GLAY is a Japanese rock band, formed in Hakodate in 1988. Glay composes songs in the rock and pop genres, but they have arranged songs using elements from a wide variety of genres, including progressive rock, electronic, R&B, folk and ska. A visual kei band, the group shifted to less dramatic attire through the years; as of 2008, Glay had sold an estimated 51 million records. Glay formed in 1988 as a high school band when Takuro asked a schoolmate, to play the drums, they had difficulty finding a vocalist. When Teru made a tape of his singing and gave it to Takuro he was recruited for the part, leaving the drums part to be filled by another person. On the search for a second guitarist, Hisashi was asked to join but declined the offer, as he was part of a locally well-known heavy punk/rock band called Ari, which better suited his taste in music. Hisashi accepted Takuro's offer and became Glay's lead guitarist after Ari disbanded; the name "Glay" is a deliberate misspelling of the word "gray" and represents the style of music they wanted to play: a mixture between rock and pop.
Friday magazine ran an article quoting a former classmate of a band member as saying the "glay" spelling was a simple spelling mistake rather than a deliberate decision. Confusing the R and L is a common mistake amongst Japanese speakers of English, because the Japanese language does not distinguish between the retroflex and lateral By the time of Takuro and Teru's graduation, Glay were enjoying some popularity in their hometown of Hakodate and were playing full live houses. Following Hisashi's high school graduation in 1990, the three moved to Tokyo to try to further expand their musical career; the bassist and the drummer chose to stay in Hakodate. In Tokyo, they found a different situation: although they had been popular in their hometown, it was not easy to begin a career in Tokyo, their concerts attracted few people, sometimes none at all, many live houses would not accept them because they did not fit well into either rock or pop categories. The band had to conciliate their music career to part-time jobs, faced financial problems during their first years in Tokyo.
During this time, members were joining and leaving the band. When their bassist quit, Takuro knew that Jiro, from Hakodate and had played with the indie band Pierrot, had moved to Tokyo and invited him to join Glay, he too, declined the offer, insisting that he was heading in the right direction for himself. It wasn't until Takuro asked him to play at just one show to fill in for their missing bassist that he decided to go. Following that show, Jiro continued to receive invitations to play with Glay, he became Glay's official bass player, finalizing the official four member lineup, they promoted the band by giving out demo tapes. They became better known on the Tokyo live house circuit, began drawing larger crowds. Hide of X Japan gave one of Glay's demos to his bandmate Yoshiki. During an October 1993 show and his entourage came to watch and offered the band a contract to his record label Extasy Records, their debut single, "Rain", their first album, Hai to Diamond, were both released on May 25, 1994.
After the time of their debut, Glay became more popular. Their 4th single "Freeze My Love" made it onto the Oricon Top 20, debuting at No. 19. Two months their second album, Speed Pop, peaked at No. 8. It was their first album released on Platinum Records, a division of PolyGram that Yoshiki founded that same year, their first No. 1 hit was in 1996 with their third album Beat Out!, marked as a major turning point in Glay's career. Released that same year, the fourth album Beloved was their first album to sell over 1 million copies. In September 1996, Glay played the final concert of the "Beat Out! Reprise Tour" at Budokan, their first concert at the venue, stated by them to have been their biggest dream coming true. In August 1997, their 12th single "However" remained at the top of the charts for two weeks in a row and, after it was displaced by Zard's single "Eien" for one week, it re-appeared at the top position for another three weeks. Since Glay has produced several hit singles, most of them reaching No. 1 on the charts.
In the period between 1997 and 2000, Glay produced six million-selling singles, being the third artist with most million-selling singles of all time. Their 13th single "Yuuwaku" topped Oricon yearly single ranking in 1998. In 1999, their 16th single "Winter, Again" was number two of the year and won the 41st Japan Record Awards "Grand Prix" award, considered the most important Japanese music award, their albums were massively successful. The impact of their popularity was such that, in 1998, Japan's telephone service was temporarily put out of order due to the mass number of fans trying to reserve tickets to their upcoming tour; the 1998 Winter Olympics were being held, press coverage of the event became chaotic because of the incident. In this period, the band established some records. In 1997, the album Review - Best of Glay stayed for five weeks in a row at the top position of the Oricon charts and became the all-time best-selling album in Japan at the time, with 5 millio
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
The Miami Dolphins are a professional American football team based in the Miami metropolitan area. The Dolphins compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference East division; the Dolphins play their home games at Hard Rock Stadium in the northern suburb of Miami Gardens and are headquartered in Davie, Florida. The Dolphins are Florida's oldest professional sports team. Of the four AFC East teams, they are the only team in the division, not a charter member of the American Football League; the Dolphins were founded by attorney-politician Joe actor-comedian Danny Thomas. They began play in the AFL in 1966; the region had not had a professional football team since the days of the Miami Seahawks, who played in the All-America Football Conference in 1946, before becoming the first incarnation of the Baltimore Colts. For the first few years, the Dolphins' full-time training camp and practice facilities were at Saint Andrew's School, a private boys boarding prep school in Boca Raton.
In the 1970 AFL–NFL merger, the Dolphins joined the NFL. The team made its first Super Bowl appearance in Super Bowl VI, losing to the Dallas Cowboys, 24–3; the following year, the Dolphins completed the NFL's only perfect season, culminating in a Super Bowl win, winning all 14 of their regular season games, all three of their playoff games, including Super Bowl VII. They were the third NFL team to accomplish a perfect regular season; the next year, the Dolphins won Super Bowl VIII, becoming the first team to appear in three consecutive Super Bowls, the second team to win back-to-back championships. Miami appeared in Super Bowl XVII and Super Bowl XIX, losing both games. For most of their early history, the Dolphins were coached by Don Shula, the most successful head coach in professional football history in terms of total games won. Under Shula, the Dolphins posted losing records in only two of his 26 seasons as the head coach. During the period spanning 1983 to the end of 1999, quarterback Dan Marino became one of the most prolific passers in NFL history, breaking numerous league passing records.
Marino led the Dolphins to five division titles, 10 playoff appearances and Super Bowl XIX before retiring following the 1999 season. In 2008, the Dolphins became the first team in NFL history to win their division and make a playoff appearance following a league-worst 1–15 season; that same season, the Dolphins upset the 16–0 New England Patriots on the road during Week 3, handing the Patriots' their first regular season loss since December 10, 2006, in which coincidentally, they were beaten by the Dolphins. The Miami Dolphins joined the American Football League when an expansion franchise was awarded to lawyer Joseph Robbie and actor Danny Thomas in 1965 for $7.5 million, although Thomas would sell his stake in the team to Robbie. During the summer of 1966, the Dolphins' training camp was in St. Pete Beach with practices in August at Boca Ciega High School in Gulfport; the Dolphins had a combined 15–39–2 record in their first four seasons under head coach George Wilson, before Don Shula was hired as head coach.
Shula was a Paul Brown disciple, lured from the Baltimore Colts, after losing Super Bowl III two seasons earlier to the AFL's New York Jets, finishing 8–5–1 the following season. Shula got his first NFL coaching job from then-Detroit Head Coach George Wilson, who hired him as the defensive coordinator; the AFL merged with the NFL in 1970, the Dolphins were assigned to the AFC East division in the NFL's new American Football Conference. For the rest of the 20th century, the Shula-led Dolphins emerged as one of the most dominant teams in the NFL with a strong running game and defense, with only two losing seasons between 1970 and 1999, they were successful in the 1970s, completing the first complete perfect season in NFL history by finishing with a 14–0 regular season record in 1972 and winning the Super Bowl that year. It was the first of one of three appearances in a row; the 1980s and 1990s were moderately successful. The early 80s teams made two Super Bowls despite losing both times, saw the emergence of future Hall of Fame quarterback Dan Marino, who went on to break numerous NFL passing records, holding many of them until the late 2000s.
After winning every game against the division rival Buffalo Bills in the 1970s, the two teams developed a competitive rivalry in the 80s and 90s competing for AFC supremacy when Jim Kelly emerged as the quarterback for the Bills. The Dolphins have maintained a strong rivalry with the New York Jets throughout much of their history. Following the retirements of Marino and Shula and the rise of Tom Brady and the New England Patriots, the Dolphins suffered a decline in the 2000s, including a 1–15 season in 2007, the worst in franchise history, they only made the playoffs three times in that decade and were unable to find a consistent quarterback to replace Marino, shuffling 13 quarterbacks and five head coaches. However, the Dolphins have been competitive against the Patriots despite their decline, with notable wins coming in 2004, 2008, 2018. While quarterback Ryan Tannehill provided some stability at the position throughout most of the 2010s, the team has nonetheless been mediocre, only having made the playoffs once during the decade.
The Dolphins share intense rivalries with their three AFC East opponents, but have had historical or occasional rivalries with other teams such as their cross-state rivals Tampa Bay Buccaneers, their former divisional rivals Indianapolis Colts, the Pittsburgh Steelers, San Diego/Los Angeles Chargers, Oakland Raiders, to a lesser extent, the Jacksonville Jaguars
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Football at the 2008 Summer Olympics
Football at the 2008 Summer Olympics was held in Beijing and several other cities in the People's Republic of China from 6 to 23 August. Associations affiliated with FIFA were invited to send their full women's national teams and men's U-23 teams to participate. Men's teams were allowed to augment their squad with three players over the age of 23. For these games, the men competed in a 16-team tournament, the women in a 12-team tournament. Preliminary matches commenced two days before the Opening Ceremony of the Games on 8 August. Aside from the host city Beijing, football matches took place in four other cities: Beijing: Beijing National Stadium Beijing: Workers' Stadium Qinhuangdao: Qinhuangdao Olympic Stadium Shanghai: Shanghai Stadium Shenyang: Shenyang Olympic Stadium Tianjin: Tianjin Olympic Centre Stadium Football 5-a-side at the 2008 Summer Paralympics Football 7-a-side at the 2008 Summer Paralympics "Sports Competition Schedule". BOCOG. 17 April 2006. Archived from the original on 10 August 2006.
Retrieved 10 August 2006. "Athletics". International Olympic Committee. 2006. Retrieved 10 August 2006. "Programme of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, Beijing 2008". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 20 August 2006. Retrieved 10 August 2006. Olympic Football Tournaments Beijing 2008 – Men, FIFA.com Olympic Football Tournaments Beijing 2008 – Women, FIFA.com RSSSF
Faye Wong is a Chinese singer-songwriter and actress referred to as "the Diva" in the Chinese-speaking world. Early in her career she used the stage name Shirley Wong. Born in Beijing, she moved to British Hong Kong in 1987 and came to public attention in the early 1990s by singing in Cantonese combining alternative music with mainstream Chinese pop. Since 1997 she has recorded in her native Mandarin. In 2000 she was recognised by Guinness World Records as the Best Selling Canto-Pop Female. Following her second marriage in 2005 she withdrew from the limelight, but returned to the stage in 2010 amidst immense interest. Hugely popular in China, Hong Kong and Singapore, she has gained a large following in Japan. In the West she is best known for starring in Wong Kar-wai's films Chungking Express and 2046. While she has collaborated with international artists such as Cocteau Twins, Wong recorded only a few songs in English, including "Eyes on Me" – the theme song of the video game Final Fantasy VIII.
Wong is known to be a "diva with few words" in public, has gained a reputation for her "cool" personality. In Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture, Jeroen de Kloet characterised her as "singer, mother, royalty, sex symbol and diva all at the same time". Wong's daughter Leah Dou is a pop singer; the daughter of a mining engineer and a revolutionary music soprano, Wang Fei was born in Beijing in the midst of China's Cultural Revolution. She has an elder brother named Wang Yi; as a student, Wong was involved in singing and attracted interest from several publishers. On occasions, the school had to hide her artistic activities from her strict mother, who as a professional saw singing as a dead-end career. Despite her mother's opposition, Wong released 6 low-cost cover albums from 1985 to 1987 while still in high school, all in the form of cassettes consisting of songs by her personal idol, iconic Taiwanese singer Teresa Teng. For the last of these early recordings, the producer Wei Yuanqiang chose the title Wong Fei Collection, intending to show that he recognised a distinctive talent in the teenager.
In 1987, after being accepted to Xiamen University for college, she migrated to Hong Kong to join her father, working there for a few years. The plan was for her to stay there for a year to fulfill the permanent residency requirement, go to a university abroad thereafter. However, since Wong didn't know a word of Cantonese, the language spoken in the British colony, she experienced great loneliness. Following a brief modeling stint, she began singing lessons with Tai See-Chung, from Mainland China and had tutored Hong Kong superstars Anita Mui, Andy Lau, Leon Lai and Aaron Kwok. Under Tai's tutelage, the 19-year-old signed with Cinepoly Records after winning third place in an ABU singing contest in 1988, it was a risky move on the part of Chan Siu-Bo, Cinepoly's general manager, since Mainlanders were stereotyped as "backwards" in Hong Kong. As a result, Cinepoly asked Wong to change her "Mainland-sounding" name to a "sophisticated" stage name Wong Jing Man. In 1989, her debut album Shirley Wong sold over 30,000 copies and helped her win bronze at the "Chik Chak New Artist Award".
Two more albums followed featuring many cover songs by artists from the US and Japan. However, they sold worse despite relentless promotions by the company. Many in Hong Kong perceived her to be "backwards". Frustrated with her career decision, in 1991 she travelled to New York City for vocal studies and cultural exchange; because it was a hurried decision, she ended up missing the registration deadline for her classes in New York. Faye Wong explained in 1996, I visited museums and sat at cafes. There were so many confident-looking people, they didn't care. I felt I was like that too, independent and a little rebellious, but in Hong Kong I lost myself. I became like a machine, a dress hanger. I had no sense of direction. Wong returned to Hong Kong and found a new agent in Katie Chan, who would remain her agent for the next 2 decades; the next album, Coming Home, would prominently feature on the cover the English name "Faye", a homophone to her given Chinese name, the word "Jing", a reference to her hometown Beijing.
The 1992 album Coming Home incorporated R&B influences and was a change in musical direction from the more traditional Cantopop fare of her earlier albums. One song by her of this time was "Fragile Woman", a cover of a Japanese song "Rouge" composed by Miyuki Nakajima and sung by Naomi Chiaki. Coming Home included her first English-language number, "Kisses in the Wind". Wong stated in a 1994 concert that she much liked this song, after which various websites listed it as her personal favourite; the cover for Coming Home prominently shows the name "Faye", from on she changed her stage name back to "Wang Fei". In 1992–93 she starred in TVB shows such as File of Justice II and Legendary Ranger. In 1993, she wrote the Mandarin lyrics for her ballad "No Regrets" whi
A world record is the best global and most important performance, recorded and verified in a specific skill or sport. The book Guinness World Records collates and publishes notable records of all types, from first and best to worst human achievements, to extremes in the natural world and beyond. In the United States the form World's Record was more common; the term The World's Best was briefly in use. The latter term is still used in athletics events, including track and field and road running to describe good and bad performances not recognized as an official world record: either because it is not an event where the IAAF tracks the record, or because it does not fulfil other rigorous criteria of an otherwise qualifying event; the term is used in video game speedrunning when someone achieves the fastest possible time for the game and category. Malaysia is one country. In India, the setting and breaking of records is popular: world record registrars based in India are Limca Book of Records, World Records India, Unique World Records, India Book of Records and Asia Book of Records.
Some sports have world records recognised by their respective sports governing bodies: Lists of extreme points