United States Secretary of Labor
Formerly, there was a U. S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor, who led this department along with the U. S. Department of Commerce as one department. Since the two split in 1913, the Department of Commerce is now headed by a separate U. S. Secretary of Commerce. The most recent Secretary of Labor to die was William Usery Jr. on December 10,2016, United States Deputy Secretary of Labor List of living former members of the United States Cabinet Hall of the Secretaries of Labor and Biographies
National Security Advisor (United States)
The APNSA participates in the meetings of the National Security Council and usually chairs the Principals Committee meetings with the Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense. The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs is appointed by the President without confirmation by the Senate. Ideally, the APNSA serves as an honest broker of policy options for the President in the field of national security, in 1949, the NSC became part of the presidents executive office. The National Security Act of 1947 did not create the position of the National Security Advisor per se, robert Cutler became the first National Security Advisor in 1953. The system has remained unchanged since then, particularly since Kennedys time, with powerful National Security Advisors and strong staff. This continuity persists despite the tendency of new president to replace the advisor and senior NSC staff. Henry Kissinger, President Richard Nixons National Security Advisor, enhanced the importance of the role, controlling the flow of information to the President and meeting him multiple times per day.
Henry Kissinger holds the distinction of serving as National Security Advisor and United States Secretary of State at the time from September 22,1973. Robert Cutler held the job twice, both times under Dwight D. Eisenhower, henry Kissinger holds the record for longest term of service. Michael Flynn holds the record for shortest term of service and Four-Star Generals require Senate confirmation due to the statutory nature requiring Congress to appoint their military rank. United States National Security Council Executive Office of the President Homeland Security Council Homeland Security Advisor 2009-02, The National Security Advisor and Staff
Henry Alfred Kissinger is an American diplomat and political scientist. Born in Germany, Kissinger was a Jewish refugee who fled the Nazi regime with his family in 1938 and he became National Security Advisor and concurrently United States Secretary of State in the administrations of presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. For his actions negotiating a ceasefire in Vietnam, Kissinger received the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize under controversial circumstances, Kissinger sought, unsuccessfully, to return the prize after the ceasefire failed. After his term, his advice has been sought by world leaders including subsequent U. S. presidents, a proponent of Realpolitik, Kissinger played a prominent role in United States foreign policy between 1969 and 1977. Kissinger has associated with such controversial policies as CIA involvement in Chile and U. S. support for Pakistan. He is the founder and chairman of Kissinger Associates, a consulting firm. Kissinger has been an author of books on diplomatic history.
General opinion of Henry Kissinger is strongly divided, several scholars have ranked him as the most effective U. S. Secretary of State since 1965, while some journalists and human rights lawyers have condemned him as a war criminal. Kissinger was born Heinz Alfred Kissinger in Fürth, Germany, in 1923 during the Weimar Republic and his father, Louis Kissinger, was a schoolteacher. His mother, Paula Kissinger, from Leutershausen, was a homemaker, Kissinger has a younger brother, Walter Kissinger. The surname Kissinger was adopted in 1817 by his great-great-grandfather Meyer Löb, as a youth, Heinz enjoyed playing soccer, and played for the youth wing of his favorite club, SpVgg Fürth, which was one of the nations best clubs at the time. In 1938, fleeing Nazi persecution, his family moved to London, Kissinger spent his high school years in the Washington Heights section of upper Manhattan as part of the German Jewish immigrant community that resided there at the time. Although Kissinger assimilated quickly into American culture, he never lost his pronounced Frankish accent, following his first year at George Washington High School, he began attending school at night and worked in a shaving brush factory during the day.
Following high school, Kissinger enrolled in the City College of New York and he excelled academically as a part-time student, continuing to work while enrolled. His studies were interrupted in early 1943, when he was drafted into the U. S. Army, Kissinger underwent basic training at Camp Croft in Spartanburg, South Carolina. On June 19,1943, while stationed in South Carolina, at the age of 20 years, the army sent him to study engineering at Lafayette College, but the program was cancelled, and Kissinger was reassigned to the 84th Infantry Division. Kissinger saw combat with the division, and volunteered for hazardous intelligence duties during the Battle of the Bulge, within eight days he had established a civilian administration. Kissinger was reassigned to the Counter Intelligence Corps, with the rank of sergeant and he was given charge of a team in Hanover assigned to tracking down Gestapo officers and other saboteurs, for which he was awarded the Bronze Star
Stephen Joseph Harper PC is a Canadian entrepreneur and retired politician who served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Canada, from February 6,2006 to November 4,2015. He was the first prime minister to come from the modern Conservative Party of Canada, which was formed by a merger of the Progressive Conservative Party, Harper was member of parliament for the riding of Calgary Heritage in Alberta from 2002 to 2016. Earlier, from 1993 to 1997, he was the MP for Calgary West and he was one of the founding members of the Reform Party, but did not seek re-election in the 1997 federal election. Harper instead joined and led the National Citizens Coalition, a conservative lobbyist group, in 2002, he succeeded Stockwell Day as leader of the Canadian Alliance, the successor to the Reform Party and returned to parliament as Leader of the Opposition. In 2003, he reached an agreement with Progressive Conservative leader Peter MacKay for the merger of their two parties to form the Conservative Party of Canada and he was elected as the partys first leader, in March 2004.
Harper stepped down as MP on August 26,2016, the 2006 federal election resulted in a minority government led by the Conservative Party with Harper becoming the 22nd Prime Minister of Canada. By proportion of seats, this was Canadas smallest minority government since Confederation, despite this, it was the longest-serving minority government overall. The 40th Canadian Parliament was dissolved in March,2011, after a vote that deemed the Cabinet to be in contempt of parliament. Harper resigned as party leader on October 19,2015, Harper moved back to Calgary and commuted to Ottawa as an opposition backbench member of parliament. Harper was born and raised in Leaside, the first of three sons of Margaret and Joseph Harris Harper, an accountant at Imperial Oil. Harper attended Northlea Public School and, John G. Althouse Middle School and Richview Collegiate Institute and he graduated in 1978, and was a member of Richview Collegiates team on Reach for the Top, a television quiz show for Canadian high school students.
Harper enrolled at the University of Toronto but dropped out two months. He moved to Edmonton, where he work in the mail room at Imperial Oil. Later, he advanced to work on the computer systems. He took up post-secondary studies again at the University of Calgary and he returned there to earn a masters degree in economics, completed in 1991. Harper has kept strong links to the University of Calgary, Harper was the first prime minister since Joe Clark without a law degree. Harper became involved in politics as a member of his high schools Young Liberals Club and he changed his political allegiance because he disagreed with the National Energy Program of Pierre Trudeaus Liberal government. He left the PC Party that same year and he was recommended by the University of Calgarys economist Bob Mansell to Preston Manning, the founder and leader of the Reform Party of Canada
James Addison Jim Baker III is an American attorney and statesman. As Secretary of State, he helped oversee U. S. foreign policy during the end of the Cold War and dissolution of the Soviet Union and he is the namesake of the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy at Rice University. James Addison Baker was born in Houston at 1216 Bissonnet, the son of James A. Baker, Jr. and his father was a partner of Houston law firm Baker Botts. Baker has a sister, Bonner Baker Moffitt and his grandfather was attorney and banker James A. Baker, Sr. and his great-grandfather was jurist and politician James Addison Baker the elder. Baker attended The Hill School, a school in Pottstown. He graduated from Princeton University in 1952 with an A. B. in history cum laude and he was a member of Phi Delta Theta. Baker served in the United States Marine Corps, attaining the rank of First Lieutenant, afterwards, he earned a J. D. from The University of Texas at Austin and began to practice law in Texas. From 1957 to 1969, and from 1973 to 1975 he practiced law at the law firm of Andrews & Kurth.
Bakers first wife, the former Mary Stuart McHenry, was active in the Republican Party, Baker had been a Democrat but too busy trying to succeed in a competitive law firm to worry about politics, and considered himself apolitical. His wifes influence led Baker to politics and the Republican Party and he was a regular tennis partner of George H. W. Bush at the Houston Country Club in the late 1950s. When Bush Sr. decided to vacate his Congressional seat and run for the U. S. Senate in 1969, Baker changed his mind about running for Congress when his wife was diagnosed with breast cancer, she died in February 1970. Baker became chairman of Bushs Senate campaign in Harris County, though Bush lost to Lloyd Bentsen in the election, Baker continued in politics, becoming the Finance Chairman of the Republican Party in 1971. The following year, he was selected as Gulf Coast Regional Chairman for the Richard Nixon presidential campaign, in 1973 and 1974, in the wake of the Nixon Administrations implosion, Baker returned to full-time law practice at Andrews & Kurth.
Bakers time away from politics was very brief, however and he served as Undersecretary of Commerce for President Gerald Ford and ran Fords unsuccessful 1976 election campaign. In 1978, with George H. W. Bush as his manager, Baker ran unsuccessfully for Attorney General of Texas. He served in capacity until 1985. Baker is considered to have had a degree of influence over the first Reagan Administration. They claimed that Baker, a former Democrat and a Bush political intimate, was undermining conservative initiatives in the administration, Reagan rebuked Phillips and Wright for having waged a campaign of sabotage against Baker
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. Born in Staunton, Virginia, he spent his years in Augusta and Columbia. In 1910, he was the New Jersey Democratic Partys gubernatorial candidate and was elected the 34th Governor of New Jersey, while in office, Wilson reintroduced the spoken State of the Union, which had been out of use since 1801. Leading the Congress that was now in Democratic hands, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. The Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, through passage of the Adamson Act that imposed an 8-hour workday for railroads, he averted a railroad strike and an ensuing economic crisis. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Wilson maintained a policy of neutrality, Wilson faced former New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes in the presidential election of 1916. By a narrow margin, he became the first Democrat since Andrew Jackson elected to two consecutive terms, Wilsons second term was dominated by American entry into World War I.
In April 1917, when Germany had resumed unrestricted submarine warfare and sent the Zimmermann Telegram, the United States conducted military operations alongside the Allies, although without a formal alliance. During the war, Wilson focused on diplomacy and financial considerations, leaving military strategy to the generals, loaning billions of dollars to Britain and other Allies, the United States aided their finance of the war effort. On the home front, he raised taxes, borrowing billions of dollars through the publics purchase of Liberty Bonds. In his 1915 State of the Union Address, Wilson asked Congress for what became the Espionage Act of 1917, the crackdown was intensified by his Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to include expulsion of non-citizen radicals during the First Red Scare of 1919–1920. Wilson staffed his government with Southern Democrats who implemented racial segregation at the Treasury, Navy and he gave department heads greater autonomy in their management. Following his return from Europe, Wilson embarked on a tour in 1919 to campaign for the treaty.
The treaty was met with concern by Senate Republicans, and Wilson rejected a compromise effort led by Henry Cabot Lodge. Due to his stroke, Wilson secluded himself in the White House, disability having diminished his power, forming a strategy for re-election, Wilson deadlocked the 1920 Democratic National Convention, but his bid for a third-term nomination was overlooked. Wilson was a devoted Presbyterian and Georgist, and he infused his views of morality into his domestic and he appointed several well known radically progressive single taxers to prominent positions in his administration. His ideology of internationalism is now referred to as Wilsonian, an activist foreign policy calling on the nation to promote global democracy and he was the third of four children of Joseph Ruggles Wilson and Jessie Janet Woodrow. Wilsons paternal grandparents immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone and his mother was born in Carlisle, the daughter of Rev. Dr. Thomas Woodrow from Paisley and Marion Williamson from Glasgow
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the House of Representatives, the lower chamber, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. S. From 1789 until 1913, Senators were appointed by the legislatures of the states represented, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. The Senate chamber is located in the wing of the Capitol, in Washington. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House, in the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise, there was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other.
One was intended to be a Peoples House directly elected by the people, the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally, the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate, the name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the comment about the Senate, In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people. An agrarian law would take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation, landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other.
They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority, the senate, ought to be this body, and to answer these purposes, the people ought to have permanency and stability. The Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that states consent, the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two senators, but they are officials of the D. C. city government. The United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. In 1787, Virginia had roughly ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has roughly 70 times the population of Wyoming and this means some citizens are effectively two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
She has been president of the University of California system since September 2013, shortly after she resigned as Secretary of Homeland Security. Prior to her election as governor, she served as Attorney General of Arizona from 1999 to 2003 and she was the first woman and the 23rd person to serve in that office. Napolitano is the 1977 Truman Scholar from New Mexico and she has been the first woman to serve in several offices, including Attorney General of Arizona, Secretary of Homeland Security, and president of the University of California. Forbes ranked her as the ninth most powerful woman in 2012. In 2008, she was cited by The New York Times to be among the women most likely to become the first female President of the United States, some political commentators suggested that a possible candidacy in the 2016 election. She has discussed as a contender for appointment to the U. S. Supreme Court. Janet Napolitano was born on November 29,1957, in New York City, the daughter of Jane Marie and Leonard Michael Napolitano and her father was of Italian descent and her mother had German and Austrian ancestry.
She is the oldest of three children, she has a brother and sister. She was raised in Pittsburgh and Albuquerque, New Mexico and she graduated from Santa Clara University in Santa Clara, where she won a Truman Scholarship, and was valedictorian. In 1978, she studied for a term at the London School of Economics as part of Santa Claras exchange programme through IES Abroad and she received her Juris Doctor from the University of Virginia School of Law. In 1991, while a partner at Lewis and Roca LLP, in 1993, Napolitano was appointed by President Bill Clinton as United States Attorney for the District of Arizona. As U. S. Attorney, she was involved in the investigation of Michael Fortier of Kingman and she ran for and won the position of Arizona Attorney General in 1998. During her tenure as general, she focused on consumer protection issues. While still serving as general, she spoke at the 2000 Democratic National Convention just three weeks after having a mastectomy. Napolitano recalls that the pain was so unbearable that she couldnt stand up, work and family helped me focus on other things while I battled the cancer, says Napolitano.
I am very grateful for all the support I had from family and she was Arizonas third female governor and the first woman in the United States to be elected governor to succeed another elected female governor. She was the first Democrat popularly elected to the governorship since Bruce Babbitt left office in 1987, in November 2005, Time magazine named her one of the five best governors in the U. S. As Governor, Napolitano set records for number of vetoes issued
National Museum of American History
Among the items on display is the original Star-Spangled Banner. The museum is part of the Smithsonian Institution and located on the National Mall at 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW in Washington, the museum opened in 1964 as the Museum of History and Technology. It was one of the last structures designed by the architectural firm McKim Mead & White. In May 2012, John Gray was announced as the new director, the museum underwent an $85 million renovation from September 5,2006 to November 21,2008, during which time it was closed. Skidmore and Merrill provided the architecture and interior design services for the renovation, major changes made during the renovation include, A new, five-story sky-lit atrium, which is surrounded by displays of artifacts that showcase the breadth of the museums collection. A new, grand staircase that links the museums first and second floors, a new welcome center, and the addition of six landmark objects to orient visitors. New galleries, such as the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Hall of Invention, an environmentally controlled chamber to protect the original Star-Spangled Banner.
In 2012, the museum began a $37 million renovation of the west wing to add new spaces, public plazas. The renovation will include panoramic windows overlooking the National Mall on all three floors and new features to the exhibits. The first floor of the west wing reopened on July 1,2015 with the second and third floors of the west wing reopening in 2016 and 2017, each wing of the museums three exhibition floors is anchored by a landmark object to highlight the theme of that wing. These include the John Bull locomotive, the Greensboro, North Carolina lunch counter, landmarks from pre-existing exhibits include the 1865 Vassar Telescope, a George Washington Statue, a Red Cross ambulance, and a car from Disneylands Dumbo Flying Elephant ride. Artifact walls,275 feet of glass-fronted cases, line the first, the lower level of the museum displays Taking America to Lunch, which celebrates the history of American lunch boxes. The museums food court, the Stars and Stripes Café, the first floors East Wing has exhibits that feature transportation and technology, they include America on the Move and Lighting a Revolution.
The John Bull locomotive is the signature artifact, the exhibits in the West Wing address science and innovation. They include Science in American Life featuring Robots on the Road, spark. Lab is a hands-on exhibit of the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation. The Vassar Telescope is the signature artifact, a café and the main museum store are located on the first floor. The first floor contains the Constitution Avenue lobby, as well as a space for a temporary exhibit. The exhibitions in 2 East, the east wing of the floor, consider American ideals
Prime Minister of Canada
Canadian prime ministers are styled as The Right Honourable, a privilege maintained for life. The office and its functions are instead governed by constitutional conventions, the prime minister, along with the other ministers in cabinet, is appointed by the governor general on behalf of the monarch. There are no age or citizenship restrictions on the position of prime minister itself, while there is no legal requirement for the prime minister to be a member of parliament, for practical and political reasons the prime minister is expected to win a seat very promptly. However, in rare circumstances individuals who are not sitting members of the House of Commons have been appointed to the position of prime minister, two former prime ministers—Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott and Sir Mackenzie Bowell—served in the 1890s while members of the Senate. Both, in their roles as Government Leader in the Senate, succeeded prime ministers who had died in office—John A. Macdonald in 1891 and that convention has since evolved toward the appointment of an interim leader from the commons in such a scenario.
Prime ministers who are not Members of Parliament upon their appointment have since been expected to seek election to the commons as soon as possible. For example, William Lyon Mackenzie King, after losing his seat in the 1925 federal election, Turner was the last serving prime minister to not hold a commons seat. The Canadian prime minister serves at Her Majestys pleasure, meaning the post does not have a fixed term, once appointed and sworn in by the governor general, the prime minister remains in office until he or she resigns, is dismissed, or dies. Following parliamentary dissolution, the prime minister must run in the general election if he or she wishes to maintain a seat in the House of Commons. Should the prime ministers party subsequently win a majority of seats in the House of Commons, if, however, an opposition party wins a majority of seats, the prime minister may resign or be dismissed by the governor general. This option was last entertained in 1925, the function of the prime minister has evolved with increasing power.
Caucuses may choose to follow rules, though the decision would be made by recorded vote. Either the sovereign or his or her viceroy may therefore oppose the prime ministers will in extreme, for transportation, the prime minister is granted an armoured car and shared use of two official aircraft—a CC-150 Polaris for international flights and a Challenger 601 for domestic trips. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police furnish constant personal security for the prime minister, all of the aforementioned is supplied by the Queen-in-Council through budgets approved by parliament, as is the prime ministers annual salary of CAD$170,400. Should a serving or former prime minister die, he or she is accorded a state funeral, John Thompson died outside Canada, at Windsor Castle, where Queen Victoria permitted his lying-in-state before his body was returned to Canada for a state funeral in Halifax. In earlier years, it was traditional for the monarch to bestow a knighthood on newly appointed Canadian prime ministers.
Accordingly, several carried the prefix Sir before their name, of the first eight premiers of Canada, the Canadian Heraldic Authority has granted former prime ministers an augmentation of honour on the personal coat of arms of those who pursued them. To date, former prime ministers Joe Clark, Pierre Trudeau, John Turner, Brian Mulroney, the written form of address for the prime minister should use his or her full parliamentary title, The Right Honourable, Prime Minister of Canada
Elaine Lan Chao is a Taiwanese-American politician who is the 18th and current United States Secretary of Transportation. She is a member of the Republican Party, born in Taipei, Chao was the first Asian American woman and the first Taiwanese American in U. S. history to be appointed to a Presidents Cabinet. She spent four years as the president of the United Way of America, on November 29,2016, President-elect Donald Trump nominated Chao to serve as the Secretary of Transportation. She was confirmed by the Senate on January 31,2017, Chao is married to Senator Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, who has been the Senate Majority Leader since January 3,2015. Chao was born in Taipei, the eldest of six daughters, Chao was born to Ruth Mulan Chu Chao, a historian, and James S. C. Chao, who began his career as a merchant mariner and founded a shipping company in New York City called Foremost Shipping. Chaos parents had fled to Taiwan from Shanghai in China after the Chinese Communists took over following the Chinese Civil War in 1949.
When she was 8 years old, in 1961, she came to the United States on a ship along with her mother. Her father had arrived in New York three years earlier after receiving a scholarship, Chao attended Tsai Hsing Elementary School in Taipei for kindergarten and first grade, and subsequently attended Syosset High School in Syosset, New York, on Long Island. She received a bachelor of arts in Economics from Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, while at Mount Holyoke, she worked for the Admissions Department, and the Economics Department, edited the yearbook, played field hockey and was a member of the horseback riding club. In the first semester of her junior year Elaine was co-editor in chief of the yearbook, in the second semester of her junior year she did a domestic exchange to Dartmouth College, where she studied money and banking. She received a MBA degree from Harvard Business School in 1979, while at Harvard Business School she was the first woman at Harvard to be elected class officer and class marshall.
She was a member of the club, the financial accounting club, the international business club. Chao has received 36 honorary doctorates, including an honorary DHL degree from Georgetown University in 2015 and she was granted a White House Fellowship in 1983 during the Reagan Administration. In 1986, Chao became Deputy Administrator of the Maritime Administration in the U. S. Department of Transportation, from 1988 to 1989, she served as Chairwoman of the Federal Maritime Commission. In 1989, President George H. W. Bush nominated Chao to be Deputy Secretary of Transportation, from 1991 to 1992, she was the Director of the Peace Corps. She was the first Asian Pacific American to serve in any of these positions, following her service in the government, Chao worked for four years as President and CEO of United Way of America. She is credited with returning credibility and public trust in the organization after a financial mismanagement scandal involving former president William Aramony