First National Bank Tower
The First National Bank Tower is a 634 ft, 45-story skyscraper at 1601 Dodge Street in downtown Omaha, Nebraska. Completed in 2002, it is the tallest building in the city of Omaha, in the state of Nebraska, has been since its completion, overtaking the 478 ft, 30-story Woodmen Tower located nearby, it was built on the site of the former Medical Arts Building, imploded on April 2, 1999 to make way for the current skyscraper. Inside the glass lobby is a large section of the ornamental facade from the former Medical Arts Building that once stood there; the First National Bank Tower plays host to Trek up the Tower, a vertical stair climb race up to the top of the tower. This race is presented by The Wellness Council of the Midlands; the building is the headquarters of First National of Nebraska. At 634 feet and 45 stories high, its height was chosen to one-up 801 Grand, the tallest building in Des Moines, Iowa. 801 Grand is just four feet and one story shorter than the First National Bank Tower. Across from the Tower, is First National Bank Park, which includes a large public art display and fountain.
There is bench seating. Economy of Omaha, Nebraska List of tallest buildings in Omaha, Nebraska Trek up the Tower Emporis Link
Clinton is a city in and the county seat of Clinton County, United States. The population was 26,885 as of 2010. Clinton, along with DeWitt, was named in honor of the sixth governor of New York, DeWitt Clinton. Clinton is the principal city of the Clinton Micropolitan Statistical Area, coterminous with Clinton County. Clinton was incorporated on January 26, 1857. Among the first settlers of European origin in the Clinton area was Elijah Buell, who built a log cabin on July 25, 1835 and in 1837, established the town of Lyons, named after the French city of the same name. Buell partnered with a John Baker in a successful ferry service across the Mississippi River, at a location called "the Narrows," between Lyons and what would become the City of Fulton, Illinois. Although Lyons grew and prospered, it merged into the City of Clinton. Clinton was platted as the town of New York in 1836 by Joseph Bartlett. Bartlett believed that the region was rich with gold deposits, he prepared for a boom town to develop.
While waiting for the "gold boom" to materialize, Bartlett started a second ferry service across the Mississippi to the village of Albany, Illinois. However, his service was not as popular as Buell's in Lyons. Bartlett soon became discouraged, sold his assets. In March 1837, Noble and Sarah Gregory Perrin purchased 136 acres of land in what is now Clinton and raised their family in a cabin located at the foot of the railroad bridge. Eve Their oldest daughter, married Dr. Augustus Lafayette Ankeny, who participated in the Blackhawk war and came to Lyons in April 1850. Mary Perrin, born September 26, 1837, was the first female child of European ancestry born in Clinton County. In 1839, as in most early river towns, the town consisted of a sprinkling of cabins, two stores and a tavern. In 1855, the Chicago, Nebraska Railroad announced it would cross the river at Little Rock Island adjacent to Bartlett's settlement; the Iowa Land Company was organized on May 26, 1855, on July 4, bought Bartlett's tract and renamed it Clinton, in honor of DeWitt Clinton, two-time governor of New York and one of the driving forces behind the construction of the Erie Canal.
In 1840, the County of Clinton was organized. The settlement that would become Clinton did not change much in the 1840s, but Lyons continued to grow and prosper. By 1852, stagecoach lines ran from Lyons to 30 mi to the Southwest; that same year, the Lyons and Iowa Central Railroad Company was formed, led by an H. P. Adams. Work began on the railroad immediately, progressed rapidly. However, the funds raised to construct the line were insufficient; the venture failed. The railroad was disparagingly known as "the Calico Line," after the large amount of calico fabric sold at the company store in Lyons, but the prospect of a railroad to Lyons, a crossing of the Mississippi at the Narrows that would follow, sparked rapid growth in the community. Lyons' population grew from a mere 200 in 1852, to over 5,000 by 1858. On November 10, 1855, the first plat of the city of Clinton was signed. Stuart, a civil engineer from New York, with the assistance of William Rumble, C. I. Loring, draftsman. On January 26, 1857 the city was granted a charter and on March 7, the charter was adopted.
On April 5, 1859, the amended charter of the city was adopted, which lasted until a general charter was adopted in 1867. An announcement came in 1855 that a railroad was to cross the Mississippi, South of Lyons, at Little Rock Island. At the same time, the Iowa Land Company was formed; the ILC purchased Bartlett's tract on the Iowa shore opposite Little Rock Island. Concurrently, the Chicago, Iowa, & Nebraska Railroad was formed, with the express intent of crossing the Mississippi River at Clinton. Construction on the railroad bridge began in 1856, Clinton's population grew to over 1,000 as construction continued. In June 1859, the railroad line was completed to Cedar Rapids; the first train crossed from the Illinois shore to Little Rock Island at noon, January 9, 1860, was ferried from there to the Iowa shore. In January 1864, construction was started on the span from Little Rock Island to the Iowa shore and was completed on January 6, 1865; the original single track railroad bridge was replaced by a double track bridge, completed in 1909.
In 1864, the C&IN Railroad merged with the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad to form the Chicago & North Western Railroad. In the North-South direction, railroad development continued as well. In 1868, the C&NW built a branch line connecting Lyons with the East-West railroad at Clinton. In 1870, the Iowa Midland Company built a railroad from Lyons to Anamosa, Iowa, 59 mi to the Northwest; this railroad was absorbed by the C&NW. In 1872, the Chicago, Clinton, & Dubuque Railroad was built North from Lyons, it became part of the Milwaukee Road. The last of the railroads in Clinton, the Davenport, Rock Island, Northwestern, was completed from the Southwest along the Mississippi River to Clinton in 1901. An interurban passenger railroad operated along this trackage as late as 1940; this right-of-way, along with that of the former CC&D, is operated by Canadian National. In 1869, due to its importance as a major transportation hub, the county seat was moved to Clinton.
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States. It is bordered by South Dakota to the north, it is the only triply landlocked U. S. state. Nebraska's area is just over 77,220 square miles with a population of 1.9 million people. Its state capital is Lincoln, its largest city is Omaha, on the Missouri River. Indigenous peoples, including Omaha, Ponca, Pawnee and various branches of the Lakota tribes, lived in the region for thousands of years before European exploration; the state is crossed including that of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Nebraska was admitted as the 37th state of the United States in 1867, it is the only state in the United States whose legislature is unicameral and nonpartisan. Nebraska is composed of two major land regions: the Great Plains; the Dissected Till Plains region consist of rolling hills and contains the state's largest cities and Lincoln. The Great Plains region, occupying most of western Nebraska, is characterized by treeless prairie, suitable for cattle-grazing.
Nebraska has two major climatic zones. The eastern half of the state has a humid continental climate; the western half of the state has a semi-arid climate. The state has wide variations between winter and summer temperatures, variations that decrease moving south in the state. Violent thunderstorms and tornadoes occur during spring and summer and sometimes in autumn. Chinook winds tend to warm the state in the winter and early spring. Nebraska's name is derived from transliteration of the archaic Otoe words Ñí Brásge, pronounced, or the Omaha Ní Btháska, meaning "flat water", after the Platte River that flows through the state. Indigenous peoples lived in the region of present-day Nebraska for thousands of years before European exploration; the historic tribes in the state included the Omaha, Ponca, Pawnee and various branches of the Lakota, some of which migrated from eastern areas into this region. When European exploration and settlement began, both Spain and France sought to control the region.
In the 1690s, Spain established trade connections with the Apaches, whose territory included western Nebraska. By 1703, France had developed a regular trade with the native peoples along the Missouri River in Nebraska, by 1719 had signed treaties with several of these peoples. After war broke out between the two countries, Spain dispatched an armed expedition to Nebraska under Lieutenant General Pedro de Villasur in 1720; the party was attacked and destroyed near present-day Columbus by a large force of Pawnees and Otoes, both allied to the French. The massacre ended Spanish exploration of the area for the remainder of the 18th century. In 1762, during the Seven Years' War, France ceded the Louisiana territory to Spain; this left Spain competing for dominance along the Mississippi. In response, Spain dispatched two trading expeditions up the Missouri in 1794 and 1795; that year, Mackay's party built a trading post, dubbed Fort Carlos IV, near present-day Homer. In 1819, the United States established Fort Atkinson as the first U.
S. Army post west of the Missouri River, just east of present-day Fort Calhoun; the army abandoned the fort in 1827. European-American settlement was scarce until the California Gold Rush. On May 30, 1854, the US Congress created the Kansas and the Nebraska territories, divided by the Parallel 40° North, under the Kansas–Nebraska Act; the Nebraska Territory included parts of the current states of Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. The territorial capital of Nebraska was Omaha. In the 1860s, after the U. S. government forced many of the Native American tribes to cede their lands and settle on reservations, it opened large tracts of land to agricultural development by Europeans and Americans. Under the Homestead Act, thousands of settlers migrated into Nebraska to claim free land granted by the federal government; because so few trees grew on the prairies, many of the first farming settlers built their homes of sod, as had Native Americans such as the Omaha. The first wave of settlement gave the territory a sufficient population to apply for statehood.
Nebraska became the 37th state on March 1, 1867, the capital was moved from Omaha to the center at Lancaster renamed Lincoln after the assassinated President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. The battle of Massacre Canyon on August 5, 1873, was the last major battle between the Pawnee and the Sioux. During the 1870s to the 1880s, Nebraska experienced a large growth in population. Several factors contributed to attracting new residents; the first was. This helped settlers to learn the unfamiliar geography of the area; the second factor was the invention of several farming technologies. Agricultural inventions such as barbed wire, wind mills, the steel plow, combined with good weather, enabled settlers to use of Nebraska as prime farming land. By the 1880s, Nebraska's population
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
KXSP is a commercial AM radio station licensed to Omaha, Nebraska. The station is owned by SummitMedia and it airs a sports radio format. Most weekday afternoon and evening programming is from local hosts, while during mornings, late nights and weekends, KXSP carries the ESPN Radio Network. KXSP operates at 5000 watts, using a non-directional transmitter off Sorensen Parkway in North Omaha. Due to its location near the bottom of the AM dial, as well as Nebraska's flat land, its signal is heard in most of the eastern half of Nebraska, as well as parts of Iowa, Missouri and South Dakota, it provides grade B coverage as far south as Kansas City as far east as Des Moines, as far north as Sioux Falls. Offices and studios are located on Mockingbird Drive in South Omaha. KXSP programming is carried on the HD-2 subchannel of KEZO-FM. On April 2, 1923, the station first signed on, owned by the Woodmen of the World life insurance society, using the call sign WOAW. Management sought the call letters WOW but they were used by the steamship Henry J. Bibble.
A call sign beginning with "W" was possible in Nebraska because the dividing line between "K" and "W" stations followed the western border of Nebraska. WOAW's call sign was issued on November 27, 1922, shortly before the divide was moved to the Mississippi River in January 1923. Despite this, the station was able to claim the WOW call sign on December 16, 1926, upon retirement of the Bibble; the Woodmen society put the station up for sale in 1945 out of fear that it would jeopardize its tax-exempt status. That group added a television station in 1949 and an FM station in 1961. In 1951, Meredith Corporation bought the WOW stations; the AM station became a Top 40 station in the early 1970s, where former Shindig! Host Jimmy O'Neill worked for a time, a country station in the early 1980s. Meredith sold the station in 1983, Journal Broadcast Group bought it in 1999. On November 22, 1999, the WOW call letters were dropped in favor of KOMJ with adoption of a new format of adult standards, branded as "Magic 590".
On April 25, 2005, KOMJ and then-sister station KOSR swapped formats, with 590 adopting the sports format under new call letters KXSP, 1490 adopting the standards format and KOMJ calls. On February 1, 2011, KXSP swapped affiliations with 1620 KOZN. KOZN took the Fox Sports Radio affiliation and KXSP took ESPN. With the affiliation swap, KXSP became known as "AM 590 ESPN Radio" instead of "Big Sports 590". On August 23, 2012, KXSP aired The Front Stretch Radio Show on Sunday mornings. Hosted by Michael Grey, Buddy Ray Jones and Andrew Kosiski, the front stretch covered local dirt track racing and NASCAR. KXSP is simulcast on sister station 92.3 KEZO's HD2 digital audio subchannel. Journal Communications and the E. W. Scripps Company announced on July 30, 2014 that the two companies would merge to create a new broadcast company under the E. W. Scripps Company name that will own the two companies' broadcast properties, including KXSP; the transaction was completed in 2015. On February 10, 2015 Journal Broadcast Group and the IMG group announced they had signed a contract for Journal Broadcast Group in Omaha to be the broadcast partner for Nebraska Cornhuskers sports.
Effective July 1, 2015 KXSP became the primary station for Nebraska Cornhuskers sports broadcasts, sharing flagship status with Lincoln's KLIN. Co-owned KEZO will simulcast football games, while KKCD will air any volleyball, women's basketball and baseball games that conflict with other athletic events; this ended a nine-decade association between the Huskers and KFAB, the state's most powerful radio station. However, school officials had long felt chagrin at KFAB's unwillingness to air all major sports, wanted all games to air on a single, powerful station. KXSP's daytime broadcast range is as large as that of KFAB's; as mentioned above, this is due to Nebraska's flat land. Scripps exited radio in 2018. WOW received a 1946 Peabody Award for Outstanding Regional Public Service for its program series "Operation Big Muddy." AM 590 ESPN Radio Official Website History of WOW Query the FCC's AM station database for KXSP Radio-Locator Information on KXSP Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for KXSP FCC History Cards for KXSP
A benefit society, fraternal benefit society or fraternal benefit order is a society, an organization or a voluntary association formed to provide mutual aid, for instance insurance for relief from sundry difficulties. Such organizations may be formally organized with charters and established customs, or may arise ad hoc to meet unique needs of a particular time and place. Many major financial institutions existing today some insurance companies, mutual savings banks, credit unions, trace their origins back to benefit societies, as can many modern fraternal organizations and fraternal orders which are now viewed as being social. Benefit societies may be organized around a shared ethnic background, occupation, geographical region or other basis. Benefits may include financial security and/or assistance for education, birth of a baby and medical expenses and funerals. Benefit societies provide a social or educational framework for members and their families to support each other and contribute to the wider community.
Examples of benefit societies include trade unions, friendly societies, credit unions, self-help groups, immigrant hometown societies, fraternal organizations built upon the models of fraternal orders such as the Freemasons and the Oddfellows, coworking communities, many others. Peter Kropotkin posited early in the 20th century that mutual aid affiliations predate human culture and are as much a factor in evolution as is the "survival of the fittest" concept. A benefit society can be characterized by members having equivalent opportunity for a say in the organization members having equivalent benefits aid going to those in need a collection fund for payment of benefits educating others about a group's interest preserving cultural traditions mutual deference Examples of benefit societies can be found throughout history, including among secret societies of the Tang Dynasty in China and among African-Americans during the post-revolutionary years, such as those who organized the Free African Society of Philadedelphia.
Philadelphia's first black organization, the Free African Society was established in 1787 by two African American former slaves, Absalom Jones and Richard Allen. These two men were Methodist converts from evangelical masters, who gave these men permission to purchase their freedom in the early 1780s. Mutual aid was a foundation of social welfare in the United States until the early 20th Century. Early societies not only shared material resources, but advanced social values related to self-reliance and moral character. Many fraternal organizations were first organized as mutual aid societies when government at the state and local level supplemented private aid societies more than the converse of this being true. In 1890, 112,000 American residents lived in private charitable institutions, while only 73,000 resided in public almshouses. Towards the latter part of the nineteenth century, public aid was reduced as it was seen as contributing to sloth and dependency while private aid was judiciously provided with greater checks for reform and recovery.
Writing in 1890, Jacob Riis, commenting on the extent of private charity, says: "New York is, I believe, the most charitable city in the world. Nowhere is there so eager a readiness to help..."Medieval guilds were an early basis for many Western benefit societies. A guild charter document from 1200 states: "To become a gildsman..it was necessary to pay certain initiation fees.. an oath of fealty to the fraternity, swearing to observe its laws, to uphold its privileges, not to divulge its counsels, to obey its officers, not to aid any non-gildsman under cover of the newly-acquired'freedom.'" This charter shows the importance of'brotherhood', the principles of discipline and benevolence. The structure of fraternity in the guild forms the basis for orders such as Freemasonry and other fraternal orders, friendly societies and modern trade unions. Joining such an organisation a member gained the'freedom' of the craft, the exclusive benefits that the organisation could confer on members. Benefit societies have emphasised the importance of social discipline, in conforming to the rules of the organisation and society, acting in a morally uplifting and ethical manner.
Conviviality and benevolence are important principles. Fraternal societies differed from public and private hierarchical aid organizations by employing an "ethical principle of reciprocity." This removed the stigma of charity. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries benefit societies in the form of friendly societies and trade unions were essential in providing social assistance for sickness and unemployment, improving social conditions for a large part of the working population. With the introduction in the early twentieth century of state social welfare programs, industrial and welfare regulation, the influence and membership of benefit societies have declined in importance, but remains significant. In many countries, for example in Europe, mutual benefit societies continue to provide statutory and supplementary healthcare coverage. Oaths, secret signs and knowledge, regalia were an important part of many benefit societies, but declined in use in most benefit societies during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Conversely and ceremony have become the mainstay of fraternal societies that no longer focus as much on mutual aid. Many of the features of benefit organiza