United States Marshals Service
The United States Marshals Service is a federal law enforcement agency within the U. S. Department of Justice, it is the oldest American federal law enforcement agency and was created by the Judiciary Act of 1789 during the presidency of George Washington as the Office of the United States Marshal. The USMS as it stands today was established in 1969 to provide guidance and assistance to Marshals throughout the federal judicial districts. USMS is an agency of the United States executive branch reporting to the United States Attorney General, but serves as the enforcement arm of the United States federal courts to ensure the effective operation of the judiciary and integrity of the Constitution; the Marshals Service is the primary agency for fugitive operations, the protection of officers of the Federal Judiciary, the management of criminal assets, the operation of the United States Federal Witness Protection Program and the Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System, as well as the execution of federal arrest warrants.
Throughout its history the Marshals have provided unique security and enforcement services including protecting African-American students enrolling in the South during the civil rights movement, escort security for United States Air Force LGM-30 Minuteman missile convoys, law enforcement for the United States Antarctic Program, protection of the Strategic National Stockpile. The office of United States Marshal was created by the First Congress. President George Washington signed the Judiciary Act into law on September 24, 1789; the Act provided that a United States Marshal's primary function was to execute all lawful warrants issued to him under the authority of the United States. The law defined marshals as officers of the courts charged with assisting Federal courts in their law-enforcement functions: And be it further enacted, That a marshal shall be appointed in and for each district for a term of four years, but shall be removable from office at pleasure, whose duty it shall be to attend the district and circuit courts when sitting therein, the Supreme Court in the district in which that court shall sit.
And to execute throughout the district, all lawful precepts directed to him, issued under the authority of the United States, he shall have the power to command all necessary assistance in the execution of his duty, to appoint as shall be occasion, one or more deputies. The critical Supreme Court decision affirming the legal authority of the federal marshals was made in In re Neagle, 135 U. S. 1. For over 100 years marshals were patronage jobs controlled by the district judge, they were paid by fees until a salary system was set up in 1896. Many of the first US Marshals had proven themselves in military service during the American Revolution. Among the first marshals were John Adams's son-in-law Congressman William Stephens Smith for the District of New York, another New York district marshal, Congressman Thomas Morris, Henry Dearborn for the district of Maine. From the nation's earliest days, marshals were permitted to recruit special deputies as local hires, or as temporary transfers to the Marshals Service from other federal law-enforcement agencies.
Marshals were authorized to swear in a posse to assist with manhunts, other duties, ad hoc. Marshals were given extensive authority to support the federal courts within their judicial districts, to carry out all lawful orders issued by federal judges, Congress, or the President. Federal marshals were by far the most important government officials in territorial jurisdictions. Local law enforcement officials were called "marshals" so there is an ambiguity whether someone was a federal or a local official. Federal marshals are most famous for their law enforcement work, but, only a minor part of their workload; the largest part of the business was paper work—serving writs, other processes issued by the courts, making arrests and handling all federal prisoners. They disbursed funds as ordered by the courts. Marshals paid the fees and expenses of the court clerks, U. S. Attorneys and witnesses, they rented the courtrooms and jail space, hired the bailiffs and janitors. They made sure the prisoners were present, the jurors were available, that the witnesses were on time.
The marshals thus provided local representation for the federal government within their districts. They took the national census every decade through 1870, they distributed presidential proclamations, collected a variety of statistical information on commerce and manufacturing, supplied the names of government employees for the national register, performed other routine tasks needed for the central government to function effectively. During the settlement of the American Frontier, marshals served as the main source of day-to-day law enforcement in areas that had no local government of their own. U. S. Marshals were instrumental in keeping order in the "Old West" era, they were involved in apprehending desperadoes such as Bill Doolin, Ned Christie, and, in 1893, the infamous Dalton Gang after a shoot-out that left Deputy Marshals Ham Hueston, Lafe Shadley, posse member Dick Speed, dead. Individual deputy marshals have been seen as legendary heroes in the face of rampant lawlessness with Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson, Dallas Stoudenmire, Bass Reeves as examples of well-known marshals.
Bill Tilghman, Heck Thomas, Chris Madsen formed a legendary law enforcement trio known as "The Three Guardsmen" when they worked together policing the vast, lawless Oklahoma and Indian Territories. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 tasked marshals to enforce the law and arrest fugitive slaves. Any negligence in doing so expo
Trail of Tears
The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Native Americans in the United States from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States, to areas to the west, designated as Indian Territory. The forced relocations were carried out by government authorities following the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830; the relocated peoples suffered from exposure and starvation while en route to their new designated reserve, many died before reaching their destinations. The forced removals included members of the Cherokee, Seminole and Choctaw nations, as well as their African slaves; the phrase "Trail of Tears" originates from a description of the removal of many Native American tribes, including the infamous Cherokee Nation relocation in 1838. Between 1830 and 1850, the Chickasaw, Creek and Cherokee people were forcibly removed from their traditional lands in the Southeastern United States, relocated farther west; those Native Americans who were relocated were forced to march to their destinations by state and local militias.
The Cherokee removal in 1838 was brought on by the discovery of gold near Dahlonega, Georgia in 1828, resulting in the Georgia Gold Rush. 2,000–8,000 of the 16,543 relocated Cherokee perished along the way. In 1830, a group of Indians collectively referred to as the Five Civilized Tribes were living as autonomous nations in what would be called the American Deep South; the process of cultural transformation, as proposed by George Washington and Henry Knox, was gaining momentum among the Cherokee and Choctaw. American settlers had been pressuring the federal government to remove Indians from the Southeast. Although the effort was vehemently opposed by some, including U. S. Congressman Davy Crockett of Tennessee, President Andrew Jackson was able to gain Congressional passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which authorized the government to extinguish Indian title to lands in the Southeast. In 1831, the Choctaw became the first Nation to be removed, their removal served as the model for all future relocations.
After two wars, many Seminoles were removed in 1832. The Creek removal followed in 1834, the Chickasaw in 1837, lastly the Cherokee in 1838; some managed to evade the removals and remained in their ancestral homelands. A small group of Seminole, fewer than 500, evaded forced removal. A small number of non-Native Americans who lived with the tribes, including some of African descent accompanied the Indians on the trek westward. By 1837, 46,000 Indians from the southeastern states had been removed from their homelands, thereby opening 25 million acres for predominantly European settlement. Prior to 1838, the fixed boundaries of these autonomous tribal nations, comprising large areas of the United States, were subject to continual cession and annexation, in part due to pressure from squatters and the threat of military force in the newly declared U. S. territories—federally administered regions whose boundaries supervened upon the Native treaty claims. As these territories became U. S. states, state governments sought to dissolve the boundaries of the Indian nations within their borders, which were independent of state jurisdiction, to expropriate the land therein.
These pressures were exacerbated by U. S. population growth and the expansion of slavery in the South, with the rapid development of cotton cultivation in the uplands following the invention of the cotton gin. Andrew Jackson's support for removal of Native Americans began at least a decade before his presidency. Indian removal was Jackson's top legislative priority upon taking office; the removals, conducted under both Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, followed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which provided the president with powers to exchange land with Native tribes and provide infrastructure improvements on the existing lands. The law gave the president power to pay for transportation costs to the West, should tribes choose to relocate; the law did not, allow the president to force tribes to move west without a mutually agreed-upon treaty. Referring to the Indian Removal Act, Martin Van Buren, Jackson's vice president and successor is quoted as saying "There was no measure, in the whole course of administration, of which he was more the author than this."In the years following the Act, the Cherokee filed several lawsuits regarding conflicts with the state of Georgia.
Some of these cases reached the most influential being Worcester v. Georgia. Samuel Worcester and other non-Indians were convicted by Georgia law for residing in Cherokee territory in the state of Georgia without a license. Worcester was sentenced to prison for four years and appealed the ruling, arguing that this sentence violated treaties made between Indian nations and the United States federal government by imposing state laws on Cherokee lands; the Court ruled in Worcester's favor, declaring that the Cherokee Nation was subject only to federal law and that the Supremacy Clause barred legislative interference by the state of Georgia. Chief Justice Marshall argued, "The Cherokee nation
New Georgia Encyclopedia
The New Georgia Encyclopedia is a web-based encyclopedia containing over 2,000 articles about the state of Georgia. It is a program of Georgia Humanities, in partnership with the University of Georgia Press, the University System of Georgia/Georgia Library Learning Online, the Office of the Governor; the NGE was launched in 2004. It was the first state encyclopedia to be conceived and designed for publication online; the idea for the project grew out of the 1996 joint publication of The New Georgia Guide by the Georgia Humanities Council and the University of Georgia Press. The guide, itself a spiritual successor to the New Deal-era American Guide Series, was a literary success. Georgia Humanities and UGA Press convinced Governor Zell Miller, who commissioned the guide in the first place, to fund the planning and development of a comprehensive print and online state encyclopedia; the name "New Georgia Encyclopedia" was chosen as an homage to the New Georgia Guide and as a reference to the new online medium.
As the project developed, plans for a print volume of the encyclopedia fell through. The planning committee argued that the increased receptiveness to change offered by the online medium would obviate a printed volume, they stressed that the proposed online-only encyclopedia would abide by the authoritative editorial standards of a print encyclopedia. Georgia Library Learning Online, a web portal to hundreds of subscription-only databases meant for Georgian libraries and schools, joined UGA Press and GH in fall 1998 as a project partner. GALILEO hosts the NGE website today. Unlike other state and regional encyclopedias, the project partners and editorial staff believed that the NGE should cover a wide range of subjects, instead of only history and culture. Today, the NGE separates its articles into 10 topics: Arts and Culture and Economy, Counties and Neighborhoods, Education and Environment, Government and Politics and Archaeology, Science and Medicine and Outdoor Recreation, People. Just under 800 writers contributed to the NGE.
The site received 1-2 million page views a month at the beginning of January 2011. The site was redesigned in 2013. Site improvements included updated media players and a search engine for articles compliant with Georgia Educational Standards. List of online encyclopedias New Georgia Encyclopedia Georgia Humanities Council
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803; the concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War, the policy of the government was one of assimilation; the term Indian Reserve describes lands the British government set aside for indigenous tribes between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River in the time before the American Revolutionary War. Indian Territory came to refer to an unorganized territory whose general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834, was the successor to the remainder of the Missouri Territory after Missouri received statehood; the borders of Indian Territory were reduced in size as various Organic Acts were passed by Congress to create incorporated territories of the United States.
The 1907 Oklahoma Enabling Act created the single state of Oklahoma by combining Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory, ending the existence of an Indian Territory. Indian Territory known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land within the United States of America reserved for the forced re-settlement of Native Americans. Therefore, it was not a traditional territory for the tribes settled upon it; the general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. The territory was located in the Central United States. While Congress passed several Organic Acts that provided a path for statehood for much of the original Indian Country, Congress never passed an Organic Act for the Indian Territory. Indian Territory was never an organized incorporated territory of the United States. In general, tribes could not sell land to non-Indians. Treaties with the tribes restricted entry of non-Indians into tribal areas; the region never had a formal government until after the American Civil War.
After the Civil War, the Southern Treaty Commission re-wrote treaties with tribes that sided with the Confederacy, reducing the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes and providing land to resettle Plains Indians and tribes of the Midwestern United States. These re-written treaties included provisions for a territorial legislature with proportional representation from various tribes. In time, the Indian Territory was reduced to; the Organic Act of 1890 reduced Indian Territory to the lands occupied by the Five Civilized Tribes and the Tribes of the Quapaw Indian Agency. The remaining western portion of the former Indian Territory became the Oklahoma Territory; the Oklahoma organic act applied the laws of Nebraska to the incorporated territory of Oklahoma Territory, the laws of Arkansas to the still unincorporated Indian Territory. The concept of an Indian territory is the successor to the British Indian Reserve, a British North American territory established by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 that set aside land for use by the Native American people.
The proclamation limited the settlement of Europeans to Crown-claimed lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. The territory remained active until the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War, land was ceded to the United States; the British administration reduced the land area of the Indian Reserve – the United States further reduced it after the American Revolutionary War – until it included only lands west of the Mississippi River. At the time of the American Revolution, many Native American tribes had long-standing relationships with British who were loyal to the British Empire, but they had a less-developed relationship with the Empire's colonists-turned-rebels. After the defeat of the British, the Americans twice invaded the Ohio Country and were twice defeated, they defeated the Indian Western Confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 and imposed the Treaty of Greenville, which ceded most of what is now Ohio, part of present-day Indiana, the lands that include present-day Chicago and Detroit, to the United States federal government.
The period after the American Revolutionary War was one of rapid western expansion. The areas occupied by Native Americans in the United States were called Indian country, not an unorganized territory, as the areas were established by treaty. In 1803 the United States of America agreed to purchase France's claim to French Louisiana for a total of $15 million. President Thomas Jefferson doubted the legality of the purchase. However, the chief negotiator, Robert R. Livingston believed that the 3rd article of the treaty providing for the Louisiana Purchase would be acceptable to Congress; the 3rd article stated, in part: the inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States, admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights and immunities of citizens of the United States. Which committed the US government to "the ultimate, but not to the immediate, admission" of the territory as multiple states, "postponed its incorporation into the Union t
Cherokee removal, part of the Trail of Tears, refers to the forced relocation between 1836 and 1839 of the Cherokee Nation from their lands in Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama to the Indian Territory in the Western United States, the resultant deaths along the way and at the end of the movement of an estimated 4,000 Cherokee. The Cherokee have come to call the event Nu na da ul tsun yi. Removal actions occurred to other American Indian groups in the American South, Midwest and the Plains regions; the Chickasaw, Choctaw and were removed reluctantly. The Seminole in Florida responded to removal by the United States Army for decades with guerrilla warfare, part of the intermittent Native American Wars that lasted from 1540 to 1924; some Seminole remained in their Florida home country, while others were transported to Native American Territory in shackles. The phrase "Trail of Tears" is used to refer to similar events endured by other Indian groups among the "Five Civilized Tribes".
The phrase originated as a description of the voluntary removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831. In the fall of 1835, a census was taken by civilian officials of the US War Department to enumerate Cherokee residing in Alabama, North Carolina, Tennessee, with a count of 16,542 Cherokee, 201 inter-married whites, 1592 slaves. Tensions between the indigenous Cherokee and white settlers developed over ownership of the land rich in gold deposits and fertile soil that could be used for farming cotton. In October of that year, Principal Chief John Ross and an Eastern visitor, John Howard Payne, were kidnapped from Ross' Tennessee home by a renegade group of the Georgia militia. Released, Ross and a delegation of tribal leaders traveled to Washington, DC to protest this high-handed action, to lobby against the removal policy of President Andrew Jackson. In an effort to reach an agreeable compromise Principal Chief John Ross met with President Jackson to discuss the possibility that Cherokee might give up some of their land for money and land to the west of the Mississippi River.
Jackson turned this deal down resulting in Ross suggesting $20 million as a base for negotiating the sale of the land and agreeing to let the US Senate decide the sale price. John Ross estimated the value of Cherokee Land at $7.23 million. A conservative estimate by Matthew T. Gregg in 2009 puts Cherokee's land value for the 1838 market at $7,055,469.70, more than $2 million over the $5 million the senate agreed to pay. In this power vacuum, U. S. Agent John F. Schermerhorn gathered a group of dissident Cherokee in the home of Elias Boudinot at the tribal capital, New Echota, Georgia. There on December 29, 1835, this rump group signed the unauthorized Treaty of New Echota, which exchanged Cherokee land in the East for lands west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory; this agreement was never accepted by the elected tribal leadership or a majority of the Cherokee people. In February 1836, two councils convened at Red Clay, Tennessee and at Valley Town, North Carolina and produced two lists totaling some 13,000 names written in the Sequoyah writing script of Cherokee opposed to the Treaty.
The lists were presented by Chief Ross to Congress. A modified version of the treaty was ratified by the U. S. Senate by a single vote on May 23, 1836, signed into law by President Jackson; the treaty provided a grace period until May 1838 for the tribe to voluntarily remove themselves to Indian Territory. Until widespread use of the cotton gin, short-staple cotton had been such an arduous crop to grow and process because of the time-consuming process of removing the sticky seeds from each of the individual boles of cotton; this process took so long. The increased ease of cotton production due to access to the Cotton Gin, invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney, which used teeth to comb through the fluffy fibers and remove all of the seeds in a much more efficient manner, led to a major rise in the production of cotton in the south near North Carolina and Georgia. Production increased from 750,000 bales in 1830 to 2.85 million bales in 1850, earning the south the nickname King Cotton for its success.
Matthew T. Gregg writes that "According to the 1835 Cherokee census enumerators, 1,707,900 acres in the Cherokee Nation in Georgia were tillable." This land was valuable farming land, with the ideal climate and the necessary 200 frost-free days for growing cotton, would have been crucial in supporting the cotton industry's monumental growth, as would have increased ease of transportation due to railroads. The Cherokee Indians grew small family farms and only planted what was needed to survive alongside hunting and gathering. Some, heeded Silas Dinsmoor's advice, they took advantage of the growing demand for cotton and began to farm it themselves, asking for cotton cards, cotton gins, spinning wheels from the United States Government. As immigration increased throughout the 1820s and 1830s, by 1850 2.6 million people immigrated to the United States, the government saw that the land could be used for more than just small family crops and could provide a source of income for the farmers immigrating to the south and needing farmable land.
The Cherokees that did farm cotton in excess for selling became a threat to the settlers that were hoping to capitalize on the cotton industry by taking away not only valuable farm land but
Milledgeville is a city in and the county seat of Baldwin County in the U. S. state of Georgia. It is northeast of Macon and bordered on the east by the Oconee River; the rapid current of the river here made this an attractive location to build a city. It was the capital of Georgia from 1804 to 1868, notably during the American Civil War. Milledgeville was preceded as the capital city by Louisville and was succeeded by Atlanta, the current capital. Today U. S. Highway 441 connects Milledgeville to Madison and Dublin; the population of the town of Milledgeville was 17,715 at the 2010 census. Milledgeville is along the route of the Fall Line Freeway, under construction to link Milledgeville with Augusta, Macon and other Fall Line cities, they have long histories from the colonial era of Georgia. Milledgeville is the principal city of the Milledgeville Micropolitan Statistical Area, a micropolitan area that includes Baldwin and Hancock counties, it had a combined population of 54,776 at the 2000 census.
The Old State Capitol is located here. Much of the original city is contained within the boundaries of the Milledgeville Historic District, added to the NRHP. Milledgeville, named after Georgia governor John Milledge, was founded by European Americans at the start of the 19th century as the new centrally located capital of the state of Georgia, it served as the state capital from 1804 to 1868. In 1803 an act of the Georgia legislature called for the establishment and survey of a town to be named in honor of the current governor, John Milledge; the Treaty of Fort Wilkinson had forced Native American tribes to cede territory west of the Oconee River. The white population of Georgia continued to press south in search of new farmland; the town of Milledgeville was developed in an area that had long been occupied by indigenous peoples. In December 1804 the state legislature declared Milledgeville the new capital of Georgia; the new planned town, modeled after Savannah and Washington, D. C. stood on the edge of the frontier at the Atlantic fall line, where the Upper Coastal Plain meets the foothills and plateau of the Piedmont.
The area was surveyed, a town plat of 500 acres was divided into 84 4-acre squares. The survey included four public squares of 20 acres each. After 1815 Milledgeville became prosperous and more respectable. Wealth and power gravitated toward the capital. Much of the surrounding countryside was developed by slave labor for cotton plantations, the major commodity crop of the South. Cotton bales were set up to line the roads, waiting to be shipped downriver to Darien. Public-spirited citizens such as Tomlinson Fort promoted better newspapers, learning academies, banks. In 1837-1842 the Georgia Lunatic Asylum was built here. Oglethorpe University, where the poet Sidney Lanier was educated, opened its doors in 1838; the cotton boom in this upland area increased the demand for slave labor. The town market, where slave auctions took place, was located on Capital Square, next to the Presbyterian church. Skilled black carpenters and laborers were forced to construct most of the handsome antebellum structures in Milledgeville.
Two events epitomized Milledgeville's status as the political and social center of Georgia in this period: In 1825 the capital was visited by American Revolutionary War hero and aristocrat, the Marquis de Lafayette. The receptions, formal dinner, grand ball for the veteran apostle of liberty seemed to mark Milledgeville's coming of age; the Governor's Mansion was constructed. By 1854 Baldwin County had a total population of 8148, of whom 3566 were free, 4602 were African-American slaves. On January 19, 1861, Georgia convention delegates passed the Ordinance of Secession, on February 4, 1861, the "Republic of Georgia" joined the Confederate States of America. In the closing months of the war, in November 1864 Union general William T. Sherman and 30,000 Union troops marched into Milledgeville during his March to the Sea. Before leaving a couple of days they had poured sorghum and molasses down the pipes of the organ at St. Stephen's Episcopal Church. In 1868, during Reconstruction, the state legislature moved the capital to Atlanta—a city emerging as the symbol of the New South as as Milledgeville symbolized the Old South.
Milledgeville struggled to survive as a city after losing the business of the capital. The energetic efforts of local leaders established the Middle Georgia Military and Agricultural College in 1879 on Statehouse Square. Where the crumbling remains of the old penitentiary stood, Georgia Normal and Industrial College was founded in 1889. In part because of these institutions, as well as Central State Hospital, Milledgeville developed as a less provincial town than many of its neighbors. In the 1950s the Georgia Power Company completed a dam at Furman Shoals on the Oconee River, about 5 miles north of town, creating a huge reservoir called Lake Sinclair; the lake community became an important part of the town's social and economic identity. In the 1980s and 1990s Milledgeville began to capitalize on its heritage by revitalizing the downtown and historic district, it encouraged restoration of historic buildings and an urban design scheme on Main Street to emphasi
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as