Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Matthew Nathan, GCMG, PC was a British soldier and colonial administrator, who variously served as the Governor of Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, Hong Kong and Queensland. Nathan was born in Paddington, England and he was of Jewish descent and the second son of businessman Jonah Nathan and Miriam Jacob Nathan. Nathan was educated at Royal Military Academy, where he was the winner of the Pollock Medal before being gazetted to Royal Engineers in 1880 and he continued his training at the School of Military Engineering, Chatham from 1880 to 1884. Nathan was sent to military expeditions to Sudan and to Lushai and he was promoted to the position of captain in 1889 and became the secretary to the Colonial Defence Committee between 1896 and 1898. Nathan was promoted to major in 1898, Nathan was appointed acting governor of Sierra Leone from 1899 to 1900. Late that year, he was appointed as Governor of Gold Coast, in 1902, Nathan imported into the Gold Coast a £543 French Gardner-Serpollet, paraffin-fired, steam-driven car for his use on the roads around Accra.
In 1903, Nathan was appointed as Governor of Hong Kong, the construction of Kowloon-Canton Railway started under this period. In 1907, Nathan was made Governor of Natal, in that same year, he was raised to a higher rank of lieutenant colonel. In 1909 he returned to England and took up an appointment as secretary to the General Post Office and he was chairman of the Board of Inland Revenue between 1911 and 1914. Nathan was appointed Under-Secretary for Ireland in August 1914, just after the outbreak of World War I and his immediate superior was the Chief Secretary, Augustine Birrell. Nathans job involved liaising with the Irish Parliamentary Party to prepare them for self-government and he used the Defence of the Realm Act 1914 to suppress newspapers he considered seditious, against the advice of the IPP In general, however, he avoided any action that might provoke violence. The man arrested was subsequently identified as Sir Roger Casement A mobilization of the Irish Volunteers fixed for Easter Sunday was cancelled the day before, Nathan cabled Birrell, the Chief Secretary, in London to obtain authorisation for these actions.
On Easter Monday,24 April 1916, while he was in his office in Dublin Castle awaiting Birrells response, the Castle gates were closed and the rebels did not press the attack, but Nathan was a virtual prisoner until troops arrived from the Curragh Camp on Monday evening. Nathan remained in the Castle for the rest of the week where he kept in contact with London, keeping the government up to date with the situation, the Rising came to an end on 30 April. The same day Birrell offered his resignation, and on 3 May, at Birrells request, the Royal Commission on the 1916 Rebellion was critical of Birrell and Nathan, in particular their failure to take action against the rebels in the weeks and months before the Rising. After his resignation Nathan was appointed secretary to the Ministry of Pensions, in 1920, he was appointed Governor of Queensland and served in that position until 1925. It was to be his last post in the Colonial Service, during his tenure, Nathan actively promoted British migration to Queensland.
In 1922 he founded, along with Henry Caselli Richards, the Great Barrier Reef Committee, after his appointment expired, Nathan left Queensland for retirement in Somerset, England
Division of Fairfax
The Division of Fairfax is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. The division was created in 1984 and is named after Ruth Fairfax and it is located in the Sunshine Coast region north of Brisbane and includes the towns of Coolum, Buderim, Montville and Eumundi. The Sunshine Coast is traditionally an area, and as such Fairfax has always been held by a centre-right party. Originally a safe seat for the National Party, demographic change has made it safe for the Liberal Party. It came to attention in the 2013 federal election, when Clive Palmer. As expected, Palmers 2013 opponent, Ted OBrien, won it resoundingly, Division of Fairfax — Australian Electoral Commission
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Gympie /ˈɡɪmpi/ is a regional town in the Wide Bay-Burnett region of Queensland, Australia. It is about 160 kilometres north of the capital, Brisbane. The city lies on the Mary River, which floods the town periodically, Gympie is the administrative centre for the Gympie Region area. At June 2015 Gympie had an urban population of 20,810. Gympie is famous for its gold field and it contains a number of historic buildings registered on the Queensland Heritage Register. Gympies name derives from the Kabi word gimpi-gimpi, which referred to Dendrocnide moroides, the tree has large, round leaves that have similar properties to stinging nettles. The town was previously named Nashville, after James Nash, who discovered gold in the area in 1867, the name was changed to Gympie in 1868. Graziers were the original European settlers, James Nash reported the discovery of payable alluvial gold on 16 October 1867. At the time of Nashs discovery, Queensland was suffering from an economic depression. Nash probably saved Queensland from bankruptcy, a memorial fountain in Gympies Park honours Nashs discovery.
The Gympie Gold Rush Festival celebrates the event today, the Gold Rush Festival holds 10 days of cultural events in October. Gold mining still plays a role in the fortunes, along with agriculture, timber. The gold rushs rapid development led to streets that are in an irregular fashion, Gympie Creek Post Office opened on 1 December 1867. It was renamed Gympie in 1868, the railway from Maryborough completed in 1881. The North Coast railway linked Gympie to Brisbane in 1891, a fire brigade was in operation in 1900. The state declared Gympie a town in 1903, a powdered milk factory began operations in 1953. Significant floods along the Mary River have caused inundations of the town in 1893,1955,1968,1974,1989,1992,1999,2011 and 2013, the first recorded flood in Gympie was in 1870. Most of the floods occur between December and April and are caused by heavy rainfall in the headwaters to the south
Cobb & Co
Cobb & Co was the name of a successful coaching company in Australia, established in 1853. The company name was used in New Zealand and South Africa. The last Australian Cobb & Co stagecoach ran in Queensland in August 1924, Cobb & Co has become an established part of Australian folklore, and the company has been commemorated in art, literature and on screen. Today the name is used by a number of Australian bus operators, initially the company traded as the American Telegraph Line of Coaches, a name that emphasized speed and progressiveness. With financial support from another newly arrived US businessman George Train, they arranged the importation of several US-built wagons, by early 1854, the Company operated a daily service to Forest Creek and Bendigo, and soon afterwards, expanding the service to Geelong and Ballarat other goldfields. In common with many operatives, Cobb & Cos horses were changed every 10–15 miles along a stagecoach line, as Historian Susan Priestley notes, Coach lines did not attempt to compete with.
Instead, as rail lines extended, coaches were transferred to routes and were timetabled to link in with trains. Within a few years, Cobb & Co had established a reputation for efficiency and reliability, in May 1856, the four partners sold out. Cobb and Lamber returned to the US while Swanton continued in coaching for a few more years, John Peck stayed in Melbourne, eventually to establish a stock and station agency. Rutherfords partners included Alexander William Robertson, John Wagner, Walter Russell Hall, William Franklin Whitney, Rutherford re-organised and extended the Victorian services and won a monopoly on major mail contracts. By 1870, most of Victoria was serviced by a network of coach routes, in June 1862 Rutherford oversaw the extension of the business into New South Wales following news of the Lambing Flat gold rush. Rutherford moved ten coaches from Bendigo to Bathurst with great publicity, to announce, Bathurst became the headquarters of a new syndicate, led by Rutherford and four others.
Rutherford had intended to spend 6 months in Bathurst, but stayed on to the end of his days, becoming one of the citys leading citizens. Rutherford established a Cobb & Co buggy and coachworks in Bathurst, on the road, Cobb & Co began buying out or forcing out many New South Wales competitors. In 1865 the company expanded, this time into Queensland. The first Cobb & Co service in Queensland was between Ipswich and Brisbane in 1865, services were soon expanded into all parts of Queensland and this allowed for otherwise isolated communities to maintain regular contact with the rest of the world. In 1881 the firm became a company, with a capital of £50,000, running some 3000 horses a total of around 10,000 miles a week, the largest transport company in Queensland. A large coachworks was established at Charleville in the 1886, which turned out a variety of vehicles including over 120 coaches
Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbanes metropolitan area has a population of 2.35 million, the Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The demonym of Brisbane is Brisbanite, one of the oldest cities in Australia, Brisbane was founded upon the ancient homelands of the indigenous Turrbal and Jagera peoples. A penal settlement was founded in 1824 at Redcliffe,28 kilometres north of the business district. The city was marred by the Australian frontier wars between 1843 and 1855, and development was set back by the Great Fire of Brisbane. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland was proclaimed a colony from New South Wales in 1859. During World War II, Brisbane played a role in the Allied campaign. Today, Brisbane is well known for its distinct Queenslander architecture which forms much of the built heritage.
It receives attention for its damaging flood events, most notably in 1974 and 2011. Several large cultural and sporting events have held at Brisbane, including the 1982 Commonwealth Games, World Expo 88, the final Goodwill Games in 2001. Prior to white settlement, the Brisbane area was inhabited by the Turrbal and they knew the area that is now the central business district as Mian-jin, meaning place shaped as a spike. The Moreton Bay area was explored by Matthew Flinders. On 17 July 1799, Flinders landed at what is now known as Woody Point, in 1823 Governor of New South Wales Sir Thomas Brisbane instructed that a new northern penal settlement be developed, and an exploration party led by John Oxley further explored Moreton Bay. Oxley discovered and explored the Brisbane River as far as Goodna,20 kilometres upstream from the Brisbane central business district, Oxley recommended Red Cliff Point for the new colony, reporting that ships could land at any tide and easily get close to the shore.
The party settled in Redcliffe on 13 September 1824, under the command of Lieutenant Henry Miller with 14 soldiers and 29 convicts. However, this settlement was abandoned after a year and the colony was moved to a site on the Brisbane River now known as North Quay,28 km south, chief Justice Forbes gave the new settlement the name of Edenglassie before it was named Brisbane. Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838, German missionaries settled at Zions Hill, Nundah as early as 1837, five years before Brisbane was officially declared a free settlement. The band consisted of ministers Christopher Eipper and Carl Wilhelm Schmidt and lay missionaries Haussmann, Johann Gottried Wagner, Hartenstein, Franz, Rode and they were allocated 260 hectares and set about establishing the mission, which became known as the German Station
North Coast railway line, Queensland
The North Coast railway line is a narrow gauge railway line in Queensland, Australia. It commences at Roma Street station and largely parallels the Queensland coast to Cairns in Far North Queensland, the line is electrified between Brisbane and Rockhampton. Along the way, the 1680 km railway passes through the towns and cities of eastern Queensland including Nambour, Rockampton, Mackay. The line though the centre of Rockhampton runs down the middle of Denison Street, the North Coast Line has one of the most interesting and complex histories of any railway in Queensland. The first section was opened in 1881, the section in 1924. Progress was hampered by financial setbacks, debate over competing routes and parliamentary approval to connect Cairns to Rockhampton. Construction standards varied significantly depending upon the era and initial purpose of the section built, there have been five major and numerous minor deviations to improve the alignment of the original line, and three sections of it are duplicated.
Queensland was the first jurisdiction in the world to adopt narrow gauge for its main lines, by 1880 over 1,000 km of line had been opened, connecting Brisbane to Roma and Warwick and Rockhampton to Emerald, with a line from Townsville to Charters Towers under construction. The pattern of early Queensland railway development was focused upon providing transport from inland areas to ports at the lowest possible cost, the first section of what is now the NCL opened on 6 August 1881. It was built to connect the town of Gympie to a river port at Maryborough. Further south a suburban railway was opened between Roma Street and Northgate on 11 May 1882, via Normanby, a direct line from Roma Street to Bowen Hills via Central station was opened in 1890, including a 770-metre tunnel, still the longest on the system. The government formally decided to link Brisbane to Gladstone in 1883, whilst that route may have served areas of fertile land, it was very hilly terrain, and the cost of earthworks would have been substantial.
The coastal route would serve less promising agricultural land, but would be expensive to build. As the Queensland parliament was dominated by members, both routes were surveyed in detail, taking six years due to the shortage of surveyors. By the time the surveys were finished it was apparent the inland route would be expensive. The first section of line known as the NCL was opened from North Coast Junction to Petrie. Coal had been discovered at Burrum,25 km north of Maryborough, the line was extended to Bundaberg in 1888 so coal could be shipped there as well. The coastal route was approved in 1889, with starting from both Caboolture and Gympie, and the linking section opened in 1891
Palmwoods is a town and locality in the Sunshine Coast Region, Australia. At the 2011 census, Palmwoods had a population of 5,492, Palmwoods is part of the Sunshine Coast situated near Nambour. It is situated close to family tourist attractions such as The Big Pineapple. Pineapple growing remains the most important primary industry in the area, Palmwoods is located 15 minutes from the beach and the Blackall Range. The small town was previously named Merriman Flats in 1881 by the Kuskopfs who were early European settlers in the area, Palmwoods railway station was opened leading to the nearby town to be renamed Palmwoods after the Piccabeen Palm groves growing in the area. Palmwoods Post Office opened by 1902, between 1915-1935 a tramway existed from Palmwoods to Buderim
Sunshine Coast, Queensland
Sunshine Coast is a peri-urban area and the third most populated area in the Australian state of Queensland. The estimated urban population of Sunshine Coast as at June 2015 was 302,122, the area was first settled by Europeans in the 19th century with development progressing slowly until tourism became an important industry. The area has several coastal hubs at Caloundra, Kawana Waters, Maroochydore and Maleny have developed as primary commercial centres for the hinterland, although Maleny falls outside the urban area defined by the ABS that this article refers to. James Cook on the deck of HM Bark Endeavour in 1770 became the first known white settler to sight the Glass House Mountains, in the 1820s, the Sunshine Coast saw its first white inhabitants, three castaways who shared the life of the local Aborigines for eight months. Thereafter, during the 1830s to 1840s, the district home to numerous runaway convicts from the Moreton Bay penal colony slightly to the south. However, during the 1840s and 1850s, the Bunya Bunya Reserve, the Blackall Range, on account of the tri-annual Bunya Festival, served as both a hideout and rallying point for attacks against white settlement.
By the 1850s timber cutters and cattlemen had started exploiting the area, many of the Sunshine Coasts towns began as simple ports or jetties for the timber industry during the 1860s and 1870s, as the area once had magnificent stands of forest. Likewise, the roads often began as snigging tracks for hauling timber. Timbergetters used the creeks and lakes as seaways to float out their logs of cedar – the resultant wood being shipped as far afield as Europe. During the Gympie Gold Rush, prospectors scaled the Sunshine Coast mountains to develop easier roadways to, after construction of the railway line to Gympie, the coastal and river towns, being mostly ports for the early river-trade, were bypassed. By the 1890s diverse small-farming had replaced the cattle-and-timber economy of earlier decades, sugar cane and pineapples proved especially important produce for the district. Many small hamlets and towns now emerged, produce was initially taken by horse to Landsborough, to Eudlo in 1891. Especially after World War II, the Sunshine Coast grew into a favoured holiday and this tendency was further expanded in the development boom of the 1960s and 1970s.
Around the same time, various tourist/theme parks were created – the most iconic being Woombyes Big Pineapple, during the 1960s and 1970s, the Sunshine Coast attracted persons drawn to alternative lifestyles. These newcomers developed a range of industries, co-operatives and spiritual centres. After the 1980s, the Sunshine Coast experienced rapid population growth, as of 2011 it had become one of the fastest-growing regions in Australia. As the region becomes increasingly residential, most of the distinctive small farms – especially tropical-fruit and sugar-cane farms have disappeared. The Moreton sugar mills closure in 2003 removed a market for the districts 120 cane growers who had been harvesting cane in the region, businesses concerned with retail and tourism have assumed increasing importance
North Coast Roadside Rest Areas
The North Coast Roadside Rest Areas are a group of three heritage-listed rest areas in Queensland, Australia. The early 1920s heralded the beginnings of increasing car ownership in Queensland, in 1921, the year registration was introduced in Queensland, there was estimated to be approximately 8,000 motor vehicles in the state. By mid-1923 nearly 17,000 cars were registered, while the demographic of ownership was broadening, it was still very much confined to the affluent. Nonetheless, as people took to the car, the need for serviceable roads for motor vehicles became apparent. The Queensland Government responded with the establishment of the Queensland Main Roads Board in 1920, prior to this, the onus was on local shire councils to fund road construction and management. They were largely unable to provide the finances or technical skills to respond to challenges posed by increased car use, after the Boards establishment, co-operative funding arrangements occurred with local councils, who generally maintained roads after their construction.
The initial policy of the Main Roads Board was to construct roads that operated as feeders to railway networks and aided the development of newly settled, by the end of 1921, the Main Roads Board were surveying and designating main roads throughout the State. Improvements to road networks during the interwar period strongly influenced the development of the tourist industry on the North Coast, during its first decade of operation, a number of key roads were built with Main Roads assistance on the North Coast. The road to Maleny from Landsborough, built in 1921, was the earliest, described in the 1925 edition of From Noosa to the Tweed, other projects included the road from Palmwoods to Montville and coastal roads to Tewantin, Maroochydore and Caloundra. By this time, there were nearly 92,000 vehicles in Queensland, the potential for the tourism at North Coast seaside and mountain resorts had been a key factor in the decision by Henry Bruce, Minister for Public Works to allocate Main Roads funds for the road.
When first opened, the highway was classified as a tourist road, gradually however, the Bruce Highway extended further north. By 1942, the route was bitumen sealed between Brisbane and Eumundi, during World War II the resources of the Main Roads Commission were concentrated on defence projects through the operations of the Allied Works Council. While Queensland gained over 3,000 km of defence related roads during this period, including sections that became the Bruce Highway, for the first few years after the end of the war in 1945, Main Roads resources were scarce. It wasnt until the 1950s that a concerted effort on the highway could be undertaken. The highway developed incrementally, by 1962 bitumen sealed between Brisbane and Cairns, by the end of the decade, Australia was second only to the United States in terms of car ownership per head of population. In Queensland, car ownership rose from near 100,000 to over 240,000 between 1950 and 1960 and it was during this period that provision of off the road areas, known as roadside rest areas, became an important aspect of Main Roads Commission operations.
The 1951 Penrods Guide to North Coast Shore and Mountain Resorts listed areas at Petrie on the Pine River, Burpengary Creek, and Paynters Creek between Woombye and Nambour. For motorists travelling from Brisbane to the North Coast and beyond, the rest area located just south of Petrie township catered for those using the Gympie Road
Sunshine Coast Football
Sunshine Coast Football is the governing body of football on Sunshine Coast, Queensland. It is a zone of Football Queensland and Football Federation Australia. Sunshine Coast Soccer was formed in 1968 when the Caloundra Rugby league team was refused permission to take part in the North Coast League Competition, members were subsequently looking for an alternative sport when soccer was soon suggested. Teams from Caloundra and Woombye were soon formed, joined that year by Maroochydore, club numbers have continued to expand and the Zone now incorporates 16 clubs from Caboolture in the south to Gympie Miners in the North
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or officially, the Census of Population and Housing, is a descriptive count of population of Australia on one night, and of their dwellings, generally held quinquennially. Participation in the census is compulsory, though answering some questions is optional, the count is taken every five years and is managed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April, in 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August, the most recent was held on 9 August 2016. The cost of the 2011 census was $440 million, a separate census of Norfolk Island has been conducted by the Norfolk Island Government every five years since 1981, and occurs on the same day as the Australian census. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, the Census and Statistics Act 1905 led to the 1906 establishment of the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics.
The Bureau was renamed the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 1975, the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published a set of spatial units called mesh blocks. The primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a block for constructing alternative. Only data on persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban district because of their size. In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings, in rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2001 census there were 37,209 collection districts and 1,353 Statistical Local Areas defined throughout Australia, the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public.
However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access, in the 1970s there was public debate about privacy and the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on Privacy and the Census, one of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names. It was found that excluding names reduced the accuracy of the data, individuals were likely to leave questions blank