Golden Globe Award
The Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association beginning in January 1944, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign. The annual ceremony at which the awards are presented is a major part of the film industry's awards season, which culminates each year in the Academy Awards; the eligibility period for the Golden Globes corresponds to the calendar year. The 76th Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in film and television in 2018, were held on January 6, 2019; the 77th Golden Globe Awards will take place on January 5, 2020. In 1943, a group of writers banded together to form the Hollywood Foreign Press Association, and, by creating a generously distributed award called the Golden Globe Award, they now play a significant role in film marketing; the 1st Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best achievements in 1943 filmmaking, were held in January 1944, at the 20th Century-Fox studios. Subsequent ceremonies were held at various venues throughout the next decade, including the Beverly Hills Hotel and the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel.
In 1950, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association made the decision to establish a special honorary award to recognize outstanding contributions to the entertainment industry. Recognizing its subject as an international figure within the entertainment industry, the first award was presented to director and producer, Cecil B. DeMille; the official name of the award thus became the Cecil B. DeMille Award. Beginning in 1963, the trophies commenced to be handed out by one or more persons referred to as "Miss Golden Globe", a title renamed on January 5, 2018 to "Golden Globe Ambassador"; the holders of the position were, the daughters or sometimes the sons of a celebrity, as a point of pride, these continued to be contested among celebrity parents. In 2009, the Golden Globe statuette was redesigned; the New York firm Society Awards collaborated for a year with the Hollywood Foreign Press Association to produce a statuette that included a unique marble and enhanced the statuette's quality and gold content.
It was unveiled at a press conference at the Beverly Hilton prior to the show. Revenues generated from the annual ceremony have enabled the Hollywood Foreign Press Association to donate millions of dollars to entertainment-related charities, as well as funding scholarships and other programs for future film and television professionals; the most prominent beneficiary is the Young Artist Awards, presented annually by the Young Artist Foundation, established in 1978 by Hollywood Foreign Press member Maureen Dragone, to recognize and award excellence of young Hollywood performers under the age of 21 and to provide scholarships for young artists who may be physically or financially challenged. The qualifying eligibility period for all nominations is the calendar year from January 1 through December 31. Voice-over performances and cameo appearances in which persons play themselves are disqualified from all of the film and TV acting categories. Films must be at least 70 minutes and released for at least a seven-day run in the Greater Los Angeles area, starting prior to midnight on December 31.
Films can be released on pay-per-view, or by digital delivery. For the Best Foreign Language Film category, films do not need to be released in the United States. At least 51 percent of the dialogue must be in a language other than English, they must first be released in their country of origin during a 14-month period from November 1 to December 31 prior to the Awards. However, if a film was not released in its country of origin due to censorship, it can still qualify if it had a one-week release in the United States during the qualifying calendar year. There is no limit to the number of submitted films from a given country. A TV program must air in the United States between the prime time hours of 11:00 p.m.. A show can air on basic or premium cable, or by digital delivery. A TV show must either be made in the United States or be a co-production financially and creatively between an American and a foreign production company. Furthermore and non-scripted shows are disqualified. For a television film, it cannot be entered in both the film and TV categories, instead should be entered based on its original release format.
If it was first aired on American television it can be entered into the TV categories. If it was released in theaters or on pay-per-view it should instead to be entered into the film categories. A film festival showing does not count towards disqualifying. Actors in a TV series must appear in at least six episodes during the qualifying calendar year. Actors in a TV film or miniseries must appear in at least five percent of the time in that TV film or miniseries. Active HFPA members need to be invited to an official screening of each eligible film directly by its respective distributor or publicist; the screening must take place in the Greater Los Angeles area, either before the film's release or up to one week afterwards. The screening can be a regular screening in a theater with a press screening; the screening must be cleared with the Motion Picture Association of America so there are not scheduling conflicts with other official screenings. For TV programs, they must be available to be seen by HFPA members in any common format, including the original TV broadcast.
Entry forms for films need to be received by the HFPA within ten days of the
Rob Mounsey is an American musician and arranger. Mounsey was born in Berea and grew up in Seattle, spending a few years each in Findlay and Granville, Ohio. At the age of 17, he was awarded a 1970 BMI Student Composer Award for his orchestral work Ilium, New York, Is Divided into Three Parts, he attended Berklee College of Music in Boston from 1971 to 1975. In 1976, he moved to New York City to become a studio musician and producer for a wide range of well-known artists, including Aaron Neville, Aztec Camera, Brian Wilson, Carly Simon, Chaka Khan, Diana Krall, Diana Ross, Donald Fagen, Eric Clapton, James Taylor, Karen Carpenter, Michael Franks, Natalie Cole, Paul Simon, Steely Dan, others, he performed on keyboards in 1981 for Garfunkel's Concert in the Park. In 1985, he played keyboards in a New-York-based group called Joe Cool with Will Lee, Jeff Mironov and Christopher Parker, they released one album, Party Animals, on the Pony Canyon label in Japan, followed by a Japanese tour. Mounsey released three solo albums as a recording artist: Dig, two self-released albums on his own Monkeyville label, Back in the Pool and Mango Theory.
He toured as musical director and pianist for Idina Menzel in her Pops Symphony tour, for which he created nearly all of the arrangements. He has composed for film and television, including the 1988 Mike Nichols film Working Girl, the film Bright Lights, Big City and the HBO hit series Sex and the City. Mounsey wrote two long-running Emmy-winning themes for the television show Guiding Light, he is a six-time Grammy Award nominee, a winner of two Emmy Awards. He is a Zen Buddhist who resides in New York. Brett Eldredge, "Glow" James Taylor, "Before This World" Billy Porter, "Billy's Back on Broadway" Rihanna, string arrangements. Mary J. Blige, string arrangements, "Growing Pains" Usher, string arrangements, "Here I Stand" Leslie Mendelson, "Swan Feathers" Deborah Cox, "Destination Moon" Steely Dan, Gaucho Donald Fagen, The Nightfly Paul Simon, Graceland Phil Collins, "Against All Odds" Madonna, "Crazy for You" Michael Franks, Skin Dive, The Camera Never Lies Aretha Franklin, "Nessun Dorma" Idina Menzel, Pops orchestra arrangements for tours, "When You Wish upon a Star" from Holiday Wishes List of ambient music artists Official site
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Staten Island Ferry
The Staten Island Ferry is a passenger ferry route operated by the New York City Department of Transportation. The ferry's single route runs 5.2 miles through New York Harbor between the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island, with ferry boats making the trip in 25 minutes. The ferry operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, with boats leaving every 15 to 20 minutes during peak hours and every 30 minutes at other times, it is the only direct mass-transit connection between the two boroughs. The Staten Island Ferry has charged a low fare compared to other modes of transit in the area; the Staten Island Ferry is one of several ferry systems in the New York City area and is operated separately from systems such as NYC Ferry and NY Waterway. The Staten Island Ferry route terminates at Whitehall Terminal, on Whitehall Street in Lower Manhattan, at St. George Terminal, in St. George, Staten Island. At Whitehall, connections are available to the New York City Subway and several local New York City Bus routes.
At St. George, there are transfers to the Staten Island Railway and to the St. George Bus Terminal's many bus routes. Using MetroCard fare cards, passengers from Manhattan can exit a subway or bus on Whitehall Street, take the ferry for free, have a free second transfer to a train or bus at St. George. Conversely, passengers from Staten Island can transfer to a subway or bus in Manhattan after riding the ferry; the Staten Island Ferry originated in 1817, when the Richmond Turnpike Company started a steamboat service from Manhattan to Staten Island. Cornelius Vanderbilt bought the Richmond Turnpike Company in 1838, it was merged with two competitors in 1853; the combined company was in turn sold to the Staten Island Railroad Company in 1864. The Staten Island Ferry was sold to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1884, the City of New York assumed control of the ferry in 1905. In the early 20th century, the city and private companies operated publicly and operated ferry routes from Staten Island to Brooklyn.
Owing to the growth of vehicular travel, all of the routes from Staten Island to Brooklyn were decommissioned by the mid-1960s. By 1967, the Staten Island-to-Manhattan ferry was the only commuter ferry within the entire city. A fast ferry route from Staten Island to Midtown Manhattan ran from 1997 to 1998, with proposals to revive the route resurfacing in the 2010s; the Staten Island Ferry has a high commuter ridership due to the lack of transit connections between Staten Island and the other boroughs. With 23.9 million riders in fiscal year 2016, the Staten Island Ferry is the single busiest ferry route in the United States as of 2016, as well as the world's busiest passenger-only ferry system. The ferry is popular among tourists and visitors, due to the views of the New York Harbor a trip affords. Before the New York City area was colonized by Europeans, the indigenous Lenape Native Americans used boats to traverse waterways—including present-day Arthur Kill, Kill Van Kull, Raritan Bay—of the area known as Lenapehoking, which included present-day Staten Island and New Jersey.
The area would first be colonized as part of Dutch New Netherland in 1624. New Netherland became the British Province of New York in 1664, the British province became part of the United States in 1776. During the 18th century, the City of New York occupied only the southern tip of Manhattan, Staten Island was not incorporated within the greater city. At the time, ferry service along New York Harbor between Staten Island and Manhattan was conducted by private individuals in "periaugers"; these shallow-draft, two-masted sailboats, used for local traffic in New York Harbor, were used for other transport in the area. Cornelius Vanderbilt, an entrepreneur from Stapleton, Staten Island, who would become one of the world's richest people, started a ferry service from Staten Island to Manhattan in 1810. Although Cornelius was only 16 years old at the time, he had sailed extensively enough in his father's periauger that he could navigate the New York Harbor Estuary on his own, he earned $100 for his birthday in May 1810.
Vanderbilt used the periauger to transport passengers from Staten Island to the Battery at Manhattan's tip. He competed against other boatmen providing service in the harbor, who called him "Commodore" because of his youthful eagerness; the War of 1812 meant restricted access to New York Harbor from elsewhere along the East Coast. During the war, Vanderbilt profited from carrying cargo along the Hudson River, he bought extra boats with these profits. After the war, he transported cargo in the harbor, earning more money and buying more boats. Around the same time, U. S. Vice President Daniel D. Tompkins secured a charter for the Richmond Turnpike Company as part of his efforts to develop the village of Tompkinsville, which would become Staten Island's first European settlement; the company was incorporated in 1815, the land comprising Tompkinsville was purchased around this time. The company built a highway across Staten Island; the Richmond Turnpike Company began to operate the first motorized ferry between New York and Staten Island in 1817, commanded by Captain John DeForest, the brother-in-law of Cornelius Vanderbilt.
This new ferry broke the short monopoly on steamboat operations, held by the Fulton Ferry, which had connected
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products. Put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit, it does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors."Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner's personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates; the proprietor is taxed on all income from the business. The term is often used colloquially to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owner.
Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common entities exist: Sole proprietorship: A sole proprietorship known as a sole trader, is owned by one person and operates for their benefit. The owner may hire employees. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, whether from operating costs or judgments against the business. All assets of the business belong to a sole proprietor, for example, a computer infrastructure, any inventory, manufacturing equipment, or retail fixtures, as well as any real property owned by the sole proprietor. Partnership: A partnership is a business owned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business; the three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are general partnerships, limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships. Corporation: The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a separate legal personality from its owners.
Corporations can be either government-owned or owned, they can organize either for profit or as nonprofit organizations. A owned, for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, who elect a board of directors to direct the corporation and hire its managerial staff. A owned, for-profit corporation can be either held by a small group of individuals, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a stock exchange. Cooperative: Often referred to as a "co-op", a cooperative is a limited-liability business that can organize as for-profit or not-for-profit. A cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, not shareholders, they share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are classified as either consumer cooperatives or worker cooperatives. Cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of economic democracy. Limited liability companies, limited liability partnerships, other specific types of business organization protect their owners or shareholders from business failure by doing business under a separate legal entity with certain legal protections.
In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are not as protected. Franchises: A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to open and run a business from a larger corporation. Franchising in the United States is widespread and is a major economic powerhouse. One out of twelve retail businesses in the United States are franchised and 8 million people are employed in a franchised business. A company limited by guarantee: Commonly used where companies are formed for non-commercial purposes, such as clubs or charities; the members guarantee the payment of certain amounts if the company goes into insolvent liquidation, but otherwise, they have no economic rights in relation to the company. This type of company is common in England. A company limited by guarantee may be without having share capital. A company limited by shares: The most common form of the company used for business ventures. A limited company is a "company in which the liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount individually invested" with corporations being "the most common example of a limited company."
This type of company is common in many English-speaking countries. A company limited by shares may be a publicly traded company or a held company A company limited by guarantee with a share capital: A hybrid entity used where the company is formed for non-commercial purposes, but the activities of the company are funded by investors who expect a return; this type of company may no longer be formed in the UK, although provisions still exist in law for them to exist. A limited liability company: "A company—statutorily authorized in certain states—that is characterized by limited liability, management by members or managers, limitations on ownership transfer", i.e. L. L. C. LLC structure has been called "hybrid" in that it "combines the characteristics of a corporation and of a partnership or sole proprietorship". Like a corporation, it has limited liability for members of the company, like a partnership, it has "flow-through taxation to the members" and must be "dissolved upon the death or bankruptcy of a member".
An unlimited company with or without a share capital: A hybrid entity, a company where the liability of members or shareholders for the debts of the company are not limited. In this case, the doctrine of a veil of incorporation does not apply. Less common types of companies are: Companies formed by letters patent: Most corpor
Mike Nichols was an American film and theater director, producer and comedian. He was noted for his ability to work across a range of genres and an aptitude for getting the best out of actors regardless of their experience. Nichols began his career in the 1950s with the comedy improvisational troupe The Compass Players, predecessor of The Second City, in Chicago, he teamed up with his improv partner, Elaine May, to form the comedy duo Nichols and May. Their live improv act was a hit on Broadway, the first of their three albums won a Grammy Award. After Nichols and May disbanded in 1961, he began directing plays, became known for his innovative productions and ability to elicit polished performances, his Broadway directing debut was Neil Simon's Barefoot in the Park in 1963, with Robert Redford and Elizabeth Ashley. He next directed Luv in 1964, in 1965 directed another Neil Simon play, The Odd Couple, he received a Tony Award for each of those plays. In 2012, he won his sixth Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play with a revival of Death of a Salesman.
Nichols produced more than twenty-five Broadway plays. In 1966, Warner Brothers invited Nichols to direct his first film, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, starring Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton. The groundbreaking film inspired some critics to declare Nichols the "new Orson Welles", it won five Academy Awards, was the top-grossing film of 1966. Nichols's next film, The Graduate starred unknown actor Dustin Hoffman, alongside Anne Bancroft and Katharine Ross, it was another critical and financial success, became the highest-grossing film of the year, received seven Academy Award nominations, winning Nichols the Academy Award for Best Director. Among the other films Nichols directed were Catch-22, Carnal Knowledge, Working Girl, The Birdcage and Charlie Wilson's War. Along with an Academy Award, Nichols won a Grammy Award, four Emmy Awards, nine Tony Awards, three BAFTA Awards, his other honors included the Lincoln Center Gala Tribute in 1999, the National Medal of Arts in 2001, the Kennedy Center Honors in 2003 and the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2010.
His films received a total of 42 Academy Award nominations, seven wins. He is one of the few people who have won Academy, Emmy and Tony Awards. Nichols was born Mikhail Igor Peschkowsky on November 6, 1931, in Berlin, the son of Brigitte and Pavel Peschkowsky, a physician, his father was born in Austria, to a Russian Jewish immigrant family. Nichols' father's family had been wealthy and lived in Siberia, leaving after the Russian Revolution, settling in Germany around 1920. Nichols' mother's family were German Jews, his maternal grandparents were Gustav Landauer, a leading theorist on anarchism, author Hedwig Lachmann. Nichols was a third cousin twice removed of scientist Albert Einstein, through Nichols' mother. In April 1939, when the Nazis were arresting Jews in Berlin, seven-year-old Mikhail and his three-year-old brother Robert were sent alone to the United States to join their father, who had fled months earlier, his mother joined the family, escaping through Italy in 1940. The family moved to New York City on April 28, 1939.
His father, whose original Russian name was Pavel Nikolaevich Peschkowsky, changed his name to Paul Nichols, Nichols derived from his Russian patronymic. Before Dr. Paul Nichols had received his U. S. medical license, he was employed by a union on X-raying union members. He had a successful medical practice in Manhattan, enabling the family to live near Central Park. "Before he established his practice, he was a union doctor, part of his job was X-raying union members, they didn't know about shielding X-ray machines. And he died of leukemia at 44." – Mike Nichols Nichols' youth was difficult because by age 4, following an inoculation for whooping cough, he had lost his hair, wore wigs for the rest of his life. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1944 and attended public elementary school in Manhattan. After graduating from the Walden School, a private progressive school on Central Park West, Nichols attended New York University before dropping out. In 1950, he enrolled in the pre-med program at the University of Chicago.
He described this college period as "paradise," recalling how "I never had a friend from the time I came to this country until I got to the University of Chicago."While in Chicago in 1953, Nichols joined the staff of struggling classical music station WFMT, 98.7 FM, as an announcer. Co-owner Rita Jacobs asked Nichols to create a folk music program on Saturday nights, which he named The Midnight Special, he hosted the program for two years before leaving for New York City. Nichols invited musicians to perform live in the studio and created a unique blend of "folk music and farce and satire, odds and ends," along with his successor Norm Pellegrini; the program endures today in the same time slot. Nichols first saw Elaine May when she was sitting in the front row while he was playing the lead in a Chicago production of Miss Julie, they made eye contact. Weeks he ran into her in a train station where he started a conversation in an assumed accent, pretending to be a spy, she played along, using another accent.
They hit it off which led to a brief romance. In his career, he said "Elaine was important to me from the moment I saw her."In 1953, Nichols left Chicago for New York City to study method acting under Lee Strasberg, b
7 World Trade Center
7 World Trade Center refers to two buildings that have existed at the same location within the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The current structure is the second building to bear that name and address in the World Trade Center complex; the original structure, part of the original World Trade Center, was completed in 1987 and was destroyed in the September 11 attacks in 2001. The current building opened in May 2006. Both buildings were developed by Larry Silverstein, who holds a ground lease for the site from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey; the original 7 World Trade Center was 47 stories tall, clad in red masonry, occupied a trapezoidal footprint. An elevated walkway connected the building to the World Trade Center plaza; the building was situated above a Consolidated Edison power substation, which imposed unique structural design constraints. When the building opened in 1987, Silverstein had difficulties attracting tenants. Salomon Brothers signed a long-term lease in 1988, became the main tenants of 7 WTC.
On September 11, 2001, the structure was damaged by debris when the nearby North Tower of the World Trade Center collapsed. The debris ignited fires, which continued to burn throughout the afternoon on lower floors of the building; the building's internal fire suppression system lacked water pressure to fight the fires, the building collapsed at 5:21:10 pm, according to FEMA, while the 2008 NIST study placed the final collapse time at 5:20:52 pm. The collapse began when a critical internal column buckled and triggered structural failure throughout, first visible from the exterior with the crumbling of a rooftop penthouse structure at 5:20:33 pm; the collapse made the old 7 World Trade Center the first tall building known to have collapsed due to uncontrolled fires, at the time, the only steel skyscraper in the world to have collapsed due to fire. Construction of the new 7 World Trade Center began in 2002, was completed in 2006; the building is 52 stories tall, making it the 28th-tallest in New York.
It is built on a smaller footprint than the original, is bounded by Greenwich, Vesey and Barclay Streets on the east, south and north, respectively. A small park across Greenwich Street occupies space, part of the original building's footprint; the current building's design emphasizes safety, with a reinforced concrete core, wider stairways, thicker fireproofing of steel columns. It incorporates numerous green design features; the building was the first commercial office building in New York City to receive the U. S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certification, where it won a gold rating, it was one of the first projects accepted to be part of the Council's pilot program for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design – Core and Shell Development. The original 7 World Trade Center was a 47-story building, designed by Emery Roth & Sons, with a red granite facade; the building was 610 feet tall, with a trapezoidal footprint, 330 ft long and 140 ft wide.
Tishman Realty & Construction managed construction of the building. The ground-breaking ceremony was hosted on October 2, 1984; the building opened in May 1987, becoming the seventh structure of the World Trade Center.7 World Trade Center was constructed above a two-story Con Edison substation, located on the site since 1967. The substation had a caisson foundation designed to carry the weight of a future building of 25 stories containing 600,000 sq ft; the final design for 7 World Trade Center was for a much larger building than planned when the substation was built. The structural design of 7 World Trade Center therefore included a system of gravity column transfer trusses and girders, located between floors 5 and 7, to transfer loads to the smaller foundation. Existing caissons installed in 1967 were used, along with new ones; the 5th floor functioned as a structural diaphragm, providing lateral stability and distribution of loads between the new and old caissons. Above the 7th floor, the building's structure was a typical tube-frame design, with columns in the core and on the perimeter, lateral loads resisted by perimeter moment frames.
A shipping and receiving ramp, which served the entire World Trade Center complex, occupied the eastern quarter of the 7 World Trade Center footprint. The building was open below the 3rd floor; the spray-on fireproofing for structural steel elements was gypsum-based Monokote, which had a two-hour fire rating for steel beams and trusses, a three-hour rating for columns. Mechanical equipment was installed on floors four through seven, including 12 transformers on the 5th floor. Several emergency generators installed in the building were used by the New York City Office of Emergency Management, Salomon Smith Barney, other tenants. In order to supply the generators, 24,000 gallons of diesel fuel were stored below ground level. Diesel fuel distribution components were located at ground level, up to the ninth floor. After the World Trade Center bombings of February 26, 1993, New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani decided to situate the emergency command center and associated fuel tanks at 7 World Trade Center.
Although this decision was criticized in light of the events of 9/11, the fuel in the building is today not believed to have contributed to the collapse of the building. The roof of the building included a larger east mechanical penthouse; each floor had 47,000 sq ft of rentable office space, which made the building's floor plans larger than mo