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Worcester Cathedral

Worcester Cathedral, is an Anglican cathedral in Worcester, situated on a bank overlooking the River Severn. It is the seat of the Bishop of Worcester, its official name is the Blessed Mary the Virgin, of Worcester. The present cathedral church was built between 1084 and 1504, represents every style of English architecture from Norman to Perpendicular Gothic, it is famous for its Norman crypt and unique chapter house, its unusual Transitional Gothic bays, its fine woodwork and its "exquisite" central tower, of fine proportions. The cathedral's west facade appeared, with a portrait of Sir Edward Elgar, on the reverse of £20 note issued by the Bank of England between 1999 and 2007, remaining in circulation as legal tender until 30 June 2010; the Cathedral was founded in 680, with a Northumbrian priest, appointed as its first bishop. Tatwine died before he could be consecrated, however, so his successor Bishop Bosel may be regarded as Worcester's first serving bishop; the first cathedral church, dedicated to Ss.

Peter and Paul, was built in this period. The crypt of the present-day cathedral dates from the 11th century and the time of Wulfstan'Bishop of Worcester; the community associated with the cathedral the early eighth century included members of various clerical orders. The cathedral community was regulated along formal monastic lines as a consequence of the Benedictine reforms in the second half of the tenth century. There is an important connection with Fleury Abbey in France, as Oswald, bishop of Worcester from 961 to 992, was professed at Fleury and introduced the monastic rule of Fleury to the monastery that he established at Worcester around the year 966, dedicated — as the present cathedral church is — to St. Mary; the last Anglo-Saxon bishop of Worcester, unusually remained bishop after the Norman Conquest until his death in 1095. He was made a saint, it is the burial place of King of England, who succeeded his brother Richard I of England. The Priory Cathedral was economic force, both in Worcester and the county.

Its properties for instance included the priory manor of Bromsgrove. It provided schooling, it was associated with hospitals. The Church received a portion of local taxations and ecclesiastical law applied to Christian morals and could result in punishments, it had close political associations with leading aristocracy. As such, Worcester's Cathedral had a central role in the medieval life of the county; the Cathedral was one of a number of religious institutions in the city. The Diocese was notably hostile to the small Jewish community, established in Worcester. Peter of Blois was commissioned by a Bishop of Worcester John of Coutances, to write a significant anti-Judaic treatise Against the Perfidy of Jews around 1190. William de Blois, as Bishop of Worcester, imposed strict rules on Jews within the diocese in 1219; as elsewhere in England, Jews were compelled to wear rectangular white badges representing tabulae. In most places, this requirement was relinquished as long. In addition to enforcing the church laws on wearing badges, Blois tried to impose additional restrictions on usury, wrote to Pope Gregory in 1229 to ask for better enforcement and further, harsher measures.

In response, the Papacy demanded that Christians be prevented from working in Jewish homes, "lest temporal profit be preferred to the zeal of Christ", enforcement of the wearing of badges. The priory came to an end with King Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries. Shortly beforehand, in 1535, the prior William More resigned, was replaced by Henry Holbeach. More had a reputation for fine living, although his standards seem in line with other senior ecclesiasts of the time. However, there were problems with the administration of the priory, including divisions within the community; the Protestant Hugh Latimer was bishop from 1535, preached for reform and iconoclasm. He resigned as bishop in 1539, as a result of a theological turn by Henry VIII towards Roman Catholicism, in the Six Articles. John Bell, a moderate reformer, was bishop from 1539 to 1543, during the period of the priory's dissolution. In the early 16th century, Worcester had around 40 monks; this declined in the years before 1540, as recruitment seems to have halted.

There were 35 Benedictine monks plus the Prior Holbeach at the time of dissolution 16 January 1540. Holbeach was re-appointed as the first Dean. A further five former monks were pensioned from the college in July 1540; the former monastic library of Worcester contained a considerable number of manuscripts which are, among other libraries, now scattered over Cambridge, Oxford Bodleian, the Cathedral library at Worcester of today. Remains of the priory dating from the 12th and 13th centuries can still be seen. John Bell's successor as Bishop, Nicholas Heath, was religiously much more conservative and Catholic. During the Civil War, the Cathedral was used to store arms as early as September 1642. Worcester declared itself for the Crown and was occupied by extra Royalist forces,who were using the building to store munitions when Essex retook the city after a skirmish on its outskirts; the Parliamentary troops ransacked the Cathedral building. Stained glass was smashed and the organ destroyed, along with library books and monuments.

The See was abolished during the Commonwealth and the

2008 Cape Verdean local elections

Local elections were held in Cape Verde on 18 May 2008. The MpD won in the municipalities of Boa Vista, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Ribeira Grande de Santiago, Santa Catarina, São Domingos, São Miguel, São Vicente and Tarrafal while PAICV won in the municipalities of Brava, Paul, Ribeira Brava, Santa Catarina do Fogo, Santa Cruz, São Filipe, São Lourenço dos Órgãos, São Salvador do Mundo and Tarrafal de São Nicolau; the final results are: The final results are

Thamarachal Valiyapally

St Mary's Jacobite Valiyapally, near Kochi, Kerala is a Pilgrim Center in Angamaly Diocese of Jacobite Syrian Church. It is a Valiyapally dedicated to St Mary, this church attracts thousands of people across the state of Kerala during Ettunombu Fest, it was established in 1903 by parishioners belonging to Morakkala St Mary's Cathedral, due to the distance they had to travel for their spiritual needs. More than 300 families were part of this parish at that time, they set up a new church in the hillock of Thamarachal dedicated to St Mary. The following year St Peter's and St Paul's Church, Kizhakkambalam was established and a large number of parishioners joined the new parish. In 1907 the holy relic of Mor Yacoob and Mor Samavoon, given by St. Sleeba Mor Osthathious, was installed; the Sunday School was established in 1915 and the following year some of the parishioners founded a parish at Oorakkad dedicated to St Thomas, to meet their spiritual needs. This parish established a school in the 1920s and was closed to make way for the nearby Government school.

In 1935 a chappel was established at Chemmalapady dedicated to St Ignatius of Manjinikkara. In 1950 South Vazhakulam St George Church Was founded by Members of this parishThis parishes Golden Jubilee came in the year 1953 and to commentate that a chapel was established at Malayidomthuruthu, which became part of Malayidomthuruthu St Mary's Church. In 1968 Marthamariyam Vanitha Samajam came into existence. In 1975 and 1980 two new parishes were established at Malayidomthuruthu and Vilangu both dedicated to St Mary. Mor Yacoob Mor Samavoon Youth Association came into existence in 1982; this year witnessed the 1st Apostolic Visit of H H Ignatius Zakka I Iwas Patriarch of Antioch to this church. Ettunombu celebration began in 1986 and St Mary's holy "Soonoro" was installed in 1988. Pukkattupady St George church came into existence in 1990 from this church. In that year itself a new English Medium School was established, along with St Mary's Charitable Society, under this parish, which became a CBSE School.

In 2002-03 this church celebrated its Century. In 2008 St Mary's Family Unit was established under this parish; this year saw the Second Apostolic visit of H H Ignatius Zakka I Iwas Patriarch of Antioch and this holy church was elevated as Valiyapally, due to its importance in the region and in the Jacobite church. In 2010 a unit of Mar Gregorios Jacobite Students' Movement, was established here and this church remained as the Pallikkara Region's Headquarters of MGJSM till 2013; the Marian convention centre is the largest parish hall in a Jacobite church. This parish has 600 families 3 chapels and 5 shrines; this is the youth wing of the church. Its members are aged between 18 and 40, it has 400 active members and have received many Malankara Church awards for excellence including Best Unit and Best Charity Unit. Council members Fr Thomas M Paul Moolekattu Varghese Issac Peediackal Eldho Paul Karimpanakkal Shinil Mathew Thuruthummel Paulson Paul Parattukudy This is the student wing of the parish.

Its members are aged between 12 and 22. This unit has become the Best Unit In Malankara for 2011, 2012 and 2013; this unit has 150 active members. It conducts monthly meetings providing classes for students. Oorakkad St Thomas Jacobite Syrian Church Malayidomthuruthu St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Church Chembarky St George Jacobite Syrian Church Marygiri St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Church Pukkattupady St George Jacobite Syrian Church Vilangu St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Church Kizhakkambalam ST Peter's and St Paul's Jacobite Syrian Church Choorakkod St George Jacobite Syrian Church Karukulam St Mary's Church