Colleges of the University of Oxford
The University of Oxford has 38 Colleges and six Permanent Private Halls of religious foundation. Colleges and PPHs are autonomous self-governing corporations within the university, all teaching staff and students studying for a degree at the university must belong to one of the colleges or PPHs; these colleges are not only houses of residence, but have substantial responsibility for teaching undergraduate students. Tutorials and classes are the responsibility of colleges, while lectures, examinations and the central library are run by the university. Most colleges take both graduates and undergraduates. Undergraduate and graduate students may name preferred colleges in their applications. For undergraduate students, an increasing number of departments practise reallocation to ensure that the ratios between potential students and subject places available at each college are as uniform as possible. For the Department of Physics, reallocation is done on a random basis after a shortlist of candidates is drawn upon and before candidates are invited for interviews at the university.
For graduate students, many colleges express a preference for candidates who plan to undertake research in an area of interest of one of its fellows. St Hugh's College, for example, states that it accepts graduate students in most subjects, principally those in the fields of interest of the Fellows of the college. A typical college consists of a hall for dining, a chapel, a library, a college bar, senior and junior common rooms, rooms for 200–400 undergraduates as well as lodgings for the head of the college and other dons. College buildings range from medieval to modern, but most are made up of interlinked quadrangles, with a porter's lodge controlling entry from the outside. 2008 saw the first modern merger of colleges, with Green College and Templeton College merging to form Green Templeton College. This reduced the number of Colleges of the University from 39 to 38; the number of PPHs reduced in 2008, when Greyfriars closed down. The collegiate system arose because Oxford University came into existence through the gradual agglomeration of numerous independent institutions.
Over the centuries several different types of college have disappeared. The first academic houses were monastic halls. Of the dozens established during the 12th–15th centuries, none survived the Reformation; the modern Dominican permanent private hall of Blackfriars is a descendant of the original, is sometimes described as heir to the oldest tradition of teaching in Oxford. As the university took shape, friction between the hundreds of students living where and how they pleased led to a decree that all undergraduates would have to reside in approved halls. What put an end to the medieval halls was the emergence of colleges. Generously endowed and with permanent teaching staff, the colleges were the preserve of graduate students. However, once they began accepting fee-paying undergraduates in the 14th century, the halls' days were numbered. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up, only St Edmund Hall remains; the oldest colleges are University College and Merton, established between 1249 and 1264, although there is some dispute over the exact order and when each began teaching.
The fourth oldest college is Exeter, founded in 1314, the fifth is Oriel, founded in 1326. The most recent new foundation is Kellogg College, whilst the most recent overall is Green Templeton College. Women entered the university in 1879, with the opening of Lady Margaret Hall and Somerville College, becoming members of the University in 1920. Other women's colleges before integration were St Hilda's and St Hugh's. In 1974 the first men's colleges to admit women were Brasenose, Jesus College, St Catherine's and Wadham. By 2008 all colleges had become co-residential, although one of the Permanent Private Halls, St Benet's Hall, did not start to admit postgraduate women until Michaelmas term 2014 and women undergraduates until Michaelmas 2016; some colleges, such as Kellogg, Nuffield, St Antony's, St Cross and Wolfson only admit postgraduate students. All Souls admits only Fellows. Harris Manchester is intended for "mature students" with a minimum age of 21. In 2018 it was announced that a new, non-residential, graduate college of the University, Parks College, would be established using the premises of the Radcliffe Science Library, opening in 2020.
Kellogg and St Cross are the only Oxford colleges without a royal charter. They are societies of the university rather than independent colleges and both are considered departments of the university for accounting purposes; the Oxford University Act 1854 and the university statute De aulis privatis of 1855, allowed any Master of Arts aged at least 28 years to open a private hall after obtaining a licence to do so. One such was Charsley's Hall; the Universities Tests Act 1871 opened all university degrees and positions to men who were not members of the Church of England, which made it possible for Catholics and Non-conformists to open private halls. The first Catholic private halls were Clarke's Hall, opened by the Jesuit Order in 1896 and Hunter Blair's Hall opened by the Benedictine Order in 1899. In 1918 the university passed a statute to allow private halls which were not run for profit to become permanent private halls and the two halls took their current names; each college and perma
Richard George Adams was an English novelist and writer of the books Watership Down and The Plague Dogs. He studied modern history at university before serving in the British Army during World War II. Afterwards, he completed his studies, joined the British Civil Service. In 1974, two years after Watership Down was published, Adams became a full-time author. Richard Adams was born on 9 May 1920 in Wash Common, near Newbury, England, the son of Lillian Rosa and Evelyn George Beadon Adams, a doctor, he attended Horris Hill School from 1926 to 1933, Bradfield College from 1933 to 1938. In 1938, he went to Oxford, to read Modern History. In July 1940, Adams was called up to join the British Army, he was posted to the Royal Army Service Corps and was selected for the Airborne Company, where he worked as a brigade liaison. He served in Palestine and the Far East but saw no direct action against either the Germans or the Japanese. After leaving the army in 1946, Adams returned to Worcester College to continue his studies for a further two years.
He received a bachelor's degree in 1948, proceeding MA in 1953. After his graduation in 1948, Adams joined the British Civil Service, rising to the rank of Assistant Secretary to the Ministry of Housing and Local Government part of the Department of the Environment, he began to write his own stories in his spare time, reading them to his children and on, to his grandchildren. Adams began telling the story that would become Watership Down to his two daughters on a car trip, they insisted that he publish it as a book. He began taking two years to complete it. In 1972, after four publishers and three writers' agencies turned down the manuscript, Rex Collings agreed to publish the work; the book gained international acclaim immediately for reinvigorating anthropomorphic fiction with naturalism. Over the next few years Watership Down sold over a million copies worldwide. Adams won both of the most prestigious British children's book awards, one of six authors to do so: the Carnegie Medal and the Guardian Children's Fiction Prize.
In 1974, following publication of his second novel, Shardik, he left the Civil Service to become a full-time author. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 1975. At one point, Adams served as writer-in-residence at the University of Florida and at Hollins University in Virginia. Adams was the recipient of the inaugural Whitchurch Arts Award for inspiration in January 2010, presented at the Watership Down pub in Freefolk, Hampshire. In 2015 he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Winchester. In 1982, Adams served one year as president of the RSPCA. Besides campaigning against furs, Adams wrote The Plague Dogs to satirize animal experimentation, he made a voyage through the Antarctic in the company of the ornithologist Ronald Lockley. Just before his 90th birthday, he wrote a new story for a charity book, Gentle Footprints, to raise funds for the Born Free Foundation. Adams celebrated his 90th birthday in 2010 with a party at the White Hart in his hometown of Whitchurch, where Sir George Young presented him with a painting by a local artist.
Adams wrote a poetic piece celebrating his home of the past 28 years. Adams died on 24 December 2016 at the age of 96 in Oxford, England from complications of a blood disorder. In 1949, Adams married Elizabeth, daughter of R. A. F. Squadron-Leader Edward Fox Dyke Acland, son of the barrister and judge Sir Reginald Brodie Dyke Acland, whose father, the scientist Henry Wentworth Dyke Acland descended from the Acland baronets of Columb John; until his death, he lived with his wife within 10 miles of his birthplace. Their daughters, to whom Adams related the tales that became Watership Down, are Juliet and Rosamond. Watership Down ISBN 978-0-7432-7770-9 Shardik ISBN 978-0-380-00516-1 Nature Through the Seasons ISBN 978-0-7226-5007-3 The Tyger Voyage ISBN 978-0-394-40796-8 The Plague Dogs ISBN 978-0-345-49402-3 The Ship's Cat ISBN 978-0-394-42334-0 Nature Day and Night ISBN 0-7226-5359-X The Girl in a Swing ISBN 978-0-7139-1407-8 The Iron Wolf and Other Stories, published in the US as The Unbroken Web: Stories and Fables.
Color Illustrations by b & w illustrations by Jennifer Campbell. ISBN 978-0-517-40375-4 The Legend of Te Tuna, Sylvester & Orphanos, ISBN 978-0-283-99393-0 Voyage Through the Antarctic, Allen Lane ISBN 0-7139-1396-7 Maia ISBN 978-0-517-62993-2 A Nature Diary ISBN 0-670-80105-4, ISBN 978-0-670-80105-3 The Bureaucats ISBN 0-670-80120-8, ISBN 978-0-670-80120-6 Traveller ISBN 978-0-394-57055-6 The Day Gone By ISBN 978-0-679-40117-9 Tales from Watership Down ISBN 978-0-380-72934-0 The Outlandish Knight ISBN 978-0-7278-7033-9 Daniel ISBN 1-903110-37-8 "Leopard Aware" in Gentle Footprints ISBN 978-1-907335-04-4 Richard Adams at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Richard Adams at the Internet Book List Richard Adams at the Internet Book Database of Fiction Richard Adams on IMDb Works by or about Richard Adams in libraries Richard Adams at Wrecking Ball Press Richard Adams' Desert Island Discs appearance - 5 November 1977
Gloucester College, Oxford
Gloucester College, was a Benedictine institution of the University of Oxford in Oxford, from the late 13th century until the Dissolution of the monasteries in the 16th century. It was never a typical college of the University, in that there was an internal division in the College, by staircase units, into parts where the monasteries sending monks had effective authority; the overall head was a Prior. It became Gloucester Hall, an annexe of St John's College and was again refounded in 1714 as Worcester College by Sir Thomas Cookes; the initial foundation was from 1283. John Giffard gave a house, in Stockwell Street, Oxford. There was early friction with the local Carmelites; this was a donation to the Benedictines of the province of Canterbury. Control of the 13 places for monks fell to the abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester; the first prior was Henry de Heliun. Pope Benedict XII in 1337 laid down, in the bull Pastor bonus, that 5% of Benedictine monks should be university students, but from the middle of the fourteenth century onwards there was an alternative, at the University of Cambridge.
There were the Benedictine Durham College and Canterbury College, Oxford. Though the catchment area after 1337 included the Province of York, numbers of students were never high, one reason being the cost of living in Oxford. After the Black Death, Gloucester College was closed for a time. In 1537 it was found to have 32 students. At the Dissolution the property passed to the English Crown to the Bishop of Oxford in 1542, who sold it to Sir Thomas Whyte. Whyte was the founder of St John's College and Gloucester Hall, as it became, was treated as an Annexe to St John's College; the penultimate Principal of Gloucester Hall, Benjamin Woodruffe, established a'Greek College' for Greek Orthodox students to come to Oxford, part of a scheme to make ecumenical links with the Church of England. This was active from 1699 to 1705; the status of Gloucester Hall changed in the 18th century, when it was refounded in 1714 by Sir Thomas Cookes as Worcester College, Oxford. Oxford's Gloucester Green, opposite the old College, the Gloucester House building within the current college preserve the name.
1560–1561 William Stocke 1561–1563 Richard Eden 1563–1564 Thomas Palmer 1564–1576 William Stocke 1576–1580 Henry Russell 1580–1581 Christopher Bagshawe 1581–1593 John Delabere 1593–1626 John Hawley 1626–1647 Degory Wheare 1647–1647 John Maplett 1647–1660 Tobias Garbrand 1660–1662 John Maplett 1662–1692 Byrom Eaton 1692–1711 Benjamin Woodroffe 1712–1714 Richard Blechynden. Those who studied at the college and hall include: Henry Bradshaw Adam Easton John Feckenham John Lydgate Robert Catesby Kenelm Digby Richard Lovelace
Greek Orthodox Church
The name Greek Orthodox Church, or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and the New Testament, whose history and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire. Greek Orthodox Christianity has traditionally placed heavy emphasis and awarded high prestige to traditions of Eastern Orthodox monasticism and asceticism, with origins in Early Christianity in the Near East and in Byzantine Anatolia; the term "Greek Orthodox" has been used to describe all Eastern Orthodox Churches in general, since "Greek" in "Greek Orthodox" can refer to the heritage of the Byzantine Empire. During the first eight centuries of Christian history, most major intellectual and social developments in the Christian Church took place within the Empire or in the sphere of its influence, where the Greek language was spoken and used for most theological writings.
Over time, most parts of the liturgy and practices of the church of Constantinople were adopted by all, still provide the basic patterns of contemporary Orthodoxy. Thus, the Eastern Church came to be called "Greek" Orthodox in the same way that the Western Church is called "Roman" Catholic. However, the appellation "Greek" was abandoned by the Slavic and other Eastern Orthodox churches in connection with their peoples' national awakenings, from as early as the 10th century A. D. Thus, today it is only those churches that are most tied to Greek or Byzantine culture that are called "Greek Orthodox"; the Greek Orthodox churches are descended from churches which the Apostles founded in the Balkans and the Middle East during the first century A. D. and they maintain many traditions practiced in the ancient Church. Orthodox Churches, unlike the Catholic Church, have no single Supreme Pontiff, or Bishop, hold the belief that Christ is the head of the Church. However, they are each governed by a committee of Bishops, called the Holy Synod, with one central Bishop holding the honorary title of "first among equals".
Greek Orthodox Churches are united in communion with each other, as well as with the other Eastern Orthodox Churches. The Orthodox hold a common doctrine and a common form of worship, they see themselves not as separate Churches but as administrative units of one single Church, they are notable for their extensive tradition of iconography, for their veneration of the Mother of God and the Saints, for their use of the Divine Liturgy on Sundays, a standardized worship service dating back to the fourth century A. D. in its current form. The most used Divine Liturgy of the Orthodox Church was written by Saint John Chrysostom. Others are attributed to St. Basil the Great, St. James, the Brother of God and St. Gregory the Dialogist; the current territory of the Greek Orthodox Churches more or less covers the areas in the Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean that used to be a part of the Byzantine Empire. The majority of Greek Orthodox Christians live within Greece and elsewhere in the southern Balkans, but in Jordan, the Occupied Palestinian territories, Syria, Cyprus, European Turkey, the South Caucasus.
In addition, due to the large Greek diaspora, there are many Greek Orthodox Christians who live in North America and Australia. Orthodox Christians in Finland, who compose about 1% of the population, are under the jurisdiction of a Greek Orthodox Church. There are many Greek Orthodox Christians, with origins dating back to the Byzantine and Ottoman periods, who are of Arabic-speaking or mixed Greek and Arabic-speaking ancestry and live in southern Turkey, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon and Egypt, they attend churches which conduct their services in Arabic, the common language of most Greek Orthodox believers in the Levant, while at the same time maintaining elements of the Byzantine Greek cultural tradition. Ethnic Greeks in Russia and Greeks in Ukraine, as well as Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks from the former Russian Transcaucasus consider themselves both Greek Orthodox and Russian Orthodox, consistent with the Orthodox faith. Thus, they may attend services held in Old Russian and Old Church Slavonic, without this in any way undermining their Orthodox faith or distinct Greek ethnic identity.
Over the centuries, these Pontic Greek-speaking Greek Orthodox communities have mixed through intermarriage in varying degrees with ethnic Russians and other Orthodox Christians from Southern Russia, where most of them settled between the Middle Ages and early 19th century. The churches where the Greek Orthodox term is applicable are: The four ancient Patriarchates: The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, headed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, the "first among equals" of the Eastern Orthodox Communion The semi-autonomous Archdiocese of Crete The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy and Malta The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia The Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch The Greek Orthodox Church of JerusalemThe autonomous Church of Mount Sinai Three autocephalous churches: The Church of Greece The Church of Cyprus The Albanian Orthodox Church known as "Greek Orthodox Church of Alb
The Royal Institute of British Architects Stirling Prize is a British prize for excellence in architecture. It is named after the architect James Stirling and awarded annually by the Royal Institute of British Architects; the RIBA Stirling Prize is presented to "the architects of the building that has made the greatest contribution to the evolution of architecture in the past year." The architects must be RIBA members. Until 2014 the building could be anywhere in the European Union, but since 2015 has had to be in the UK. In the past the award has come with a £20,000 prize, but it carries no prize money; the award was founded in 1996, is considered to be the most prestigious architecture award in the United Kingdom. It is publicised as the architectural equivalent of the Booker Turner Prize; the Stirling Prize replaced the RIBA Building of the Year Award. The Stirling Prize is the highest profile architectural award in British culture, the presentation ceremony has been televised by Channel 4, it is sponsored by developer Almacantar.
Six shortlisted buildings are chosen from a long-list of buildings that have received a RIBA National Award. These awards are given to buildings showing "high architectural standards and substantial contribution to the local environment". In addition to the RIBA Stirling Prize, five other awards are given to buildings on the long-list. In 2015 they consist of: the RIBA National Award, the RIBA Regional Award, the Manser Medal, the Stephen Lawrence Prize and the RIBA Client of the Year Award. For years prior to 1996, the award was known as the "Building of the Year Award". In 2000, several architects from Scotland and Wales made claims of metropolitan bias after five out of seven designs shortlisted by judges were located within London. Critics described the list as "London-centric"; the chairman representing the judges in the contest dismissed the claims, noting that the first Stirling Prize was awarded to a building in Salford. As the "RIBA Building of the Year Award." 1987: St Oswald's Hospice, Newcastle upon Tyne 1988: Truro Crown Courts, Cornwall by Evans and Shalev 1989: Nelson Mandela Primary School, West Midlands by William Howland 1991: Woodlea Primary School, Lancashire 1993: Sackler Galleries, London 1994: Waterloo International railway station, London 1995: McAlpine Stadium, Huddersfield List of architecture prizes RIBA Stirling Prize Channel 4 - Building of the year
Worcestershire is a county in the West Midlands of England. Between 1974 and 1998, it was merged with the neighbouring county of Herefordshire as Hereford and Worcester; the cathedral city of Worcester is county town. Other major towns in the county include Bromsgrove, Evesham, Malvern and Stourport-on-Severn; the north-east of Worcestershire includes part of the industrial West Midlands. The county is divided into six administrative districts: Worcester, Wychavon, Malvern Hills, Wyre Forest, Bromsgrove; the county borders Herefordshire to the west, Shropshire to the north-west, Staffordshire only just to the north, West Midlands to the north and north-east, Warwickshire to the east and Gloucestershire to the south. The western border with Herefordshire includes a stretch along the top of the Malvern Hills. At the southern border with Gloucestershire Worcestershire meets the northern edge of the Cotswolds. Two major rivers flow through the county: the Avon; the geographical area now known as Worcestershire was first populated at least 700,000 years ago.
The area became predominantly agricultural in the Bronze Age, leading to population growth and more evidence of settlement. By the Iron Age, hill forts dominated the landscape. Settlement of these swiftly ended with the Roman occupation of Britain; the Roman period saw establishment of the villa system in the Vale of Evesham. Droitwich was the most important settlement in the county in this period, due to its product of salt. There is evidence for Roman settlement and industrial activity around Worcester and King's Norton. Worcestershire was the heartland of the early English kingdom of the Hwicce, it was absorbed by the Kingdom of Mercia during the 7th century and became part of the unified Kingdom of England in 927. It was a separate ealdormanship in the 10th century before forming part of the Earldom of Mercia in the 11th century. In the years leading up to the Norman conquest, the Church, supported by the cathedral, Evesham Abbey, Pershore Abbey, Malvern Priory, other religious houses dominated the county.
During the Middle Ages, much of the county's economy was based on the wool trade. Many areas of its dense forests, such as Feckenham Forest, Horewell Forest and Malvern Chase, were royal hunting grounds subject to forest law; the last known Anglo-Saxon sheriff of the county was Cyneweard of Laughern, the first Norman sheriff was Urse d'Abetot who built the castle of Worcester and seized much church land. On 4 August 1265, Simon de Montfort was killed in the Battle of Evesham in Worcestershire. In 1642, the Battle of Powick Bridge was the first major skirmish of the English Civil War; the county suffered from being on the Royalist front line, as it was subject to heavy taxation and the pressing of men into the Royalist army, which reduced its productive capacity. The northern part of the county, a centre of iron production, was important for military supplies. Parliamentarian raids and Royalist requisitioning both placed a great strain on the county. There were tensions from the participation of prominent Catholic recusants in the military and civilian organisation of the county.
Combined with the opposition to requisitioning from both sides, bands of Clubmen formed to keep the war away from their localities. The Battle of Worcester in 1651 ended the third civil war. There was little enthusiasm or local participation in the Scottish Royalist army, whose defeat was welcomed. Parliamentarian forces ransacked the city of Worcester, causing heavy damage and destruction of property. Around 10,000 Scottish prisoners were sent into forced labour in the New World or fen drainage schemes; the small bands of Scots that fled into Worcestershire's countryside were attacked by local forces and killed. In the 19th century, Worcester was a centre for the manufacture of gloves. Droitwich Spa, situated on large deposits of salt, was a centre of salt production from Roman times, with one of the principal Roman roads running through the town; these old industries have since declined. The county is home to the world's oldest continually published newspaper, the Berrow's Journal, established in 1690.
Malvern was one of the centres of the 19th century rise in English spa towns due to Malvern water being believed to be pure, containing "nothing at all". The 2011 census found the population of Worcestershire to be 566,169, an increase of 4.4% from the 2001 population of 542,107. Though the total number of people in every ethnic group increased between 2001 and 2011, the White British share of Worcestershire's population decreased from 95.5% to 92.4%, as did the share of white ethnic groups as whole, which went from 97.5% to 95.7%. While this change is in line with the nationwide trend of White British people's share of the population shrinking, Worcestershire is still much more ethnically homogeneous than the national average. In 2011 England as a whole was 79.8% White British, much lower than Worcestershire's figure of 92.4%. Local government in Worcestershire has changed several times since the middle of the 19th centiry. Worcestershire had several exclaves, which were areas of land cut off from the main geographical area of Worcestershire and surrounded by the nearby counties of Warwickshire, Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire.
The most notable were Dudley, th
Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county; the city is 51 miles from London, 61 miles from Bristol, 59 miles from Southampton, 57 miles from Birmingham and 24 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold. Oxford has a broad economic base, its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses, some being academic offshoots. Oxford was first settled in Anglo-Saxon times and was known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "ford of the oxen".
It began with the establishment of a river crossing for oxen around AD 900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. In 1002, many Danes were killed in Oxford during the England-wide St. Brice's Day massacre, a killing of Danes ordered by King Æthelred the Unready; the skeletons of more than 30 suspected victims were unearthed in 2008 during the course of building work at St John's College. The ‘massacre’ was a contributing factor to King Sweyn I of Denmark’s invasion of England in 1003 and the sacking of Oxford by the Danes in 1004. Oxford was damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert D'Oyly, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle to confirm Norman authority over the area; the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks.
The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Additionally, there is evidence of Jews living in the city as early as 1141, during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80–100; the city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142. In 1191, a city charter stated in Latin, "Be it known to all those present and future that we, the citizens of Oxford of the Commune of the City and of the Merchant Guild have given, by this, our present charter, confirm the donation of the island of Midney with all those things pertaining to it, to the Church of St. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place. Since, every year, at Michaelmas the said canons render half a mark of silver for their tenure at the time when we have ordered it as witnesses the legal deed of our ancestors which they made concerning the gift of this same island.
We have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this confirmation. Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom. Oxford's status as a liberty obtained from this period until the 19th century. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order. Parliaments were held in the city during the 13th century; the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort. Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were both born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events; the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall remains.
What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College and Merton; these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way; these colleges at Oxf