The London Marathon is a long-distance running event held in London, United Kingdom, part of the World Marathon Majors. The event was first run on 29 March 1981 and has held in the spring of every year since. Since 2010, the race has been sponsored by Virgin Money, the most recent event was the 2016 London Marathon on 24 April 2016. The next London Marathon will be run on 23 April 2017, the race was founded by the former Olympic champion and journalist Chris Brasher and athlete John Disley. It is organised by Hugh Brasher as Race Director and Nick Bitel as Chief Executive, set over a largely flat course around the River Thames, the race begins at three separate points around Blackheath and finishes in The Mall alongside St. Jamess Park. Since the first marathon, the course has undergone very few route changes, in 1982, the finishing post was moved from Constitution Hill to Westminster Bridge due to construction works. It remained there for years before moving to its present location at The Mall.
In 2007, 78% of all runners raised money, in 2011 the official charity of the London Marathon was Oxfam. In 2014, the charity was Anthony Nolan, and in 2015. The London Marathon was not the first long-distance running event held in the city, the Polytechnic Marathon was first held in 1909. The current London Marathon was founded in 1981 by former Olympic champion and journalist Chris Brasher, inspired by the people of New York coming together for this occasion, he asked whether London could stage such a festival. The following year Brasher and Disley made trips to America to study the organisation, the first London Marathon was held on 29 March 1981, more than 20,000 applied to run. 6,747 were accepted and 6,255 crossed the line on Constitution Hill. The Marathons popularity has grown since then. As at 2009,746,635 people have completed the race since its inception, in 2010,36,549 people crossed the line, the biggest field since the race began. The first wheelchair race was held in 1983 and the event was credited with reducing the stigma surrounding disabled athletes.
In 2013 the IPC Athletics Marathon World Cup was held within the London Marathon featuring athletes of both genders in the T42–T46 and T11–T13 categories. In August 2013 it was announced that the event would be staged in London until 2017 and feature athletes in the T11-T12, T13, T42-T44, T43, T45-46, T51-52 and the T53-54 class
Woolwich Arsenal station
Woolwich Arsenal station is a National Rail and Docklands Light Railway interchange station located in Woolwich in the Royal Borough of Greenwich. It acts as a station on the North Kent Line between London and Gillingham, served by Southeastern, and is the southern terminus of the Woolwich Arsenal branch of the Docklands Light Railway. The station faces General Gordon Square and is named after the nearby Woolwich Arsenal and it is the only DLR station to be located in Travelcard Zone 4. The station opened in 1849, serving the North Kent Line from London to Gillingham, the station building was rebuilt in 1906 with a London brick-built structure, very typical of southeast London. The current station building dates from 1992-93, and has a design in steel and glass by the Architecture and Design Group of British Rail. It has a theme, quite different from what existed before. The official opening took place on 12 January 2009, in 2014, a petition was started and presented to the Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, to rezone Woolwich Arsenal station from Zone 4 to zone 3.
However, Mr Johnson ruled this out, stating it would cause losses in over a million pounds per annum, on 18 November 1948, an electric multiple unit ran into the rear of another, killing two people. It had departed from Woolwich Dockyard against signals, the National Rail part of the station consists of two above-ground platforms. The up platform for London has a refreshment facility, the down platform serves trains going east, towards north Kent, via Plumstead, Abbey Wood and Slade Green. The Docklands Light Railway part of the station is underground, as Woolwich Arsenal is a terminus, both platforms serve an up line to Bank or Stratford International via London City Airport and Canning Town. Trains depart in the direction due to the curve under the River Thames. London Buses routes 51,53,54,96,99,122,161,178,244,291,380,386,422,469 and 472 and night route N1 serve the station. It will be about 200m north of Woolwich Arsenal station on the side of the A206 road, on the site of the Royal Arsenal.
On the 8th December 2015 it was proposed that a DLR Extension across the Gallions Reach Crossing could link with Thamesmead, Abbey Wood, in the peak, this service is every eight minutes
It was originally known as the Woolwich Warren, having begun on land previously used as a domestic warren in the grounds of a Tudor house, Tower Place. Thereafter its operations were scaled down, it closed as a factory in 1967. Today the area, so long a secret enclave, is open to the public and is being redeveloped for housing and community use. The Board of Ordnance was both a civil and an office of State, independent of the Army, overseen by a high-ranking official. Its main areas of activity developed as follows, The origin of The Warren lies in a domestic warren at Tower Place in Old Woolwich, Tower Place was a Tudor mansion built in the 1540s for Martin Bowes, a wealthy goldsmith and merchant, Lord Mayor of London. The house with its octagonal tower stood nearby Gun Wharf, where the Henry Grace à Dieu had been built around 1515, when Woolwich Dockyard moved west in the 1540s, Gun Wharf was mainly used for gun storage. In 1671, The Warren was officially established by the Board as an Ordnance Storage Depot and it occupied a 31-acre site, including Tower Place.
The Board of Ordnance initially looked on the site as a convenient place for building a storehouse for powder and other stores of war, as at other Ordnance Yards the site was overseen by a Storekeeper, who was based in the old house. He was assisted by a Clerk of the Cheque, Clerk of the Survey, to begin with much of the Warren was preserved as open space with cannons stored in the open air and guns proved on ranges to the east. Gunpowder was stored in a converted dovecote initially, but before long specialist buildings began to appear, an ammunition laboratory was set up at the Warren in 1695, overseen by the Comptroller of Fireworks. The manufacturing process was conducted by hand, overseen by a Chief Firemaster, a pair of pavilions, which once faced each other across the centre of the courtyard, are now the oldest surviving buildings on the Arsenal site, they were being restored for residential use in 2013. The Comptroller, Royal Laboratory, had oversight of the Royal Gunpowder Mills in addition to the Woolwich manufactory, a gun foundry, overseen by a Master Founder, was established in 1717.
In Woolwich, the original Royal Brass Foundry building survives and its handsome exterior encloses a space designed for pure industrial functionality, with height to accommodate a vertical boring machine, and tall doors permitting easy removal of newly made cannons. Completed guns could be taken through what is now Dial Arch into a known as the Great Pile of buildings to be finished and stored. The first Master Founder, Andrew Schalch, served in post for 54 years before retiring in 1769 at the age of 78. In 1770 a revolutionary horse-powered horizontal boring machine was installed in the Foundry by his successor, remarkably, it remained in use until 1843 when a steam-powered equivalent replaced it. From the beginning, gun carriages had been stored at the Warren, by the 1750s manufacture of gun carriages was taking place on site, overseen by the Constructor of Carriages. This took place around New Carriage Yard, the Board of Ordnance had had, from the early days of the Warren, teams of artillerymen and military engineers on site
Plumstead Common is a common and urban park in Plumstead in the Royal Borough of Greenwich, south-east London. It is part of the South East London Green Chain, Plumstead Common is bound to the north by Old Mill Road and to the south by Plumstead Common Road. To the east lies Winn or Winns Common, the common contains deposits of puddingstone, a conglomerate rock formed during a period of global warming 60 million years ago. The rock is usually found north of the River Thames in Hertfordshire. Plumstead Common was first mentioned in the Domesday Book in 1086, the name refers to a place where plums grow. In the 19th century more and more land was sold off to build houses for the growing workforce at Royal Arsenal. The arrival of the railways speeded up this process, the people of Plumstead protested that they had the right to graze their livestock on the land of Plumstead Common and to use it for sports and recreation. In June 1876 these protests attracted the Irish activist John De Morgan who on 1 July led protestors up from Woolwich Arsenal to Edwin Hughes house tearing down illegally erected fences on their way, John De Morgan was arrested and sent to prison for seventeen days.
The riots resulted in the 1878 Plumstead Common Act ensuring that one hundred acres of land remained as open space forever. Edwin Cross was the last known commoner to exercise the right of letting small cattle graze on Plumstead Common, substantial remains of the Old Mill still stand and have been incorporated into the public house of the same name. On the southwest corner of the stands the former Prince of Wales pub. Plumstead Common is the venue for the popular Asian Mela, Plumstead Common Windmill Winns Common Woolwich cemetery Plumstead Common Environment Group Plumstead Make Merry festival
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich
The Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. It also trained officers of the Royal Corps of Signals, RMA Woolwich was commonly known as The Shop because its first building was a converted workshop of the Woolwich Arsenal. Education in the Academy focused at first on mathematics and the principles of gunnery. French was taught, for a small fee, in the 1760s the Military Academy acquired its Royal title. At the same time the institution was split, younger cadets entered the Lower Academy, if they performed well in examinations they were allowed to proceed to the Upper Academy, where they learned military skills and sciences. The possibility of moving the Royal Military Academy out of the Warren was mooted as early as 1783, Wyatts Academy was built of yellow brick in the Tudor Gothic style. It consisted of a central block flanked by a pair of accommodation blocks, the central block contained classrooms, a library and offices, the accommodation blocks housed officers in the three-storey central sections and cadets in the two-storey wings.
Behind the central block Wyatt placed a large dining hall flanked by spacious quadrangles having service buildings around the sides,128 cadets moved to the new Academy, these comprised the four senior years. Of the younger cadets, sixty were kept at the Warren, practical teaching continued to be given in the working context of the Arsenal. In 1810, military cadets of the East India Company, who had previously educated at the Academy, were moved to a new college at Addiscombe. In this way the Academy took on something of the ethos of an English public school and these contained new classrooms, with accommodation provided in similar new blocks behind. Sports facilities were added along with gun batteries for training. In 1873 Wyatts central block had to be rebuilt following a devastating fire. Arguments in favour of a merger gained momentum in the 1920s when the specialist, in 1936 it was decided that the merger should take place, but the Second World War intervened and in 1939 both institutions closed as their cadets were called up for active service.
Thereafter, the old Academy site became part of Woolwich Garrison, the central block was taken over by the Royal Artillery Institution and housed a museum and offices. The chapel became the Garrison Church, durkan Group bought the Woolwich site by public tender in 2006 and redevelopment started in 2008. The Woolwich buildings, several of which are grade II listed, are now being converted and extended into 334 houses and apartments, in 2017 the scaffolding around the main facade has been removed and refurbishment is nearing completion. Since 2013 the RMA cricket field, one of the oldest in the UK, is being used again by the 3rd and 4th team of Blackheath Cricket Club
A person who has a right in, or over, common land jointly with another or others is called a commoner. This article deals mainly with land in England, Wales. Common land or former common land is referred to as a common, for instance. This manorial system, founded on feudalism, granted rights of use to different classes. These would be appurtenant rights, that is the ownership of rights belonged to tenancies of particular plots of land held within a manor, a commoner would be the person who, for the time being, was the occupier of a particular plot of land. Some rights of common were said to be in gross, that is and this was more usual in regions where commons are more extensive, such as in the high ground of Northern England or on the Fens, but included many village greens across England and Wales. Most land with appurtenant commons rights is adjacent to the common or even surrounded by it, example rights of common are, Pasture. Right to pasture cattle, sheep or other animals on the common land, right to take sods of turf for fuel.
Common in the Soil This is a term used for rights to extract minerals such as sands, marl, walling stone. Right to turn out pigs for a period in autumn to eat mast, right to take sufficient wood for the commoners house or holding, usually limited to smaller trees and fallen branches. On most commons, rights of pasture and pannage for each commoner are tightly defined by number and type of animal, on some commons, the rights are not limited by numbers, and instead a marking fee is paid each year for each animal turned out. However, if excessive use was made of the common, for example, in overgrazing, a common would be stinted, that is and these regulations were responsive to demographic and economic pressure. Thus rather than let a common become degraded, access was restricted even further, Pasture commons are those where the primary right is to pasture livestock. These habitats are often of high nature conservation value, because of their very long continuity of management extending in some cases over many hundreds of years.
In the past, most pasture commons would have been grazed by mixtures of cattle, the modern survival of grazing on pasture commons over the past century is uneven. When not in use for those purposes, such commons were grazed, examples include the common arable fields around the village of Laxton in Nottinghamshire, and a common meadow at North Meadow, Cricklade. Lammas rights entitled commoners to pasture following the harvest, between Lammas day,12 August, to 6 April, even if they did not have rights to the land. Such rights sometimes had the effect of preventing enclosure and building development on agricultural land, most of the medieval common land of England was lost due to enclosure
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Defence is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majestys Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. The MoD states that its objectives are to defend the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and its interests and to strengthen international peace. The MoD manages day-to-day running of the forces, contingency planning. As rearmament became a concern during the 1930s, Stanley Baldwin created the position of Minister for Coordination of Defence. Winston Churchill, on forming his government in 1940, created the office of Minister of Defence to exercise control over the Chiefs of Staff Committee. The post was held by the Prime Minister of the day until Clement Attlees government introduced the Ministry of Defence Act of 1946, the new ministry was headed by a Minister of Defence who possessed a seat in the Cabinet. These departments merged in 1964, the functions of the Ministry of Aviation Supply merged into the Ministry of Defence in 1971.
The Ministers in the Ministry of Defence are as follows, The Ministers and Chiefs of the Defence Staff are supported by a number of civilian, the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Defence is the senior civil servant at the MoD. His or her role is to ensure the MoD operates effectively as a department of the government, Permanent Under-Secretary of State, Stephen Lovegrove—commencing April 2016 Defence Equipment & Support CEO - Tony Douglas — commencing 2016 Chief Scientific Adviser, Professor Vernon C. He is supported by the Vice Chief of the Defence Staff, vice-Chief of the Defence Staff, General Sir Gordon Messenger, Royal Marines. First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff, Admiral Sir Philip Jones, Royal Navy Chief of the General Staff, General Sir Nick Carter, the Surgeon General, represents the Defence Medical Services on the Defence Staff, and is the clinical head of that service. These forces must be capable of representing Britain as lead nation in any coalition operations, the ability, at longer notice, to deploy forces in a large-scale operation while running a concurrent small-scale operation.
The MoD has since been regarded as a leader in elaborating the post-Cold War organising concept of defence diplomacy, the UK is establishing air and naval bases in the Persian Gulf, located in the UAE and Bahrain. A presence in Oman is being considered, the Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015 included £178 billion investment in new equipment and capabilities. The review set a policy with four primary missions for the Armed Forces and contribute to the security and resilience of the UK. Contribute to improved understanding of the world through strategic intelligence and the defence network. Reinforce international security and the capacity of our allies, partners. Conduct operations to restore peace and stability, conduct major combat operations if required, including under NATO Article 5
A ha-ha is a recessed landscape design element that creates a vertical barrier while preserving an uninterrupted view of the landscape beyond. The design includes a turfed incline which slopes downward to a vertical face. Ha-has are used in design to prevent access to a garden, for example by grazing livestock. In security design, the element is used to deter vehicular access to a site while minimizing visual obstruction, the name ha-ha may derive from the unexpected moment of discovery when, on approach, the vertical drop suddenly becomes visible. Before mechanical lawn mowers, a way to keep large areas of grassland trimmed was to allow livestock, usually sheep. The ha-ha fit well with Chinese gardening ideas of concealing barriers with nature, the basic design of sunken ditches is of ancient origin, being a feature of deer parks in England. The deer-leap or saltatorium consisted of a ditch with one steep side surmounted by a pale or hedge, on Dartmoor the deer-leap was known as a leapyeat.
The concept of the ha-ha is of French origin, with the term being attested in toponyms in New France from 1686, Ha. from where it takes its name. This sort of opening is haha, on occasions, to be preferred, for that it does not at all interrupt the prospect. The etymology of the term is given as being an expression of surprise—someone says ha ha or ah. ah. when they encounter such a feature. Then deemed so astonishing, that the people called them Ha. Has. to express their surprise at finding a sudden and unperceived check to their walk, thomas Jefferson, describing the garden at Stowe after his visit in April 1786, uses the term with exclamation marks, The inclosure is entirely by ha. ha. In Britain, the ha-ha is a feature of the gardens laid out by Charles Bridgeman. Horace Walpole credits Bridgeman with the invention of the ha-ha but was unaware of the earlier French origins, during his excavations at Iona in the period 1964–1984, Richard Reece discovered an 18th-century ha-ha designed to protect the abbey from cattle.
Ice houses were built into ha-ha walls because they provide a subtle entrance that makes the ice house a less intrusive structure. They vary in depth from about 0.6 m to 2.7 m, an unusually long example is the ha-ha that separates the Royal Artillery Barracks Field from Woolwich Common in southeast London. The Royal Artillery ha-ha is maintained in a state of preservation by the Ministry of Defence, it is a Listed Building. There is a shorter ha-ha in the grounds of the nearby Jacobean, in Australia, ha-has were used at Victorian-era lunatic asylums such as Yarra Bend Asylum, Beechworth Asylum, and Kew Lunatic Asylum
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from small amounts of matter. The first test of a bomb released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT. The first thermonuclear bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 10 million tons of TNT, a thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds can produce an explosive force comparable to the detonation of more than 1.2 million tons of TNT. A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate a city by blast, fire. Nuclear weapons are considered weapons of destruction, and their use. Nuclear weapons have been used twice in nuclear warfare, both times by the United States against Japan near the end of World War II, the bombings resulted in the deaths of approximately 200,000 civilians and military personnel from acute injuries sustained from the explosions.
The ethics of the bombings and their role in Japans surrender remain the subject of scholarly, since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have been detonated on over two thousand occasions for the purposes of testing and demonstration. Only a few nations possess such weapons or are suspected of seeking them, israel is believed to possess nuclear weapons, though in a policy of deliberate ambiguity, it does not acknowledge having them. Germany, Turkey and the Netherlands are nuclear weapons sharing states, south Africa is the only country to have independently developed and renounced and dismantled its nuclear weapons. Modernisation of weapons continues to occur, all existing nuclear weapons derive some of their explosive energy from nuclear fission reactions. Weapons whose explosive output is exclusively from fission reactions are commonly referred to as bombs or atom bombs. This has long noted as something of a misnomer, as their energy comes from the nucleus of the atom.
The latter approach is considered more sophisticated than the former and only the approach can be used if the fissile material is plutonium. A major challenge in all nuclear weapon designs is to ensure that a significant fraction of the fuel is consumed before the weapon destroys itself. The amount of energy released by fission bombs can range from the equivalent of just under a ton to upwards of 500,000 tons of TNT, all fission reactions necessarily generate fission products, the radioactive remains of the atomic nuclei split by the fission reactions. Many fission products are highly radioactive or moderately radioactive. Fission products are the radioactive component of nuclear fallout
Growing to 2–3 metres tall, it is an evergreen shrub. The young stems are green, with the shoots and leaves modified into green spines, young seedlings produce normal leaves for the first few months, these are trifoliate, resembling a small clover leaf. The flowers are yellow, 1–2 centimetres long, with the pea-flower structure typical of the Fabaceae, they are produced throughout the year, seeds remain viable for 30 years. It has a tap root and adventious roots, an extremely tough and hardy plant, it can live for about thirty years. Common gorse is a species in the montane grasslands of Horton Plains National Park in Sri Lanka. It outcompetes native, endemic species and is a fire hazard, biological pest control is used on this plant in many areas. The gorse spider mite and the seed weevil reduce the spread of the plant. This plant is used for hedging, boundary definition and groundcover in suitably sunny, cultivars include Strictus, a dwarf form, and the double-flowered, non-fruiting Flore Pleno, which has gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit.
Bruised gorse was used in areas for feeding to horses. Lectin extracted from seeds of this species binds to, is specific for. It fixes nitrogen into the soil, gorse in New Zealand Jepson Manual Treatment USDA Plants Profile Washington Burke Museum Photo gallery
Royal Artillery Barracks
The Royal Artillery Barracks at Woolwich in the Royal Borough of Greenwich, was the home of the Royal Artillery from 1776 until 2007. The Barracks were built between 1776 and 1802 on a site overlooking Woolwich Common to accommodate the nascent Royal Artillery, as originally built the barracks frontage was only half the present length, being the eastern half of the current south elevation, with the pediment and clock positioned centrally. Twenty-five years later, when further expansion was required, it was resolved to double the frontage by building an identical façade to the west, the architect James Wyatt married the two halves together with a centerpiece triumphal arch. Several of these buildings were altered over time or entirely replaced in a number of refurbishment programmes, in 1973 the barracks were designated as a Grade II* listed building. For many years the 17. 75-ton Bhurtpore gun, captured by Lord Combermere after the 1826 siege of Bhurtpore, to the south, Barrack Field is a cricket ground which has been in use since the mid 18th century.
Since the nineteenth century, the appropriateness of Woolwich as a base for the Artillery had been questioned, suggestions of a move came to nothing until a Defence Estates Review in 2003 proposed a move to Larkhill on Salisbury Plain. After very nearly 300 years in Woolwich, the last Artillery regiment left the barracks in July 2007. Two stained glass windows from the regimental chapel – one by Christopher Whall, an Arts & Crafts artist – were moved to St Albans church at Larkhill, the place of the Artillery was taken by the public duties line infantry battalion and incremental companies of the Foot Guards. Soon afterwards, the Second Battalion The Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment was posted to Woolwich from Cyprus, the shooting events at the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were held at a temporary venue at the Barracks. In May 2013 drummer Lee Rigby was murdered by Islamists just outside the Barracks in a terrorist attack, in November 2016 the Ministry of Defence announced that the site would close in 2028.
Woolwich has extensive links with weaponry, besides the Royal Artillery Barracks it was the location of the Royal Arsenal complex, which was the British Governments principal armaments manufacturing facility for over 200 years. The Royal Military Academy which trained officers and engineers from 1741 to 1939 began in the Arsenal before moving onto Woolwich Common in 1806. Rooms in the Arsenal freed by the Academys move were used to house a Royal Artillery museum, which moved to the Common in 1820. In 2001 the museum returned to the Arsenal site and was renamed Firepower, the eighteenth-century buildings survive as Connaught Mews, an apartment complex off Grand Depot Road. St Georges Garrison Church was built on the edge of the Common in 1863. Romanesque in style with Byzantine detailing, it was destroyed by a V1 flying bomb on 14 July 1944. From 1802, the ground to the west of the Common became a field training ground known as the Repository Grounds. As of 2012 the Repository Grounds were still used for training as well as providing new accommodation and stables for the Kings Troop, a regimental school was opened nearby in 1808, the Royal Artillery School buildings can still be seen in Greenhill Terrace
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area