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Wookey Hole Caves

Wookey Hole Caves are a series of limestone caverns, a show cave and tourist attraction in the village of Wookey Hole on the southern edge of the Mendip Hills near Wells in Somerset, England. The River Axe flows through the cave, it is a Site of Special Scientific Interest for both geological reasons. Wookey Hole cave is a "solutional cave", one, formed by a process of weathering in which the natural acid in groundwater dissolves the rocks; some water originates as rain that flows into streams on impervious rocks on the plateau before sinking at the limestone boundary into cave systems such as Swildon's Hole, Eastwater Cavern and St Cuthbert's Swallet. The temperature in the caves is a constant 11 °C; the caves have been used by humans for around 45,000 years, demonstrated by the discovery of tools from the Palaeolithic period, along with fossilised animal remains. Evidence of Stone and Iron Age occupation continued into Roman Britain. A corn-grinding mill operated on the resurgent waters of the River Axe as early as the Domesday survey of 1086.

The waters of the river are used in a handmade paper mill, the oldest extant in Britain, which began operations circa 1610. The low, constant temperature of the caves means; the caves are the site of the first cave dives in Britain which were undertaken by Jack Sheppard and Graham Balcombe. Since the 1930s divers have explored the extensive network of chambers developing breathing apparatus and novel techniques in the process; the full extent of the cave system is still unknown with 4,000 metres, including 25 chambers, having been explored. Part of the cave system opened as a show cave in 1927 following exploratory work by Herbert E. Balch; as a tourist attraction it has been owned by Madame Tussauds and, most the circus owner Gerry Cottle. The cave is noted for the Witch of Wookey Hole – a human shaped stalagmite that legend says is a witch turned to stone by a monk from Glastonbury, it has been used as a location for film and television productions. The show cave consists of a dry gallery connecting three large chambers, the first of which contains the Witch of Wookey formation.

There are various high level passages leading off from these chambers, with two small exits above the tourist entrance. The River Axe is formed by the water entering the cave systems and flows through the third and first chambers, from which it flows to the resurgence, through two sumps 40 metres and 30 metres long, where it leaves the cave and enters the open air; the river is maintained at an artificially high level and falls a couple of metres when the sluice is lowered to allow access to the fourth and fifth chambers, two small air spaces. However, these are only accessible by cave diving. Beyond the fifth chamber a roomy submerged route may be followed for a further 40 metres, passing under three large rifts with air spaces, to surface in the ninth chamber – a roomy chamber over 30 metres long and the same high. High level passages here lead to a former resurgence, now blocked, some 45 metres above the current resurgence. An artificial tunnel 180 metres leading off from the third chamber allows show cave visitors to cross the seventh and eighth chambers on bridges, skirt around the ninth chamber on a walkway, before exiting near the resurgence.

A second excavated 74-metre-long tunnel from the ninth chamber allows visitors to visit the 20th chamber. From the ninth chamber, a dive of about 200 metres passes immediately from the Dolomitic Conglomerate into the limestone, descends for 70 metres to a depth of 23 metres under a couple of high rifts with airbells, which are enclosed air spaces between the water and the roof, before reaching air space in the 19th chamber; the 20th chamber is at the top of a large boulder slope – 60 metres long, 15 metres wide, 22 metres high. From here a roomy passage some 400 metres long ascends towards a now-blocked fossil resurgence in the Ebbor Gorge; the total length of passages in this area is about 820 metres. A passage near the end is being cleared in an attempt to provide an easier connection with the 24th chamber, only an estimated 30 metres away; the continuation is found in the 19th chamber, where 152 metres of passage descending to a depth of 24 metres surfaces in the 22nd chamber – 300 metres of dry passages at various levels with a static pool.

The way on is within this pool at a depth of 19 metres where 100 metres of passage ascends to surface in the 23rd chamber – 100 metres of large passage, followed by four short sumps that arrive in the 24th chamber. This is 370 metres of what is described in the guide book as "magnificent" river passage, 13 metres high and 2 metres wide, which finishes at a cascade falling from a 30 metres long lake. There are more than 370 metres of high level passages above the river; the way on continues underwater for some 100 metres reaching a depth of 25 metres before surfacing in the 25th chamber – called the Lake of Gloom because of its thick mud deposits. The sump at the end of this has been dived for 400 metres to a maximum depth of 90 metres before gravel chokes prevented further progress; the end is located about 1,000 metres northeast of the entrance. Wookey Hole is on the southern escarpment of the Mendip Hills, is the resurgence which drains the southern flanks of North Hill and Pen Hill, it is the second largest resurgence on Mendip, with an estimat

Sunday Lovers

Sunday Lovers is a 1980 internationally co-produced romantic comedy film directed by Bryan Forbes, Gene Wilder, Dino Risi and Édouard Molinaro. It stars Roger Moore, Gene Wilder, Priscilla Barnes, Lynn Redgrave, Denholm Elliott and Kathleen Quinlan, it is split into each from a different country. The film is notable for its use of sepia tones and slow wide angle shots to build a sense of impending dread, it was released in Italy in October 1980 and in America in early 1981 by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and United Artists. It featured final screen appearances from Sylva Koscina and Lino Ventura Roger Moore... Harry Lindon Lino Ventura... François Quérole Priscilla Barnes... Donna Gene Wilder... Skippy Lynn Redgrave... Lady Davina Kathleen Quinlan... Laurie Ugo Tognazzi... Armando Catherine Salviat... Christine Liù Bosisio... Anna Denholm Elliott... Parker Sylva Koscina... Zaira Beba Lončar... Marisa Rossana Podestà... Clara Milena Vukotic... Nora Robert Webber... Henry Morrison George Hillsden... Adelita Requena...

Tommy Duggan... Pierre Douglas... Levègue Michèle Montel... Michèle Perrin Madeleine Barbulée... Mamie Gino Da Ronch... Lory Del Santo... Gianfilippo Carcano... Vittorio Zarfati... María Teresa Lombardo... Dianne Crittenden... Maggie Luis Ávalos... Randolph Dobbs... Catherine Spaak... Carletta, the psychoanalyst Francesco D'Adda... Husband of Woman Next Door Sunday Lovers on IMDb Sunday Lovers at Rotten Tomatoes Sunday Lovers at Box Office Mojo

2018 EFL Trophy Final

The 2018 EFL Trophy Final was a football match that took place on 8 April 2018 at Wembley Stadium, London. It was the final match of the 2017–18 EFL Trophy, the 34th edition of the EFL Trophy, a competition for the 48 clubs in EFL League One and EFL League Two, 16 under-21 sides from Premier League and EFL Championship clubs, it was contested by Lincoln City, from League Two, Shrewsbury Town, from League One. Lincoln City won the game 1–0, with the goal scored by Elliott Whitehouse, it was Lincoln's first cup win in any competition. Note: In all results below, the score of the finalist is given first

The Grip of Evil

The Grip of Evil is a lost 1916 American silent film serial directed by W. A. S. Douglas and Harry Harvey, it was distributed through Pathé Exchange. The melodramatic film serial was unusual in its critique of everyday habits and society and with episodes with unhappy endings. Jackie Saunders as Jessie Roland Bottomley as John Burton Charles Dudley Gordon Sackville Philo McCullough Gloria Payton Myrtle Reeves Tom Morgan Fate The Underworld The Upper Ten The Looters The Way of a Woman The Hypocrites The Butterflies In Bohemia The Dollar Kings Down to the Sea Mammon and Moloch Into the Pit Circumstantial Evidence Humanity Triumphant The Grip of Evil on IMDb

Albrecht Dürer

Albrecht Dürer, sometimes spelt in English as Durer or Duerer, without umlaut, was a German painter and theorist of the German Renaissance. Born in Nuremberg, Dürer established his reputation and influence across Europe when he was in his twenties due to his high-quality woodcut prints, he was in communication with the major Italian artists of his time, including Raphael, Giovanni Bellini and Leonardo da Vinci, from 1512 he was patronized by Emperor Maximilian I. Dürer is commemorated by both the Episcopal Churches. Dürer's vast body of work includes engravings, his preferred technique in his prints, altarpieces and self-portraits and books; the woodcuts, such as the Apocalypse series, are more Gothic than the rest of his work. His well-known engravings include the Knight and the Devil, Saint Jerome in his Study and Melencolia I, the subject of extensive analysis and interpretation, his watercolours mark him as one of the first European landscape artists, while his ambitious woodcuts revolutionized the potential of that medium.

Dürer's introduction of classical motifs into Northern art, through his knowledge of Italian artists and German humanists, has secured his reputation as one of the most important figures of the Northern Renaissance. This is reinforced by his theoretical treatises, which involve principles of mathematics and ideal proportions. Albrecht Dürer has been credited with inventing the basic principle of ray tracing, a technique used in modern computer graphics. Dürer was born on 21 May 1471, third child and second son of his parents, who had at least fourteen and as many as eighteen children, his father, Albrecht Dürer the Elder, was a successful goldsmith who in 1455 had moved to Nuremberg from Ajtós, near Gyula in Hungary. One of Albrecht's brothers, Hans Dürer, was a painter and trained under him. Another of Albrecht's brothers, Endres Dürer, took over their father's business and was a master goldsmith; the German name "Dürer" is a translation from the Hungarian, "Ajtósi". It was "Türer", meaning doormaker, "ajtós" in Hungarian.

A door is featured in the coat-of-arms. Albrecht Dürer the Younger changed "Türer", his father's diction of the family's surname, to "Dürer", to adapt to the local Nuremberg dialect. Dürer the Elder married Barbara Holper, daughter of his master when he himself qualified as a master in 1467. Dürer's godfather was Anton Koberger, who left goldsmithing to become a printer and publisher in the year of Dürer's birth, became the most successful publisher in Germany owning twenty-four printing-presses and built a number of offices in Germany and abroad. Koberger's most famous publication was the Nuremberg Chronicle, published in 1493 in German and Latin editions, it contained an unprecedented 1,809 woodcut illustrations by the Wolgemut workshop. Dürer may have worked on some of these; because Dürer left autobiographical writings and became famous by his mid-twenties, his life is well documented by several sources. After a few years of school, Dürer started to learn the basics of goldsmithing and drawing from his father.

Though his father wanted him to continue his training as a goldsmith, he showed such a precocious talent in drawing that he started as an apprentice to Michael Wolgemut at the age of fifteen in 1486. A self-portrait, a drawing in silverpoint, is dated 1484 "when I was a child", as his inscription says. Wolgemut was the leading artist in Nuremberg at the time, with a large workshop producing a variety of works of art, in particular woodcuts for books. Nuremberg was an important and prosperous city, a centre for publishing and many luxury trades, it had strong links with Italy Venice, a short distance across the Alps. After completing his apprenticeship, Dürer followed the common German custom of taking Wanderjahre—in effect gap years—in which the apprentice learned skills from artists in other areas, he left in 1490 to work under Martin Schongauer, the leading engraver of Northern Europe, but who died shortly before Dürer's arrival at Colmar in 1492. It is unclear where Dürer travelled in the intervening period, though it is that he went to Frankfurt and the Netherlands.

In Colmar, Dürer was welcomed by Schongauer's brothers, the goldsmiths Caspar and Paul and the painter Ludwig. In 1493 Dürer went to Strasbourg, where he would have experienced the sculpture of Nikolaus Gerhaert. Dürer's first painted self-portrait was painted at this time to be sent back to his fiancée in Nuremberg. In early 1492 Dürer travelled to Basel to stay with another brother of Martin Schongauer, the goldsmith Georg. Soon after his return to Nuremberg, on 7 July 1494, at the age of 23, Dürer was married to Agnes Frey following an arrangement made during his absence. Agnes was the daughter of a prominent brass worker in the city. However, no children resulted from the marriage, with Albrecht the Dürer name died out; the marriage between Agnes and Albrecht was not a happy one, as indicated by the letters of Dürer in which he quipped to Willibald Pirckheimer in an rough tone about his wife. He made other vulgar remarks. Pirckheimer made no secret of his antipathy towards Agnes, describing her as a miserly shrew with a bitter tongue, who helped cause Dürer's death at a young age.

One author speculates that Al

Jean Huber

Jean Huber was a Swiss painter, silhouettiste and author, a citizen of the Republic of Geneva. Jean Huber was the son of Jacob Huber, a member of the "Two-Hundreds" council, of Catherine Vasserot de Vincy; the family came from Schaffhausen and was admitted into the Geneva bourgeoisie in 1654. In 1738 Jean Huber entered the Hessel-Cassel military service in Prince Frederick's Grenadier regiment in 1741 he transferred to the Piedmont service where he fought with the rank of captain during the war of the Austrian Succession. In 1747 he married Marie-Louise Alléon-Guainieret. There were two sons: François Huber, the celebrated author of a work on bees, Jean-Daniel and amateur engraver, one daughter named Madelaine. In 1752 Huber was made a member of the "Two-Hundreds" council. Jean Huber died in Lausanne in 1786. Huber started painting without having had any training, he was a talented observer, his first works were of horses and scenes of hunting, of birds in particular. In 1783 he published in the "Mercure de France" a "Note on the Way of Steering Balloons, based on the Flight of Birds of Prey" in 1784, "Observations on the Flight of Birds of Prey" with 7 plates designed by him.

He was working on a "History of Birds of Prey". Huber had talents as a caricaturist which he used on a number of occasions, against Liotard, he became part of the Ferney set. He painted numerous pictures representing Philosophy, dedicated a collection of his portraits to Catherine II of Russia, he was given the nickname of Huber-Voltaire. Voltaire wrote in 1772 to Madame du Deffand: "Since you have seen Monsieur Huber, he will do your portrait. With scissors he will make a cutout sketch of you as a complete caricature; this is the way he ridiculed me from one end of Europe to the other." In Geneva, he popularised the art of the silhouette, worked without making an initial sketch. His talent for cutouts chases. Most of his cutouts are in private galleries, his "scenes of" made him famous, as well as his irreverent caricatures of Voltaire. In 1761 a silhouette that Huber had created of Anne FitzRoy, Duchess of Grafton and her daughter was sent to Horace Walpole; this letter was to be the start of a correspondence of 455 letters.

Huber produced various works in pastel, including his self-portrait, in Lausanne museum. J J Rigaud wrote of him, "The reproduction of Voltaire's features was so familiar to Huber that he could draw his profile without having his eyes fixed on the paper, or with his hands behind his back, or without scissors, by tearing a card; the joke of doing his dog with a profile of Voltaire, while giving it a crust of bread to eat, gave Huber as much fame as his serious works."