Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals and fungi for food, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of human civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science, the history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology, genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries. Agricultural food production and water management are increasingly becoming global issues that are fostering debate on a number of fronts, the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Specific foods include cereals, fruits, meats, fibers include cotton, hemp and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo, other useful materials are produced by plants, such as resins, drugs, perfumes and ornamental products such as cut flowers and nursery plants.
The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, Agriculture usually refers to human activities, although it is observed in certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle. To practice agriculture means to use resources to produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops. This definition includes arable farming or agronomy, and horticulture, all terms for the growing of plants, even then, it is acknowledged that there is a large amount of knowledge transfer and overlap between silviculture and agriculture. In traditional farming, the two are often combined even on small landholdings, leading to the term agroforestry, Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin, wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 15,000 years ago, rice was domesticated in China between 13,500 and 8,200 years ago, followed by mung and azuki beans.
Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Cattle were domesticated from the aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey. In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas, alpacas and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago, cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, and was independently domesticated in Eurasia at an unknown time
The interests of the employees are commonly presented by representatives of a trade union to which the employees belong. The union may negotiate with an employer or may negotiate with a group of businesses, depending on the country. A collective agreement functions as a contract between an employer and one or more unions. The parties often refer to the result of the negotiation as a bargaining agreement or as a collective employment agreement. The term collective bargaining was first used in 1891 by Beatrice Webb and it refers to the sort of collective negotiations and agreements that had existed since the rise of trade unions during the 18th century. In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 made it illegal for any employer to deny rights to an employee. The issue of unionizing government employees in a trade union was much more controversial until the 1950s. In 1962 President John F Kennedy issued an order granting Federal employees the right to unionize. The right to bargain is recognized through international human rights conventions.
Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights identifies the ability to trade unions as a fundamental human right. In June 2007 the Supreme Court of Canada extensively reviewed the rationale for regarding collective bargaining as a human right, Collective bargaining permits workers to achieve a form of workplace democracy and to ensure the rule of law in the workplace. Workers gain a voice to influence the establishment of rules that control an aspect of their lives. Union members and other covered by collective agreements get, on average. Such a markup is typically 5 to 10 percent in industrial countries, unions tend to equalize the income distribution, especially between skilled and unskilled workers. The welfare loss associated with unions is 0.2 to 0.5 of GDP, in the United States, the National Labor Relations Act covers most collective agreements in the private sector. It is illegal to require any employee to join a union as a condition of employment, unions are exempt from antitrust law in the hope that members may collectively fix a higher price for their labour.
Once the workers committee and management have agreed on a contract, if approved, the contract is usually in force for a fixed term of years, and when that term is up, it is renegotiated between employees and management. Sometimes there are disputes over the contract, this particularly occurs in cases of workers fired without just cause in a union workplace
The proletariat is a term for the class of wage-earners, in a capitalist society, whose only possession of significant material value is their labor-power, a member of such a class is a proletarian. The proletarii constituted a class of Roman citizens owning little or no property. This assembly, which met on the Campus Martius to discuss public policy issues, was used as a means of designating military duties demanded of Roman citizens. The top infantry class assembled with full arms and armor, the two classes brought arms and armor, but less and lesser, the fourth class only spears. In voting, the cavalry and top class were enough to decide an issue, as voting started at the top. As a result of the Marian reforms initiated in 107 B. C. by the Roman general Gaius Marius, proletarians are wage-workers, while some refer to those who receive salaries as the salariat. For Marx, wage labor may involve getting a salary rather than a wage per se, intermediate positions are possible, where some wage-labor for an employer combines with self-employment.
Socialist parties have often struggled over the question of whether they should seek to organize and represent all the lower classes, according to Marxism, capitalism is a system based on the exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie. Instead of hiring those means of production, they themselves get hired by capitalists and work for them and these goods or services become the property of the capitalist, who sells them at the market. Surplus value is the difference between the wealth that the proletariat produces through its work, and the wealth it consumes to survive and to provide labor to the capitalist companies. A part of the value is used to renew or increase the means of production, either in quantity or quality. What remains is consumed by the capitalist class, the commodities that proletarians produce and capitalists sell are valued for the amount of labor embodied in them. The same goes for the labor power itself, it is valued, not for the amount of wealth it produces. Marxists argue that new wealth is created through labor applied to natural resources, prole drift, short for proletarian drift, is a term that suggests the tendency in advanced industrialized societies for everything inexorably to become proletarianized, or to become commonplace.
This trend is attributed to mass production, mass selling, mass communication, examples include best-seller lists and music that must appeal to the masses and shopping malls. Why workers can change the world, hal Draper, Karl Marxs Theory of Revolution, Vol.2, The Politics of Social Classes
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
During periods of recession, an economy usually experiences a relatively high unemployment rate. According to International Labour Organization report, more than 200 million people globally or 6% of the workforce were without a job in 2012. There remains considerable debate regarding the causes and solutions for unemployment. Classical economics, new classical economics, and the Austrian School of economics argue that market mechanisms are reliable means of resolving unemployment, Keynesian economics emphasizes the cyclical nature of unemployment and recommends government interventions in the economy that it claims will reduce unemployment during recessions. This theory focuses on recurrent shocks that suddenly reduce aggregate demand for goods and services, Keynesian models recommend government interventions designed to increase demand for workers, these can include financial stimuli, publicly funded job creation, and expansionist monetary policies. Structural arguments emphasize causes and solutions related to disruptive technologies and globalization and solutions for frictional unemployment often address job entry threshold and wage rates.
Behavioral economists highlight individual biases in decision making, and often involve problems and solutions concerning sticky wages, for centuries, experts have predicted that machines would make workers obsolete and increase unemployment. The state of being without any work both for an educated & uneducated person, for earning ones livelihood is meant by unemployment, some additional types of unemployment that are occasionally mentioned are seasonal unemployment, hardcore unemployment, and hidden unemployment. Though there have been several definitions of voluntary and involuntary unemployment in the economics literature, voluntary unemployment is attributed to the individuals decisions, whereas involuntary unemployment exists because of the socio-economic environment in which individuals operate. In these terms, much or most of frictional unemployment is voluntary, on the other hand, cyclical unemployment, structural unemployment, and classical unemployment are largely involuntary in nature.
So, in practice, the distinction between voluntary and involuntary unemployment is hard to draw and this happens with cyclical unemployment, as macroeconomic forces cause microeconomic unemployment which can boomerang back and exacerbate these macroeconomic forces. Classical, or real-wage unemployment, occurs when real wages for a job are set above the market-clearing level causing the number of job-seekers to exceed the number of vacancies. On the other hand, some argue that as wages fall below a livable wage many choose to drop out of the labor market. This is especially true in countries where low-income families are supported through public welfare systems, in such cases, wages would have to be high enough to motivate people to choose employment over what they receive through public welfare. Wages below a livable wage are likely to result in lower labor market participation in above stated scenario, in addition it must be noted that consumption of goods and services is the primary driver of increased need for labor.
Higher wages leads to workers having more available to consume goods. Therefore, higher wages increase general consumption and as a result need for labor increases, many economists have argued that unemployment increases with increased governmental regulation. For example, minimum wage laws raise the cost of some low-skill laborers above market equilibrium, laws restricting layoffs may make businesses less likely to hire in the first place, as hiring becomes more risky
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour. Labour markets or job markets function through the interaction of workers and employers, Labour economics looks at the suppliers of labour services and the demanders of labour services, and attempts to understand the resulting pattern of wages and income. In economics, labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and it is conventionally contrasted with such other factors of production as land and capital. There are theories which have developed a concept called human capital, there are two sides to labour economics. Labour economics can generally be seen as the application of microeconomic or macroeconomic techniques to the labour market, microeconomic techniques study the role of individuals and individual firms in the labour market. Macroeconomic techniques look at the interrelations between the market, the goods market, the money market, and the foreign trade market. It looks at how these interactions influence macro variables such as employment levels, participation rates, aggregate income, the labour force is defined as the number of people of working age, who are either employed or actively looking for work.
The participation rate is the number of people in the force divided by the size of the adult civilian noninstitutional population. The unemployment level is defined as the labour force minus the number of people currently employed, the unemployment rate is defined as the level of unemployment divided by the labour force. The employment rate is defined as the number of people currently employed divided by the adult population, in these statistics, self-employed people are counted as employed. Variables like employment level, unemployment level, labour force, and they can be contrasted with flow variables which measure a quantity over a duration of time. Changes in the force are due to flow variables such as natural population growth, net immigration, new entrants. Technological advancement often reduces frictional unemployment, for example, internet search engines have reduced the cost, structural unemployment – This reflects a mismatch between the skills and other attributes of the labour force and those demanded by employers.
The process of globalization has contributed to changes in labour markets. Natural rate of unemployment – This is the summation of frictional and structural unemployment and it is the lowest rate of unemployment that a stable economy can expect to achieve, given that some frictional and structural unemployment is inevitable. Economists do not agree on the level of the rate, with estimates ranging from 1% to 5%. The estimated rate varies from country to country and from time to time, demand deficient unemployment – In Keynesian economics, any level of unemployment beyond the natural rate is probably due to insufficient goods demand in the overall economy. During a recession, aggregate expenditure is deficient causing the underutilisation of inputs, neoclassical economists view the labour market as similar to other markets in that the forces of supply and demand jointly determine price and quantity
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development defines the employment rate as the employment-to-population ratio. This is a ratio that measures the proportion of the countrys working age population that is employed. This includes people that have stopped looking for work, the International Labour Organization states that a person is considered employed if they have worked at least 1 hour in gainful employment in the most recent week. The National Bureau Of Economic Research states that the Great Recession ended in June 2009, during 2009 and 2010, many areas were still struggling economically, which is the reason the employment-population ratio is still used by both Americans and people around the world. Key terms that explain the use of the follow, Employed persons. Participant rate This represents the proportion of the population that is in the labor force, included in this group are all persons in the civilian noninstitutional population who are neither employed nor unemployed.
The ratio is used to evaluate the ability of the economy to create jobs, having a high ratio means that an important proportion of the population in working age is employed, which in general will have positive effects on the GDP per capita. Nevertheless, the ratio does not give an indication of working conditions, number of hours worked per person, the analysis of the labour market must be done in conjunction with other statistics. This measure comes from dividing the civilian noninstitutionalized population who are employed by the total noninstitutionalized population, in general, a high ratio is considered to be above 70 percent of the working-age population whereas a ratio below 50 percent is considered to be low. The economies with low ratios are generally situated in the Middle East, employment-to-population ratios are typically higher for men than for women. Nevertheless, in the past decades, the ratios tended to fall for men and increase in the case of women, source, OECD. StatExtracts, except as noted Dependency ratio Female labor force in the Muslim world Labor-force participation rate List of countries by employment rate
Manual labour or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals. It is most literally work done with the hands, and, by figurative extension, for most of human prehistory and history, manual labour and its close cousin, animal labour, have been the primary ways that physical work has been accomplished. To be implemented, they require that sufficient technology exist and that its capital costs be justified by the amount of wages that they will obviate. Thus there is a partial but significant correlation between manual labour and unskilled or semiskilled workers, throughout human existence the latter has involved a spectrum of variants, from slavery, to caste or caste-like systems, to subtler forms of inequality. Economic competition often results in trying to buy labour at the lowest possible cost or to obviate it entirely. It has always been the case for humans that many workers begin their working lives lacking any special level of skill or experience and these conditions have assured the correlations strength and persistence.
The phrase hard labour has become a legal euphemism for penal labour. Throughout human existence, but most especially since the Age of Enlightenment, humans have not yet succeeded in instantiating any such utopia, but some social systems have been designed that go far enough toward the goal that hope yet remains for further improvement. Concepts such as the Three-fifths compromise and the Untermensch defined slaves as less than human, one interesting historical trend that is true of all of the systems above is that they began crumbling in the 20th century and have continued crumbling since. Todays forms of them are mostly greatly weakened compared to past generations versions, at the lowest extreme, such distortion produces subtler forms of racism and de facto inequality of opportunity. The more plausible the deniability, the easier the rationalisation and perpetuation, at such areas of the spectrum, it becomes ever harder to justify efforts that use de jure methods to fight de facto imbalances, because valid instances can be highlighted by all sides. A willingness to recognise that manual labour can involve skill and intelligence can take a variety of forms, in its healthier forms, it recognises the dignity and intelligence of blue-collar workers, and it recognises their civil equality with white-collar workers.
Yet it simultaneously leaves room in society for meritocracy, allowing both upward and downward social mobility. In its more pathological forms, it may admit that there can be a science of manual labour. Some people would have only the first, only the second, players usually should not be their own coaches. Whether Taylor was capable of predicting and preventing that problem is unclear, an example of the second pathology are 20th-century variants of communism, such as Leninism and Stalinism. Mechanisation and automation strive to reduce the amount of labour required for production. Automation helps to bring mechanisation to more complicated tasks that require dexterity, decision making based on visual input
Labor force in the United States
The labor force is the actual number of people available for work. The labor force of a country includes both the employed and the unemployed, the labor force participation rate, LFPR, is the ratio between the labor force and the overall size of their cohort. The unemployment rate in the United States is estimated by a survey called the Current Population Survey. The size of the workforce is defined as those employed plus those unemployed, the labor force participation rate is the ratio between the labor force and the overall size of their cohort. In the West during the half of the 20th century. In the United States, there were three significant stages of women’s increased participation in the labor force, during the late 19th century through the 1920s, very few women worked. Working women were young single women who typically withdrew from labor force at marriage unless their family needed two incomes. These women worked primarily in the manufacturing industry or as domestic workers. This profession empowered women and allowed them to earn a living wage, at times, they were a financial help to their families.
In the 1950s to the 1970s, most women were secondary earners working mainly as secretaries, nurses, claudia Goldin and others, specifically point out that by the mid-1970s there was a period of revolution of women in the labor force brought on by different factors. Women more accurately planned for their future in the force, choosing more applicable majors in college that prepared them to enter. The use of birth control gave women the flexibility of opting to invest, by having control over the timing of their fertility, they were not running a risk of thwarting their career choices. However, only 40% of the actually used the birth control pill. This implies that other factors may have contributed to women choosing to invest in advancing their careers, another factor that may have contributed to the trend was the The Equal Pay Act of 1963, which aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex. Such legislation diminished sexual discrimination and encouraged women to enter the labor market by receiving fair remuneration to help raise children.
The labor force participation rate can decrease when the rate of growth of the population outweighs that of the employed and unemployed together, the labor force participation rate is a key component in long-term economic growth, almost as important as productivity. The labor force participation rate explains how an increase in the unemployment rate can occur simultaneously with an increase in employment. If a large amount of new workers enter the force but only a small fraction become employed
A hawker is a vendor of merchandise that can be easily transported, the term is roughly synonymous with peddler or costermonger. In most places where the term is used, a hawker sells inexpensive items, whether stationary or mobile, hawkers often advertise by loud street cries or chants, and conduct banter with customers, so to attract attention and enhance sales. When accompanied by a demonstration or detailed explanation of the product, most of them are immigrants or laid-off workers, work for an average 10–12 hours a day, and remain impoverished. Though the prevalent license-permit raj in Indian bureaucracy ended for most retailing in the 1990s, in Kolkata, the profession was a cognisable and non-bailable offense. Over the years the street vendors have organized themselves into trade unions and associations, in fact, The National Association of Street Vendors of India based in Delhi, is a federation of 715 street vendor organizations, trade unions and non-governmental organizations. Kolkata has two such unions, namely the Bengal Hawkers Association and the Calcutta Hawkers Men Union, in September,2012, long-awaited Street Vendors Act was introduced in the Lok Sabha aimed at providing social security and livelihood rights, and regulated the prevalent license system.
The Bill was passed in the Lok Sabha on 6 September 2013, the bill received the assent of the President of India on 4 March 2014. The commencement of the Act has not been notified, balut is a popular dish sold by hawkers in the Philippines, Laos and Vietnam. In both China and Hong Kong, hawkers inventories often include fish ball, beef ball, roasted chestnuts, in Singapore and Malaysia, these stands have become so successful that many have chosen to set up shop more permanently in a hawker center. Across Asia, stalls have been set up with little to no government monitoring, due to health concerns and other liability problems, the food culture has been seriously challenged in Indonesia, though without marked success. However, in Hong Kong, the lease versus licensed hawker restrictions have put a burden on this mobile food culture, the term Jau Gwei has been used to describe vendors often running away from local police. The costermongers of London, England were at their peak in the 19th century, yet semi-obvious, they were ubiquitous, and their street cries could be heard everywhere.
Street vendors in Latin America are known in local Spanish and Portuguese variously as vendedores ambulantes or simply ambulantes, in Argentina they are known as manteros. In Brazil, they are known as camelôs. Some ambulantes set up in a location while others are mobile. Some ambulantes sell their goods door-to-door, puestos are market stalls or stands. Street vendors face various regulations and fees, there are sometimes disputes between established merchants and ambulantes. In order to avoid overwhelming tourists or shoppers, ambulantes are known to establish territories, thieves stealing their goods can be a problem
Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, and the primary sector, the basic characteristic of this sector is the production of services instead of end products. Services include attention, access and discussion, the production of information has long been regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute it to a fourth sector, the quaternary sector. The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to businesses as well as final consumers. The goods may be transformed in the process of providing the service, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods. It is sometimes hard to define whether a company is part of the secondary or tertiary sector. These governmental classification systems have a hierarchy that reflects whether the economic goods are tangible or intangible. Unlike governmental classification systems, the first level of market-based classification systems divides the economy into functionally related markets or industries, the second or third level of these hierarchies reflects whether goods or services are produced.
For the last 100 years, there has been a shift from the primary and secondary sectors to the tertiary sector in industrialised countries. The tertiary sector is now the largest sector of the economy in the Western world and these are not necessarily busboys and live-in maids. Many of them are in the professional category and they are earning as much as manufacturing workers, and often more. The first economy to follow path in the modern world was the United Kingdom. The speed at which other economies have made the transition to service-based economies has increased over time, manufacturing tended to be more open to international trade and competition than services. Service providers face obstacles selling services that goods-sellers rarely face, services are intangible, making it difficult for potential customers to understand what they will receive and what value it will hold for them. Indeed, such as consultants and providers of investment services, since the quality of most services depends largely on the quality of the individuals providing the services, people costs are usually a high fraction of service costs.
Whereas a manufacturer may use technology and other techniques to lower the cost of goods sold, for example, how does one choose one investment adviser over another, since they are often seen to provide identical services. Charging a premium for services is usually an option only for the most established firms, who charge extra based upon brand recognition