Irving Langmuir was an American chemist and physicist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1932 for his work in surface chemistry. Langmuir's most famous publication is the 1919 article "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules" in which, building on Gilbert N. Lewis's cubical atom theory and Walther Kossel's chemical bonding theory, he outlined his "concentric theory of atomic structure". Langmuir became embroiled in a priority dispute with Lewis over this work. While at General Electric from 1909 to 1950, Langmuir advanced several fields of physics and chemistry, invented the gas-filled incandescent lamp and the hydrogen welding technique; the Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research near Socorro, New Mexico, was named in his honor, as was the American Chemical Society journal for surface science called Langmuir. Irving Langmuir was born in Brooklyn, New York, on January 31, 1881, he was the third of the four children of Sadie, née Comings. During his childhood, Langmuir's parents encouraged him to observe nature and to keep a detailed record of his various observations.
When Irving was eleven, it was discovered. When this problem was corrected, details that had eluded him were revealed, his interest in the complications of nature was heightened. During his childhood, Langmuir was influenced by Arthur Langmuir. Arthur was a research chemist how things work. Arthur helped Irving set up his first chemistry lab in the corner of his bedroom, he was content to answer the myriad questions that Irving would pose. Langmuir's hobbies included mountaineering, piloting his own plane, classical music. In addition to his professional interest in the politics of atomic energy, he was concerned about wilderness conservation. Langmuir attended several schools and institutes in America and Paris before graduating high school from Chestnut Hill Academy, an elite private school located in the affluent Chestnut Hill area in Philadelphia, he graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in metallurgical engineering from the Columbia University School of Mines in 1903. He earned his Ph.
D. in 1906 under Friedrich Dolezalek in Göttingen, for research done using the "Nernst glower", an electric lamp invented by Nernst. His doctoral thesis was entitled "On the Partial Recombination of Dissolved Gases During Cooling." He did postgraduate work in chemistry. Langmuir taught at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey, until 1909, when he began working at the General Electric research laboratory, his initial contributions to science came from his study of light bulbs. His first major development was the improvement of the diffusion pump, which led to the invention of the high-vacuum rectifier and amplifier tubes. A year he and colleague Lewi Tonks discovered that the lifetime of a tungsten filament could be lengthened by filling the bulb with an inert gas, such as argon, the critical factor being the need for extreme cleanliness in all stages of the process, he discovered that twisting the filament into a tight coil improved its efficiency. These were important developments in the history of the incandescent light bulb.
His work in surface chemistry began at this point, when he discovered that molecular hydrogen introduced into a tungsten-filament bulb dissociated into atomic hydrogen and formed a layer one atom thick on the surface of the bulb. His assistant in vacuum tube research was his cousin William Comings White; as he continued to study filaments in vacuum and different gas environments, he began to study the emission of charged particles from hot filaments. He was one of the first scientists to work with plasmas, he was the first to call these ionized gases by that name because they reminded him of blood plasma. Langmuir and Tonks discovered electron density waves in plasmas that are now known as Langmuir waves, he introduced the concept of electron temperature and in 1924 invented the diagnostic method for measuring both temperature and density with an electrostatic probe, now called a Langmuir probe and used in plasma physics. The current of a biased probe tip is measured as a function of bias voltage to determine the local plasma temperature and density.
He discovered atomic hydrogen, which he put to use by inventing the atomic hydrogen welding process. Plasma welding has since been developed into gas tungsten arc welding. In 1917, he published a paper on the chemistry of oil films that became the basis for the award of the 1932 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Langmuir theorized that oils consisting of an aliphatic chain with a hydrophilic end group were oriented as a film one molecule thick upon the surface of water, with the hydrophilic group down in the water and the hydrophobic chains clumped together on the surface; the thickness of the film could be determined from the known volume and area of the oil, which allowed investigation of the molecular configuration before spectroscopic techniques were available. Following World War I Langmuir contributed to atomic theory and the understanding of atomic structure by defining the modern concept of valence shells and isotopes. Langmuir was president of the Institute of Radio Engineers in 1923. Based on his work at General Electric, John B. Taylor developed a detector ionizing beams of alkali metals, cal
Marine Biological Laboratory
The Marine Biological Laboratory is an international center for research and education in biological and environmental science. Founded in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, in 1888, the MBL is a private, nonprofit institution affiliated with the University of Chicago. After being independent for most of its history, it became affiliated with the university on July 1, 2013, it collaborates with numerous other institutions. The MBL has 250 year-round employees, about half of which are scientists and scientific support staff, they are joined each year by more than 500 visiting scientists, summer staff, research associates from hundreds of institutions around the world, as well as a large number of faculty and students participating in MBL courses. The MBL's resident research centers are the Eugene Bell Center for Regenerative Biology and Tissue Engineering, the Ecosystems Center, the Bay Paul Center for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution. Visiting scientists are affiliated with the MBL's Whitman Center.
Other resources include The Marine Resources Center, an advanced facility for maintaining and providing aquatic and marine organisms essential to biological and ecological research. Research at the MBL focuses on four themes: fundamental biological research using marine organisms as novel model systems, encompassing research in regenerative biology, sensory physiology, comparative evolution and genomics; the MBL offers a range of courses, workshops and internships throughout the year. Central to its programs are more than 20 Advanced Research Training Courses, graduate-level courses in topics ranging from physiology, embryology and microbiology to imaging and computation integrated with biological research. In addition, the MBL hosts courses for undergraduate and graduate students from the University of Chicago and other colleges and universities, as well as workshops and conferences—accommodating more than 2,600 participants in 2016.. Among the scientists with a significant affiliation with the MBL are 57 Nobel Prize winners.
The MBL shares the MBLWHOI Library, with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The MBLWHOI Library holds print and electronic collections in the biological, biomedical and oceanographic sciences, houses a growing archival collection, including photograph and videos from the MBL's 120-year history; the library conducts digitization and informatics projects. In September 2018, Nipam Patel became director of the Marine Biological Laboratory. In May 2017, Neil Shubin, Ph. D. and Melina Hale, Ph. D. were named interim co-directors of the Marine Biological Laboratory, succeeding Huntington F. Willard; the Marine Biological Laboratory grew from the vision of several Bostonians and Spencer Fullerton Baird, the United States' first Fish Commissioner. Baird had set up a United States Fish Commission research station in Woods Hole in 1882, had ambitions to expand it into a major laboratory, he invited Alpheus Hyatt to move his marine biology laboratory and school which he had founded at the Norwood-Hyatt House in Annisquam, Massachusetts, to Woods Hole.
Inspired by Harvard biologist Louis Agassiz's short-lived summer school of natural history on Penikese Island, off the coast of Woods Hole, Hyatt accepted the offer. With $10,000 raised by the Woman's Education Association of Boston and the Boston Society of Natural History, land was purchased, a building was erected, the MBL was incorporated with Hyatt as the first president of the board of trustees; the Fish Commission supplied crucial support, including marine organisms and running sea water. Charles Otis Whitman, an embryologist, was retained as the first director of the MBL. Whitman, who believed “other things being equal, the investigator is always the best instructor,” emphasized the need to combine research and education at the new laboratory; the MBL's first summer course provided a six-week introduction to invertebrate zoology. The MBL Library was established in 1889, with scientist and future MBL trustee Cornelia Clapp serving as librarian. In 1899, the MBL began publishing The Biological Bulletin, a scientific journal, still edited at the MBL. Gertrude Stein well known as a novelist and art collector, took part in MBL's Embryology course in the summer of 1897, while her brother Leo took part in the Invertebrates course.
The MBL formally affiliated with the University of Chicago on July 1, 2013. In order to further scientific research and education, the affiliation builds on historical ties with the university, as MBL was led by University of Chicago faculty members in its first four decades; the president of the university chairs the MBL trustee's board and with their advice appoints its members. The Laboratory is a non-profit Massachusetts corporation. Cell and reproductive
Buzzards Bay is a bay of the Atlantic Ocean adjacent to the U. S. state of Massachusetts. It is 28 miles long by 8 miles wide, it is a popular destination for fishing and tourism. Since 1914, Buzzards Bay has been connected to Cape Cod Bay by the Cape Cod Canal. In 1988, under the Clean Water Act, the Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Massachusetts designated Buzzards Bay to the National Estuary Program, as "an estuary of national significance", threatened by pollution, land development, or overuse, it is surrounded by the Elizabeth Islands on the south, by Cape Cod on the east, the southern coasts of Bristol and Plymouth counties in Massachusetts to the northwest. To the southwest, the bay is connected to Rhode Island Sound; the city of New Bedford, Massachusetts is a significant port on Buzzards Bay. Buzzards Bay was created during the latter portion of the Pleistocene epoch through the interplay of glacial and oceanic processes. Beginning fifty thousand to seventy thousand years ago, the edges of the continental ice sheet covering much of North America began to fluctuate, leaving moraines to mark the former extent of the receded ice.
One such moraine forms Cape Cod, most of the eastern shoreline of Buzzards Bay. In addition to the moraines, the melting ice sheet produced extensive outwash plains composed of mixed sediments and ice that bordered the bay to the northwest and west. Melting ice blocks in the outwash deposits formed. Numerous examples of kettle lakes can be found to the northwest of the Cape Cod Canal. Waters released from the melting ice sheet raised sea level by sixty to one-hundred-twenty meters and drowned preexisting outwash channels. Toward the end of the last ice age, fifteen thousand years ago until about six thousand years ago, Buzzards Bay was still dry land. During the past six thousand years, sea level has risen an average of one foot per century, until about four thousand years ago, the landward boundary of Buzzards Bay extended only to about the current thirty-foot bathymetic contour, forming a coastline two-thirds of the way up the current bay, between West Falmouth and Mattapoisett; the bay's current configuration, a well-mixed central bay and fringing shallow drowned-river valleys, with their shallow depth, tidal action, surface waves, promotes mixing of the estuarine waters to create a productive aquatic ecosystem.
Like many estuaries, increasing development and land-use changes by the surrounding communities are accompanied by nutrient runoff leading to eutrophication in the smaller embayments. Decreases in eelgrass and herring have been noted, but direct cause-and-effect relationships are not clear. Coordinated management efforts in Buzzards Bay have helped to decrease shellfish closures, conserve habitat for sea birds, preserve open space; the name was given to this bay by colonists who saw a large bird that they called a buzzard near its shores. The bird was an osprey, after a downturn caused by DDT, today increasing numbers of osprey breed along the shores of the bay thanks to restoration efforts led by the Buzzards Bay Coalition and longtime Westport residents Gil and Josephine Fernandez; the first naval engagement of the American Revolution, the Battle off Fairhaven, occurred in Buzzards Bay when patriots retrieved two vessels that were captured by the British sloop of war Falcon. On 14 May 1775, American Captain Daniel Egery and Capt.
Nathaniel Pope of Fairhaven in the sloop Success retrieved two vessels captured by the British crew of Captain John Linzee, Royal Navy commander of HMS Falcon. Crew member Noah Stoddard and the others took the first naval prisoners of the war, 13 British crew; the bay was the location of one of only three documented fatal shark attacks in the state's history in 1936. In 1987, researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution experimented with a new growth structure allowing Blue mussels to grow above the Benthic Turbidity Zone leading to a new commercial scale mariculture technique. In 1991, towns located on Buzzards Bay suffered the worst effects from the storm surge of Hurricane Bob; the Buzzards Bay disaster happened on April 27, 2003. An oil spill killed many birds. 98,000 gallons of oil leaked from a barge. Ra Ra Riot's John Pike's body was found in Buzzard's Bay, he had disappeared from a party in Fairhaven, Massachusetts in June 2007, was found several weeks in the bay. On January 7, 2018, due to the 2017-18 North American cold wave, part of the bay froze over.
Amrita Island Bassetts Island Bird Island Elizabeth Islands Bachelor Island Baret Island Cuttyhunk Island Nashawena Island Naushon Island Nonamesset Island Pasque Island Penikese Island Uncatena Island Veckatimest Island Weepecket Islands Gull Island Monohansett Island Onset Island West Island Wickets Island List of islands of Massachusetts for a more-or-less complete listing of the islets and ledges within the bay. "Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts". NASA Earth Observatory. Archived from the original on 2006-09-30. Retrieved 2006-05-08. High-resolution Geophysical Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts United States Geological Survey The Buzzards Bay watershed; the Buzzards Bay National Estuary Program. 1906 Bird's Eye View of Buzzards Bay Buzzards Bay Coalition Sailing Buzz
Falmouth is a town in Barnstable County, United States. The population was 31,532 at the 2010 census, making Falmouth the second-largest municipality on Cape Cod after Barnstable; the terminal for the Steamship Authority ferries to Martha's Vineyard is located in the village of Woods Hole in Falmouth. Woods Hole contains several scientific organizations such as the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Marine Biological Laboratory, the Woods Hole Research Center, NOAA's Woods Hole Science Aquarium, the scientific institutions' various museums. For geographic and demographic information on specific parts of the town of Falmouth, please see the articles on East Falmouth, Falmouth Village, North Falmouth, West Falmouth, Woods Hole. Falmouth encompasses the villages of Hatchville and Waquoit, which are not census-designated places and fall within the village of East Falmouth based on postal service. Falmouth was first settled by English colonists in 1660 and was incorporated in 1686. Bartholomew Gosnold named the settlement for Falmouth, England, his home port.
Early principal activities were farming, salt works, shipping and sheep husbandry, popular due to the introduction of Merino sheep and the beginnings of water-powered mills that could process the wool. In 1837, Falmouth averaged about 50 sheep per square mile. Falmouth saw brief action in the War of 1812, when the area around Falmouth Heights, on its southern coast, was bombarded by several British frigates and ships of the line, Massachusetts militia hastily entrenched themselves on the beaches to repulse a possible British landing which never came. By 1872, the train had come to Falmouth and Woods Hole, some of the first summer homes were established. By the late 19th century, cranberries were being cultivated and strawberries were being raised for the Boston market. Large-scale dairying was tried in the early 20th century in interior regions. After the improvement in highways, thanks in part to the heavy use of neighboring Camp Edwards during World War II, population growth increased significantly.
Large homebuilding booms occurred followed by others in the 1980s and 1990s. In the late 1800s, after railroad service was established between Boston and Cape Cod, James Madison Beebe bought over 700 acres and built Highfield Hall, now a museum, much of the land is preserved as Beebe Woods. In 1965, Robert Manry sailed from Falmouth aboard his 13.5-foot sailboat and reached Falmouth, England, 78 days later. The town of Falmouth has seven historic districts, including four on the National Register of Historic Places: Falmouth Village Green North Falmouth Village Waquoit West Falmouth VillageThe other three historic districts are in Woods Hole and Quissett. In addition to the historic districts, Falmouth has ten individual sites on the National Register: Central Fire Station Crowell-Bourne Farm Elnathan Nye House Falmouth Pumping Station Josiah Tobey House Lawrence Academy Nobska Light Poor House and Methodist Cemetery Teaticket School Woods Hole SchoolOffshore Falmouth in Buzzards Bay, Cleveland East Ledge Light is listed with the National Register.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 54.4 square miles, of which 44.1 square miles is land and 10.3 square miles, or 19.04%, is water. Most of Falmouth, like the rest of Cape Cod, sits on glacial sands composed of glacial outwash deposits. However, the soil in the southwestern part of the town, consisting of moraine deposits, is more rocky and dense, like the rest of New England, many glacial erratics are scattered about, having been dropped by the retreating glaciers; the climate is temperate marine. There is no exposed bedrock. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout averages 2 to 3 in per month. Falmouth lies on the southwestern tip of Cape Cod, it is bordered by Bourne and Sandwich to the north, Mashpee to the east, Vineyard Sound to the south, Buzzards Bay to the west. At its closest point, Falmouth is 560 yards from Nonamesset Island, the easternmost island of the town of Gosnold and the Elizabeth Islands, it is 3 1⁄3 miles north-northwest of Martha's Vineyard, the closest land to the island.
Falmouth is 14 miles south of the Bourne Bridge, 22 miles west of Barnstable, 77 miles south-southeast of Boston. Falmouth's topography is similar to the rest of Cape Cod's, with many small ponds and inlets surrounded by the pines and oaks of the Cape and rocky beachfront. Falmouth's southern shore is notable for a series of ponds and rivers spaced closely together, all of which travel some distance into the town; these include, from west to east, Falmouth Inner Harbor, Little Pond, Great Pond, Green Pond, Bourne's Pond, Eel Pond, Waquoit Bay, which lies along the Mashpee town line. The Buzzards Bay side of the town is bays divided by necks, peninsulas connected to land by isthmi; the largest inlet is Megansett Cove along the Bourne town line. The Buzzards Bay shore of Falmouth is punctuated by a number of hamlets, from north to south, New Silver Beach, Old Silver, Sippewisset and Woods Hole. Falmouth's main road is Massachusetts Route 28, which runs south from Bourne as a divided highway becomes a surface road and heads east through downtown as Main Street turns northeast through East Falmouth before crossing into Mashpee.
As one of two major east–west routes on the Cape, Rou
A strait is a formed, narrow navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. Most it is a channel of water that lies between two land masses; some straits are not navigable, for example because they are too shallow, or because of an unnavigable reef or archipelago. The terms channel, pass or passage, can be synonymous and used interchangeably with strait, although each is sometimes differentiated with varying senses. In Scotland firth or kyle are sometimes used as synonyms for strait. Many straits are economically important. Straits can be important shipping wars have been fought for control of them. Numerous artificial channels, called canals, have been constructed to connect two bodies of water over land, such as the Suez Canal. Although rivers and canals provide passage between two large lakes or a lake and a sea, these seem to suit the formal definition of strait, they are not referred to as such; the term strait is reserved for much larger, wider features of the marine environment.
There are exceptions, with straits being called Pearse Canal, for example. Straits are the converse of isthmuses; that is, while a strait lies between two land masses and connects two larger bodies of water, an isthmus lies between two bodies of water and connects two larger land masses. Some straits have the potential to generate significant tidal power using tidal stream turbines. Tides are more predictable than wind power; the Pentland Firth may be capable of generating 10 GW. Cook Strait in New Zealand may be capable of generating 5.6 GW though the total energy available in the flow is 15 GW. Straits used for international navigation through the territorial sea between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone are subject to the legal regime of transit passage; the regime of innocent passage applies in straits used for international navigation that connect a part of high seas or an exclusive economic zone with the territorial sea of coastal nation and in straits formed by an island of a state bordering the strait and its mainland if there exists seaward of the island a route through the high seas or through an exclusive economic zone of similar convenience with respect to navigational and hydrographical characteristics.
There may be no suspension of innocent passage through such straits. List of straits Strait passage Media related to Straits at Wikimedia Commons
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of marine science and engineering. Its agenda includes: geological activity deep within the earth. Established in 1930 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, it is the largest independent oceanographic research institution in the U. S. with staff and students numbering about 1,000. The Institution is organized into six departments, the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research, a marine policy center, its shore-based facilities are located in the village of Woods Hole, United States and a mile and a half away on the Quissett Campus. The bulk of the Institution's funding comes from grants and contracts from the National Science Foundation and other government agencies, augmented by foundations and private donations. WHOI scientists and students collaborate to develop theories, test ideas, build seagoing instruments, collect data in diverse marine environments. Ships operated by WHOI carry research scientists throughout the world’s oceans.
The WHOI fleet includes two large research vessels and Neil Armstrong, the coastal craft Tioga, small research craft such as the dive-operation work boat Echo, the deep-diving human-occupied submersible Alvin, the tethered, remotely operated vehicle Jason/Medea, autonomous underwater vehicles such as the REMUS and SeaBED. WHOI offers post-graduate studies in marine science. There are several fellowship and trainee-ship programs, graduate degrees are awarded through a joint program with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology or by the Institution itself. WHOI offers other outreach programs and informal public education through its Exhibit Center and summer tours; the Institution has a membership program, WHOI Associate. On October 1, 2015, Mark Abbott became director. In 1927, a National Academy of Sciences committee concluded that it was time to "consider the share of the United States of America in a worldwide program of oceanographic research." The committee's recommendation for establishing a permanent independent research laboratory on the East Coast to "prosecute oceanography in all its branches" led to the founding in 1930 of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
A $2.5 million grant from the Rockefeller Foundation supported the summer work of a dozen scientists, construction of a laboratory building and commissioning of a research vessel, the 142-foot ketch Atlantis, whose profile still forms the Institution's logo. WHOI grew to support significant defense-related research during World War II, began a steady growth in staff, research fleet, scientific stature. Over the years, WHOI scientists have made seminal discoveries about the ocean that have contributed to improving US commerce, national security, quality of life. In 1977 the institute appointed the influential oceanographer John Steele as director, he served until his retirement in 1989. On 1 September 1985, a joint French-American expedition led by Jean-Louis Michel of IFREMER and Robert Ballard of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution identified the location of the wreck of the RMS Titanic which sank off the coast of Newfoundland 15 April 1912. On 3 April 2011, within a week of resuming of the search operation for Air France Flight 447, a team led by WHOI, operating full ocean depth autonomous underwater vehicles owned by the Waitt Institute discovered, by means of sidescan sonar, a large portion of debris field from flight AF447.
In March 2017 the institution effected an open-access policy to make its research publicly accessible online. The Institution has maintained a long and controversial business collaboration with the treasure hunter company Odyssey Marine. WHOI has participated in the location of the San José galleon in Colombia for the commercial exploitation of the shipwreck by the Government of President Santos and a private company; the B H Ketchum award, established in 1983, is presented for innovative coastal/nearshore research and is named in honor of oceanographer Bostwick H. "Buck" Ketchum. The first recipient was Edward D. Goldberg in 1984; the Henry Bryant Bigelow Medal in Oceanography was established in 1960 in honor of the first Director, biologist Henry Bryant Bigelow. Recipients have been: 2004 David M. Karl – for "his contributions to microbial oceanography the development and leadership of long-term, integrated studies of chemical and biological variations in oceanic environments." 1996 Bill J. Jenkins – for "his outstanding contributions to the development of the tritium-helium dating technique and its application to problems in ocean physics and biology and geochemistry, as well as his exceptional character and selfless dedication to the advance of science at WHOI."
1993 Robert Weller 1992 Alice Louise Alldredge and Mary Wilcox Silver – for “their creative contributions to biological and chemical oceanography in demonstrating the importance of ‘marine snow’ as a major contributor to the vertical flux of particulate matter throughout the worlds oceans.” 1988 Hans Thomas Rossby and Douglas Chester Webb – for “Their creative contributions to ocean technology and oceanography in the development of