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WordPerfect is a word processing application, now owned by Corel, with a long history on multiple personal computer platforms. At the height of its popularity in the 1980s and early 1990s, it was the dominant player in the word-processor market, it was developed under contract at Brigham Young University for use on a Data General minicomputer in the late 1970s. The authors retained the rights to the program, forming Utah-based Satellite Software International in 1979 to sell it, it moved to the operating system MS-DOS in 1982, by which time the name WordPerfect was in use, several updated versions followed. The application's feature list was more advanced than its main competition WordStar, an established program based on the operating system CP/M that failed to transition onto MS-DOS, which replaced CP/M. Satellite Software International changed its name to the WordPerfect Corporation in 1985. WordPerfect gained praise for its "look of sparseness" and clean display, it displaced most other systems after the 4.2 release in 1986, it became the standard in the DOS market by version 5.1 in 1989.

Its early popularity was based on its availability for a wide variety of computers and operating systems, partly because of extensive, no-cost support, with "hold jockeys" entertaining users while waiting on the phone. Its dominant position ended after a failed release for Microsoft Windows, followed by a long delay before introducing an improved version, Microsoft Word was introduced at the same time in a superior version. Word took over the market, helped by aggressive bundling deals that produced Microsoft Office, WordPerfect was no longer the standard by the mid-1990s. WordPerfect Corporation was sold to Novell in 1994, which sold the product to Corel in 1996. Corel has made regular releases to the product since often in the form of office suites under the WordPerfect name that include the Quattro Pro spreadsheet, Presentations slides formatter, other applications; the common filename extension of WordPerfect document files is.wpd. Older versions of WordPerfect used file extensions.wp.wp7.wp6.wp5.wp4, no extension at all.

In 1979, Brigham Young University graduate student Bruce Bastian and computer science professor Alan Ashton created word processing software for a Data General minicomputer system owned by the city of Orem, Utah. Bastian and Ashton retained ownership of the software, they founded Satellite Software International, Inc. to market the program to other Data General users. WordPerfect 1.0 represented a significant departure from the previous Wang standard for word processing. The first version of WordPerfect for the IBM PC was released the day after Thanksgiving in 1982, it was sold as WordPerfect 2.20. Over the next several months, three more minor releases arrived to correct bugs; the developers had hoped to program WordPerfect in C, but at this early stage there were no C compilers available for the IBM PC and they had to program it in x86 assembly language. All versions of WordPerfect up to 5.0 were written in x86, C was only adopted with WP 5.1 when it became necessary to convert it to non-IBM compatible computers.

The use of straight assembly language and a high amount of direct screen access gave WordPerfect a significant performance advantage over WordStar, which used DOS API functions for all screen and keyboard access and was very slow. In addition, WordStar, created for the CP/M operating system in which subdirectories are not supported, was slow in switching to support sub-directories in MS-DOS. In 1983, WordPerfect 3.0 was released for DOS. This was updated to support DOS 2.x, sub-directories, hard disks. It expanded printer support, where WordPerfect 2.x only supported Epson and Diablo printers that were hard-coded into the main program. Adding support for additional printers this way was impractical, so the company introduced printer drivers, a file containing a list of control codes for each model of printer. Version 3.0 had support for 50 different printers, this was expanded to 100 within a year. WordPerfect supplied an editor utility that allowed users to make their own printer drivers or to modify the included ones.

Antic magazine observed that "WordPerfect is unusable without its manual of over 600 pages!" A version of WordPerfect 3.0 became the Editor program of WordPerfect Office. WordPerfect 4.0 was released in 1984. WordPerfect 4.2, released in 1988, introduced automatic paragraph numbering, important to law offices, automatic numbering and placement of footnotes and endnotes that were important to law offices and academics. It became the first program to overtake the original market leader WordStar in a major application category on the DOS platform. By 1987, Compute! magazine described WordPerfect as "a standard in the MS-DOS world" and "a powerhouse program that includes everything". In November 1989, WordPerfect Corporation released the program's most successful version WordPerfect 5.1 for DOS, the first version to include pull-down menus to supplement the traditional function key combinations, support for tables, a spreadsheet-like feature, full support for typesetting options such as italic and strike-through.

This version included "print preview", a graphical representation of the final printed output that became the foundation for WordPerfect 6.0's graphic screen editing. WordPerfect 5.1+ for DOS was introduced to allow older DOS-based PCs to utilize the new WordPerfect 6 file format. This version could read and wr

Classical-map hypernetted-chain method

The classical-map hypernetted-chain method is a method used in many-body theoretical physics for interacting uniform electron liquids in two and three dimensions, for non-ideal plasmas. The method extends the famous hypernetted-chain method introduced by J. M. J van Leeuwen et al. to quantum fluids as well. The classical HNC, together with the Percus–Yevick approximation, are the two pillars which bear the brunt of most calculations in the theory of interacting classical fluids. HNC and PY have become important in providing basic reference schemes in the theory of fluids, hence they are of great importance to the physics of many-particle systems; the HNC and PY integral equations provide the pair distribution functions of the particles in a classical fluid for high coupling strengths. The coupling strength is measured by the ratio of the potential energy to the kinetic energy. In a classical fluid, the kinetic energy is proportional to the temperature. In a quantum fluid, the situation is complicated as one needs to deal with quantum operators, matrix elements of such operators, which appear in various perturbation methods based on Feynman diagrams.

The CHNC method provides an approximate "escape" from these difficulties, applies to regimes beyond perturbation theory. In Robert B. Laughlin's famous Nobel Laureate work on the fractional quantum Hall effect, an HNC equation was used within a classical plasma analogy. In the CHNC method, the pair-distributions of the interacting particles are calculated using a mapping which ensures that the quantum mechanically correct non-interacting pair distribution function is recovered when the Coulomb interactions are switched off; the value of the method lies in its ability to calculate the interacting pair distribution functions g at zero and finite temperatures. Comparison of the calculated g with results from Quantum Monte Carlo show remarkable agreement for strongly correlated systems; the interacting pair-distribution functions obtained from CHNC have been used to calculate the exchange-correlation energies, Landau parameters of Fermi liquids and other quantities of interest in many-body physics and density functional theory, as well as in the theory of hot plasmas.

Fermi liquid Many-body theory Quantum fluid Radial distribution function C. Bulutay. Tanatar. "Spin-dependent analysis of two-dimensional electron liquids". Physical Review B. 65: 195116. Bibcode:2002PhRvB..65s5116B. Doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.65.195116. Hdl:11693/24708. M. W. C. Dharma-wardana. "Equation of state and the Hugoniot of laser shock-compressed deuterium: Demonstration of a basis-function-free method for quantum calculations". Physical Review B. 66: 014110. ArXiv:cond-mat/0112324. Bibcode:2002PhRvB..66a4110D. Doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.66.014110. N. Q. Khanh. "Electron correlation in two-dimensional systems: CHNC approach to finite-temperature and spin-polarization effects". Solid State Communications. 129: 37–42. Bibcode:2004SSCom.129...37K. Doi:10.1016/j.ssc.2003.09.010. M. W. C. Dharma-wardana. "Spin and temperature dependent study of exchange and correlation in thick two-dimensional electron layers". Physical Review B. 72: 125339. ArXiv:cond-mat/0506804. Bibcode:2005PhRvB..72l5339D. Doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.72.125339

Siege of Tory Island

The Siege of Tory Island took place in 1608 during O'Doherty's Rebellion when some of the remaining rebels made a last stand against Crown forces on Tory Island off the northern coast of Ireland. Following their defeat at the Battle of Kilmacrennan, where their leader Sir Cahir O'Doherty had been killed, a group of survivors withdrew to Tory Island, pursued there by Sir Henry Folliott, the Governor of Ballyshannon; the rebels took shelter in the castle on the island but it became obvious they could not hold out for long. To avail himself of a device known as "Pelham's Pardon", the Constable of the castle, Sir Mulmory McSweeney, began to kill his fellow defenders intending to hand their severed heads over to the enemy, he killed three, before he was cut to pieces. His own killer was in turn cut down; some of the survivors of the massacre were pardoned. Some of the family that were pardoned changed their names. For example, they could have changed it to O'Docharty or O'Darty. There are over 20 variations.

Bardon, Jonathan. The Plantation of Ulster. Gill & MacMillan, 2012. Connolly, S. J. Contested Island: Ireland 1460-1630. Oxford University Press, 2009. Lenihan, Padraig. Consolidating Conquest: Ireland 1603-1727. Routledge, 2014. McCavitt, John; the Flight of the Earls. Gill & MacMillan, 2002

Denis Olegov

Denis Olegov is a Bulgarian writer and journalist from Russian descent. Olegov has authored four books with poems and prose so far; the most recent is "The Wheel Of History". He is working as a news reporter in the Bulgarian radio Gama. Denis Olegov Molodtsov was born on 9 February 1998 in Bulgaria. At the age of 13 he began writing poems, his early works were published in the online page "Street of dreams~". Furthermore Olegov published his poems in some Bulgarian websites under the pseudonym "Akinfa". In April 2014 Olegov released his first book, titled "Rimodraskanici". Which is the name of the author's Facebook page; that year he published his second work "The Division Of A Soul". In 2015 Olegov began working for The Bulgarian television Eurocom Sofia, where he gave commentary on some football matches from Campeonato Brasileiro Série A alongside Stanimir Bakalov, Boyko Kotev and Kristian Krasteva. At the same time he was a reporter for Eurocom's sports show Ultrasport. Olegov has publications in Bulgarian websites Fanface and Kafene.

In July 2015 the author received his first award for his poem "Roots", given to him for winning the poetic competition"Against the wind". In November 2015 Olegov was awarded with second place at the contest "Unknown streets"; some of Olegov's works were published in the online compilation of Bulgarian literature "Manu prophia". In the beginning of 2016 Olegov's poem "Love writing" took first place at the contest "Golden Yavor" in the category "under 20 y.o" On the 13th of January 2016 the author's third book "Iced Ember" was released. The book's cover was done by his classmate Viara Stefcheva. Olegov started his own blog, called "Olegovism". In 2017 Olegov switched to social poetry and had numerous publications in the online magazine "New social poetry". In March 2017 Denis's first book of poetry and prose - "The Wheel Of History". Poems "Moonlight poem" and "Amphibious life" received awards on contests "Young poet - Kostinbrod" and "Wish for developing creation" In 2017-2018 Olegov published several works in "New asocial poetry" and "Literature world".

In June 2018 he was awarded on "Sky meridians" contest in Israel. Denis Olegov is the co-founder of the readers' club "Beyond The Covers". "Rimodraskanici" "The split of the soul" "Ice and fire" "The wheel of the history" "Manu propria vol. 3" "Black mirror" Olegovism Facebook page Goodreads profile profile

Kim Wimmer

Kimberly Marie "Kim" Wimmer is an American actress and educator from Mobile, crowned Miss Alabama 1992. She won the pageant's Quality of Life Award, she co-starred in the Comedy Central series Strip Mall. As an actress, Wimmer has appeared on screen, she began her acting career working in Disney shows in Florida, New York and California. She appeared off-Broadway in Mr. Pimm Passes By as well as at regional theaters around the country, including Yale Rep and Indiana Rep, she is best known for her co-starring role as "Elyce Cantwell" in the Comedy Central sitcom Strip Mall for two seasons from 2000 through 2001 and her role in the 1999 comedy film Lucid Days in Hell. She has made guest appearances on American television series including NCIS, Power Rangers Lost Galaxy, Silk Stalkings, Touched by an Angel; as lead singer of her band, she was a performer-in-residence at both the Bellagio and the Mirage in Las Vegas. Wimmer teaches acting and serves as chair of the theatre department at The Young Americans College of the Performing Arts in Southern California.

She is a certified NLP practitioner. While a student at Baker High School, in Mobile County, Wimmer was chosen as Alabama's Junior Miss for 1989; the win earned her $11,000 in scholarship money plus a $1,000 cash prize as the scholastic achievement winner. Wimmer won the Miss Leeds Area 1991 title, competing unsuccessfully in the 1991 Miss Alabama pageant. Wimmer was crowned Miss Point Mallard in July 1991 which made her eligible to compete at the June 1992 Miss Alabama pageant. Entering the state pageant as one of 45 finalists, Wimmer's preliminary competition talent for Miss Alabama was singing "Hold On" from the musical The Secret Garden, her platform involved educating homeless youth in the Birmingham, area. Wimmer won the competition on Saturday, June 20, 1992, when she received her crown from outgoing Miss Alabama titleholder Wendy Neuendorf, she became the first Mobile, resident to win the state title since Yolande Betbeze won it in 1950. Wimmer was Alabama's representative at the Miss America 1993 pageant in Atlantic City, New Jersey, in September 1992.

Her competition talent was singing. She was not one of the finalists for the national title but she did win the Quality of Life Award and a $10,000 scholarship for her community service efforts; as Miss Alabama, her activities included public appearances across the state of Alabama, including pageant hosting, autograph signings, speaking engagements with school and civic groups. She was included in two trading card sets produced by Cypher Entertainment in 1992; the first set celebrated the winners of each of the 50 state pageants in the Miss America system. The second detailed the Miss America 1993 pageant and Wimmer appeared on multiple cards, her reign as Miss Alabama continued until Kalyn Chapman was crowned on June 19, 1993. Wimmer is a native of Mobile and graduated from Baker High School in 1989, she earned a bachelor's degree in musical theater with a minor in psychology, graduating cum laude from Birmingham–Southern College in August 1993. As of 2015, she is a graduate student at The University of Pennsylvania in the Master of Applied Positive Psychology program.

She married actor Mark Totty on June 8, 2002. They reside in California. Kim Wimmer on IMDb Kim Wimmer on Facebook Miss Alabama official website

List of butterflies of the Western Ghats

This is a list of butterfly species found in the Western Ghats region. This region is a biodiversity hotspot and about 334 species of butterflies have been recorded. Papilionidae—swallowtail butterflies Pieridae—yellow-white butterflies Nymphalidae—brush-footed butterflies Riodinidae—metalmark butterflies Lycaenidae—blues and gossamer-winged butterflies Hesperiidae—skipper butterflies Spot swordtail, Pathysa nomius Fivebar swordtail, Pathysa antiphates Common jay, Graphium doson Tailed jay, Graphium agamemnon Common bluebottle, Graphium sarpedon Common rose, Pachliopta aristolochiae Crimson rose, Pachliopta hector Malabar rose, Pachliopta pandiyana Southern birdwing, Troides minos Common mime, Papilio clytia, Linnaeus, 1758 Malabar banded swallowtail, Papilio liomedon Blue Mormon, Papilio polymnestor Red Helen, Papilio helenus Common Mormon, Papilio polytes Malabar raven, Papilio dravidarum Lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Common banded peacock, Papilio crino Malabar banded peacock, Papilio buddha Paris peacock, Papilio paris Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Linnaeus, 1768 Pioneer, Anaphaeis aurota Fabricius, 1793 Common gull, Cepora nerissa Fabricius, 1775 Lesser gull, Cepora nadina Lucas, 1852 White orange tip, Ixias marianne Cramer, 1779 Yellow orange tip, Ixias pyrene Linnaeus, 1764 Common Jezebel, Delias eucharis Drury, 1773 Painted sawtooth, Prioneris sita C.

Felder, 1865 Spot puffin, Appias lalage Plain puffin, Appias indra Moore, 1857 Striped albatross, Appias libythea Fabricius, 1775 Chocolate albatross, Appias lyncida Cramer, 1777 Common albatross, Appias albina Felder Lesser albatross, Appias wardii Psyche, Leptosia nina Fabricius, 1793 Great orange tip, Hebomoia glaucippe Linnaeus, 1758 Small salmon Arab, Colotis amata Fabricius, 1775 Blue-spotted Arab, Colotis phisadia White Arab, Colotis vestalis Large salmon Arab, Colotis fausta Small orange-tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval, 1836 Plain orange-tip, Colotis aurora Crimson-tip, Colotis danae Dark wanderer, Pareronia ceylanica Common wanderer, Pareronia valeria Common emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius, 1775 Mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Latreille, 1758 Small grass yellow, Eurema brigitta Cramer, 1780 Spotless grass yellow, Eurema laeta Boisduval, 1836 One-spot grass yellow, Eurema andersonii Moore Common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, 1758 Three-spot grass yellow, Eurema blanda Boisduval, 1836 Nilgiri grass yellow, Eurema nilgiriensis Nilgiri clouded yellow, Colias nilgiriensis Lobed beak, Libythea laius Club beak, Libythea myrrha, Glassy tiger, Parantica aglea Nilgiri tiger, Parantica nilgiriensis Dark blue tiger, Tirumala septentrionis Blue tiger, Tirumala limniace Cramer, 1775 Plain tiger, Danaus chrysippus Linnaeus, 1758 Common or striped tiger, Danaus genutia Cramer, 1779 Common Indian crow, Euploea core Double-branded crow, Euploea sylvester Blue king crow, Euploea klugii Moore, 1858 Malabar tree nymph, Idea malabarica Moore, 1877 Tawny rajah, Charaxes bernardus Black rajah, Charaxes solon Blue nawab, Polyura schreiberi Common nawab, Polyura athamas Anomalous common nawab, Polyura agraria Southern duffer, Discophora lepida Palmking, Amathusia phidippus Linnaeus, 1763 Whitebar bushbrown, Mycalesis anaxias Hewitson, 1862 Small longbrand bushbrown, Mycalesis igilia Fruhstorfer, 1909 Long-brand bushbrown, Mycalesis visala Moore, 1858 Palebrand bushbrown, Mycalesis khasia Evans, 1920 Redeye bushbrown, Mycalesis adolphei Palni bushbrown, Mycalesis mamerata davisoni Red-disc bushbrown, Mycalesis oculus Marshall, 1880 Gladeye bushbrown, Mycalesis patnia Moore, 1857 Tamil bushbrown, Mycalesis subdita Moore Common bushbrown, Mycalesis perseus Dark branded bushbrown, Mycalesis mineus Common treebrown, Lethe rohria Tamil treebrown, Lethe drypetis Bamboo treebrown, Lethe europa Common threering, Ypthima asterope Jewel fourring, Ypthima avanta Moore, 1875 Common fivering, Ypthima baldus White fourring, Ypthima ceylonica Hewitson, 1865 Nilgiri fourring, Ypthima chenui Common fourring, Ypthima huebneri Kirby, 1871 Baby fivering, Ypthima philomela Palni fourring, Ypthima ypthimoides Moore, 1881 Tamil catseye, Zipaetis saitis Hewitson, 1863 Nigger, Orsotriaena medus Common evening brown, Melanitis leda Dark evening brown, Melanitis phedima Great evening brown, Melanitis zitenius Travancore evening brown, Parantirrhoea marshalli Wood-Mason, 1880 Common palmfly, Elymnias hypermnestra Cruiser, Vindula erota Fabricius, 1793 Tamil yeoman, Cirrochroa thais Rustic, Cupha erymanthis Small leopard, Phalanta alcippe Stoll, 1782 Leopard, Phalanta phalantha Drury, 1773 Indian fritillary, Argynnis hyperbius Linnaeus, 1763 Tamil lacewing, Cethosia nietneri Felder & Felder, 1867 Tawny coster, Acraea terpsicore Commander, Limenitis procris Common sergeant, Athyma perius Blackvein sergeant, Athyma ranga Moore, 1857 Staff sergeant, Athyma selenophora (Kollar, 1