase in place names except in official references.
The definite article is capitalized at the beginning of a sentence or in any other situation when a lowercase word would be capitalized. However, some people and groups refer to the borough with a capital letter at all times, such as Lloyd Ultan, a historian for The Bronx County Historical Society, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx, a Bronx-based organization; these people say. In particular, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx is leading efforts to make the city refer to the borough with an uppercase definite article in all uses, comparing the lowercase article in the Bronx's name to "not capitalizing the's' in'Staten Island.'" European colonization of the Bronx began in 1639. The Bronx was part of Westchester County, but it was ceded to New York County in two major parts before it became Bronx County; the area was part of the Lenape's Lenapehoking territory inhabited by Siwanoy of the Wappinger Confederacy. Over
Herman Melville was an American novelist, short story writer, poet of the American Renaissance period. Among his best known works are Typee, a romantic account of his experiences of Polynesian life, his whaling novel Moby-Dick. Melville was born in New York City, the third child of a merchant who dealt in French dry goods and his wife. Years as a common sailor from 1839 to 1844 were the basis of his early writings, his first book was Typee, a romanticized account of his life among Polynesians. It became such a best-seller; these successes gave him the financial basis to marry Elizabeth Shaw, daughter of a prominent Boston family, but the success proved hard to sustain. His first novel, not based on his own experiences was Mardi, a sea narrative that develops into a philosophical allegory—but it was not well received, he received warmer reviews for Redburn, a story of life on a merchant ship, his 1850 description of the harsh life aboard a man-of-war in White-Jacket, but they did not provide financial security.
Moby-Dick, although now considered one of the great American novels, was not well received, critics scorned his psychological novel, Pierre: or, The Ambiguities. From 1853 to 1856, Melville published short fiction in magazines, most notably "Bartleby, the Scrivener", "The Encantadas", "Benito Cereno"; these and three other stories were collected in 1856 as The Piazza Tales. In 1857, he traveled to England and toured the Near East; the Confidence-Man was the last prose work. He turned to poetry. Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War was his poetic reflection on the moral questions of the American Civil War. In 1867, his oldest child Malcolm died at home from a self-inflicted gunshot. Clarel: A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land was published in 1876, a metaphysical epic. In 1886, his son Stanwix died, Melville retired. During his last years, he published two volumes of poetry, left one volume unpublished, returned to prose of the sea; the novella Billy Budd was left unfinished at his death but was published in 1924.
Melville's death from cardiovascular disease in 1891 subdued a reviving interest in his work. The 1919 centennial of his birth became the starting point of the "Melville Revival". Critics discovered his work, scholars explored his life. Born Herman Melvill in New York City on August 1, 1819, to Allan Melvill and Maria Melvill into a family of Dutch extraction. Herman was the third of eight children, his siblings, who played important roles in his career as well as in his emotional life, were Gansevoort. Part of a well-established and colorful Boston family, Melville's father spent much time out of New York and in Europe as a commission merchant and an importer of French dry goods. Both of Melville's grandfathers were heroes of the Revolutionary War. Major Thomas Melvill had taken part in the Boston Tea Party, his maternal grandfather, General Peter Gansevoort, was famous for having commanded the defense of Fort Stanwix in New York in 1777. Melville found satisfaction in his "double revolutionary descent."
Major Melvill sent his son Allan not to college but to France at the turn of the nineteenth century, where he spent two years in Paris and learned to speak and write French fluently. He subscribed to his father's Unitarianism. In 1814, Allan married Maria Gansevoort, committed to the Dutch Reformed version of the Calvinist creed of her family; the severe Protestantism of the Gansevoort's tradition ensured that she knew her Bible well, in English as well as in Dutch, the language she had grown up speaking with her parents. Three weeks after his birth, on August 19, Herman Melville was baptized at home by a minister of the South Reformed Dutch Church. During the 1820s, Melville lived a privileged, opulent life, in a household with three or more servants at a time. At four-year intervals, the family would move to more spacious and elegant quarters settling on Broadway in 1828. Allan Melvill lived beyond his means and on large sums he borrowed from both his father and his wife's widowed mother, his wife's opinion of his financial conduct is unknown.
Biographer Hershel Parker suggests Maria "thought her mother's money was infinite and that she was entitled to much of her portion now, while she had small children." How well, biographer Delbanco adds, the parents managed to hide the truth from their children is "impossible to know."In 1830, Maria's family lost patience and their support came to a halt, at which point Allan's total debt to both families exceeded $20,000. The felicity of Melville's early childhood, biographer Newton Arvin writes, depended not so much on wealth as on the "exceptionally tender and affectionate spirit in all the family relationships in the immediate circle." Arvin describes Allan as "a man of real sensibility and a warm and loving father," while Maria was "warmly maternal, simple and affectionately devoted to her husband and her brood."Melville's education began when he was five, around the time the Melvills moved to a newly built house at 33 Bleecker Street in Manhattan. In 1826, the same year that Melville contracted scarlet fever, Allan
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Carrère and Hastings
Carrère and Hastings, the firm of John Merven Carrère and Thomas Hastings, was one of the outstanding Beaux-Arts architecture firms in the United States. It was located in New York City; the partnership operated from 1885 until 1911. Thomas Hastings continued on his own, using the same firm name, until his death in 1929. Both men studied at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in France and worked at the firm of McKim and White before they established their firm in the same building; the partnership's first success was the Ponce de León Hotel in St. Augustine, which they designed for Henry Flagler, they went on to establish a successful practice during the 1880s and early 1890s, rose to national prominence by winning the competition for the New York Public Library in 1897. The firm designed commercial buildings, elaborate residences, prominent public buildings in New York, Washington and as far afield as Toronto, Paris and Havana. John Merven Carrère was born in Rio de Janeiro, the son of John Merven Carrère, a Baltimore native and Anna Louisa Maxwell, a Scots/Brazilian native of Rio, the daughter of Joseph Maxwell, a prosperous coffee trader.
The architect's father entered Maxwell's coffee business and developed other business interests of his own in Brazil. As a boy Carrère was sent to Switzerland for his education until 1880, when he entered the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, where he was in the atelier of Leon Ginian until 1882, he returned to New York where his family had resettled after leaving Brazil and worked as draughtsmen for the architectural firm of McKim and White. He and his Paris acquaintance, Thomas Hastings, worked there together before striking out on their own in 1885. During this period Carrère independently designed several circular panorama buildings in New York and Chicago. After he married Marion Dell in 1886 they lived in Staten Island and had three daughters, one of whom died as an infant. In 1901 they moved to East 65th Street in Manhattan, built a country house in Harrison, New York. Carrère was noted for his unflinching honesty, his organizational skill, artistic judgment, energy were essential to the establishment and success of the Carrère and Hastings firm.
He was most active in the firm's large civic and commercial projects, including the House and Senate office buildings on Capitol Hill, the Manhattan Bridge and its approaches, the New York Public Library. He was interested in civic affairs in New York, with the help of Elihu Root, he was instrumental in establishing the Art Commission of New York City, his public service extended to the national arena. In the 1890s he worked with other leaders of the American Institute of Architects to persuade the US Treasury Department to implement the Tarsney Act, passed by Congress in 1893 to allow the federal government to award architectural commissions for its buildings through open design competitions. During the extended Tarsney controversy, Jeremiah O'Rourke, the Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department, resigned. Carrère was offered the job, an offer he publicly considered but declined, writing, "the system, not the man, should be changed." Carrère was engaged in the development of city planning in the United States.
He lectured at universities and to civic groups on the subject. He collaborated with Daniel H. Burnham and Arnold Brunner on the Group Plan for Cleveland and again with Brunner on a plan for Grand Rapids, Michigan. In 1910, he worked with Brunner and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. on a plan for a Baltimore civic center. In 1908, Carrère was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, became a full member in 1910. Carrère and Hastings produced a plan for the City of Hartford, completed in 1911, just prior to his tragic, early death, which occurred when a streetcar collided with the taxi in which he was riding, he never regained consciousness. Thomas S. Hastings was born in New York City on March 11, 1860, his father Thomas S. Hastings, was a noted Presbyterian minister, homiletics professor, dean of the Union Theological Seminary, his grandfather, Thomas Samuel Hastings, was one of America's leading church musicians of the 19th century: he composed hymns, including'Rock of Ages,' and published the first musical treatise by a native-born composer in 1822.
Hastings was educated in private schools in New York, began his architectural apprenticeship at Herter Brothers, the premier New York furnishers and decorators. He attended the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1880–1883 as a student in the atelier of Louis-Jules André. There he met his future partner, both maintained ties to Europe throughout their lives. Upon returning to New York, Hastings entered the office of McKim, Mead & White, the leading American firm of the American Renaissance. Renewing his friendship with Carrère, in the office, he remained there for two years. A referral through his father to Henry Morrison Flagler resulted in the commission first for a library extension to Flagler's Mamaroneck estate and for the Ponce de Leon and Alcazar hotels in St. Augustine, Florida. Further ties to wealthy patrons, who were members of his father's mid-town congregation, propelled the rapid success of the young architects, his brother Frank's ties to E. C. Benedict, a leading financier, introduced him not only to patrons but als
Westchester County, New York
Westchester County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. It is the second-most populous county on the mainland of New York, after the Bronx, the most populous county in the state north of New York City. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a population of 949,113, estimated to have increased by 3.3% to 980,244 by 2017. Situated in the Hudson Valley, Westchester covers an area of 450 square miles, consisting of six cities, 19 towns, 23 villages. Established in 1683, Westchester was named after the city of England; the county seat is the city of White Plains, while the most populous municipality in the county is the city of Yonkers, with an estimated 200,807 residents in 2016. The annual per capita income for Westchester was $67,813 in 2011; the 2011 median household income of $77,006 was the fifth highest in New York and the 47th highest in the United States. By 2014, the county's median household income had risen to $83,422. Westchester County ranks second in the state after New York County for median income per person, with a higher concentration of incomes in smaller households.
Westchester County had the highest property taxes of any county in the United States in 2013. Westchester County is one of the centrally located counties within the New York metropolitan area; the county is positioned with Nassau and Suffolk counties, to its south. Westchester was the first suburban area of its scale in the world to develop, due to the upper-middle-class development of entire communities in the late 19th century and the subsequent rapid population growth; because of Westchester's numerous road and mass transit connections to New York City, as well as its shared border with the Bronx, the 20th and 21st centuries have seen much of the county the southern portion, become nearly as densely developed as New York City itself. At the time of European contact in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Native American inhabitants of present-day Westchester County were part of the Algonquian peoples, whose name for themselves was Lenape, meaning the people, they called the region Lenapehoking, which consisted of the area around and between the Delaware and Hudson Rivers.
Several different tribes occupied the area, including The Manhattans, the Weckquaesgeek and Siwanoy bands of the Wappinger in the south, Tankiteke and Kitchawank Wappinger in the north. The first European explorers to visit the Westchester area were Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524 and Henry Hudson in 1609. Dutch settlers began arriving in the 1620s, followed by settlers from England in the 1640s. Westchester County was one of the original twelve counties of the Province of New York, created by an act of the New York General Assembly in 1683. At the time it included present-day Bronx County, abutted then-Dutchess County to the north. By 1775, Westchester was the richest and most populous county in the colony of New York. Although the Revolutionary War devastated the county, recovery after the war was rapid. In 1788, five years after the end of the war, the county was divided into 20 towns. In 1798, the first federal census recorded a population of 24,000 for the county. Two developments in the first half of the 19th century – the construction of the first Croton Dam and Aqueduct, the coming of the railroad – had enormous impacts on the growth of Westchester.
The Croton Dam and Aqueduct was begun in 1837 and completed in 1842. In the 1840s, the first railroads were built in Westchester, included the New York and Harlem Railroad, the Hudson River Railroad, the New York and New Haven Railroad; the railroads determined the growth of a town, the population shifted from Northern to Southern Westchester. By 1860, the total county population was 99,000, with the largest city being Yonkers; the period following the American Civil War enabled entrepreneurs in the New York area to create fortunes, many built large estates, such as Lyndhurst, in Westchester. During the latter half of the 19th century, Westchester's transportation system and labor force attracted a manufacturing base along the Hudson River and Nepperhan Creek. In 1874, the western portion of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County, in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County; these would split from Manhattan to form a county. During the 20th century, the rural character of Westchester would transform into the suburban county known today.
The Bronx River Parkway, completed in 1925, was the first modern, multi-lane limited-access roadway in North America. The development of Westchester's parks and parkway systems supported existing communities and encouraged the establishment of new ones, transforming the development pattern for Westchester. With the need for homes expanding after World War II, multistory apartment houses appeared in the urbanized areas of the county, while the market for single-family houses continued to expand. By 1950, the total County population was 625,816. Major interstate highways were constructed in Westchester during the 1960s; the establishment of these roadways, along with the construction of the Tappan Zee Bridge, led to further growth in the county. Westchester County is located in southern New York known as Downstate, it shares its southern boundary with its northern border with Putnam County. It is bordered on the west
Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, was an English architect known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. He designed war memorials and public buildings. In his biography, the writer Christopher Hussey wrote, "In his lifetime was held to be our greatest architect since Wren if not, as many maintained, his superior"; the architectural historian Gavin Stamp described him as "surely the greatest British architect of the twentieth century". Lutyens played an instrumental role in designing and building New Delhi, which would on serve as the seat of the Government of India. In recognition of his contribution, New Delhi is known as "Lutyens' Delhi". In collaboration with Sir Herbert Baker, he was the main architect of several monuments in New Delhi such as the India Gate. Lutyens was born in Kensington, the tenth of thirteen children of Captain Charles Henry Augustus Lutyens, a soldier and painter, Mary Theresa Gallwey from Killarney, Ireland, he grew up in Surrey.
He was named after a friend of the painter and sculptor Edwin Henry Landseer. Lutyens studied architecture at South Kensington School of Art, London from 1885 to 1887. After college he joined the Ernest Harold Peto architectural practice, it was here. For many years he worked from offices at London, he began his own practice in 1888, his first commission being a private house at Crooksbury, Surrey. During this work, he met horticulturalist Gertrude Jekyll. In 1896 he began work on a house for Jekyll at Munstead Wood near Surrey, it was the beginning of a professional partnership that would define the look of many Lutyens country houses. The "Lutyens-Jekyll" garden had hardy shrubbery and herbaceous plantings within a structural architecture of stairs and balustraded terraces; this combined style, of the formal with the informal, exemplified by brick paths, herbaceous borders, with plants such as lilies, lupins and lavender, was in contrast to the formal bedding schemes favoured by the previous generation in the 19th century.
This "natural" style was to define the "English garden" until modern times. Lutyens' fame grew through the popularity of the new lifestyle magazine Country Life created by Edward Hudson, which featured many of his house designs. Hudson was a great admirer of Lutyens' style and commissioned Lutyens for a number of projects, including Lindisfarne Castle and the Country Life headquarters building in London, at 8 Tavistock Street. One of his assistants in the 1890s was Maxwell Ayrton. By the turn of the century, Lutyens was recognised as one of architecture's coming men. In his major study of English domestic buildings, Das Englische Haus, published in 1904, Hermann Muthesius wrote of Lutyens, "He is a young man who has come to the forefront of domestic architects and who may soon become the accepted leader among English builders of houses"; the bulk of Lutyens' early work consisted of private houses in an Arts and Crafts style influenced by Tudor architecture and the vernacular styles of south-east England.
This was the most innovative phase of his career. Important works of this period include Munstead Wood, Tigbourne Court and Goddards in Surrey, Deanery Garden and Folly Farm in Berkshire, Overstrand Hall in Norfolk and Le Bois des Moutiers in France. After about 1900 this style gave way to a more conventional Classicism, a change of direction which had a profound influence on wider British architectural practice, his commissions were of a varied nature from private houses to two churches for the new Hampstead Garden Suburb in London to Julius Drewe's Castle Drogo near Drewsteignton in Devon and on to his contributions to India's new imperial capital, New Delhi. Here he added elements of local architectural styles to his classicism, based his urbanisation scheme on Mughal water gardens, he designed the Hyderabad House for the last Nizam of Hyderabad, as his Delhi palace. Before the end of the First World War, he was appointed one of three principal architects for the Imperial War Graves Commission and was involved with the creation of many monuments to commemorate the dead.
Larger cemeteries have a Stone of Remembrance, designed by him. The best known of these monuments are the Cenotaph in Whitehall and the Memorial to the Missing of the Somme, Thiepval; the Cenotaph was commissioned by David Lloyd George as a temporary structure to be the centrepiece of the Allied Victory Parade in 1919. Lloyd George proposed a catafalque, a low empty platform, but it was Lutyens' idea for the taller monument; the design took less than six hours to complete. Lutyens designed many other war memorials, others are based on or inspired by Lutyens' designs. Examples of Lutyens' other war memorials include the War Memorial Gardens in Dublin, the Tower Hill memorial, the Manchester Cenotaph and the Arch of Remembrance memorial in Leicester. Lutyens refurbished Lindisfarne Castle for its wealthy owner. One of Lutyens' smaller works, but considered one of his masterpieces, is The Salutation, a house in Sandwich, England. Built in 1911–1912 with a 3.7-acre garden, it was commissioned by Henry Farrer, one of three sons of Sir William Farrer.
He was knighted as a knight bachelor in 1918 and elected a Royal Academician in March 1920. In 1924, he was appointed a member of the newly created Royal Fi