A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended to be used by one person at a time, they are connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems; the term workstation has been used loosely to refer to everything from a mainframe computer terminal to a PC connected to a network, but the most common form refers to the class of hardware offered by several current and defunct companies such as Sun Microsystems, Silicon Graphics, Apollo Computer, DEC, HP, NeXT and IBM which opened the door for the 3D graphics animation revolution of the late 1990s. Workstations offer higher performance than mainstream personal computers with respect to CPU and graphics, memory capacity, multitasking capability. Workstations are optimized for the visualization and manipulation of different types of complex data such as 3D mechanical design, engineering simulation and rendering of images, mathematical plots; the form factor is that of a desktop computer, consist of a high resolution display, a keyboard and a mouse at a minimum, but offer multiple displays, graphics tablets, 3D mice, etc.

Workstations were the first segment of the computer market to present advanced accessories and collaboration tools. The increasing capabilities of mainstream PCs in the late 1990s have blurred the lines between PCs and technical/scientific workstations. Typical workstations employed proprietary hardware which made them distinct from PCs. However, by the early 2000s this difference disappeared, as workstations now use commoditized hardware dominated by large PC vendors, such as Dell, Hewlett-Packard and Fujitsu, selling Microsoft Windows or Linux systems running on x86-64 processors; the first computer that might qualify as a "workstation" was the IBM 1620, a small scientific computer designed to be used interactively by a single person sitting at the console. It was introduced in 1960. One peculiar feature of the machine was. To perform addition, it required a memory-resident table of decimal addition rules; this saved on the cost of logic circuitry. The machine was code-named CADET and rented for $1000 a month.

In 1965, IBM introduced the IBM 1130 scientific computer, meant as the successor to the 1620. Both of these systems came with the ability to run programs written in other languages. Both the 1620 and the 1130 were built into desk-sized cabinets. Both were available with add-on disk drives and both paper-tape and punched-card I/O. A console typewriter for direct interaction was standard on each. Early examples of workstations were dedicated minicomputers. A notable example was the PDP-8 from Digital Equipment Corporation, regarded to be the first commercial minicomputer; the Lisp machines developed at MIT in the early 1970s pioneered some of the principles of the workstation computer, as they were high-performance, single-user systems intended for interactive use. Lisp Machines were commercialized beginning 1980 by companies like Symbolics, Lisp Machines, Texas Instruments and Xerox; the first computer designed for a single-user, with high-resolution graphics facilities was the Xerox Alto developed at Xerox PARC in 1973.

Other early workstations include the Terak 8510/a, Three Rivers PERQ and the Xerox Star. In the early 1980s, with the advent of 32-bit microprocessors such as the Motorola 68000, a number of new participants in this field appeared, including Apollo Computer and Sun Microsystems, who created Unix-based workstations based on this processor. Meanwhile, DARPA's VLSI Project created several spinoff graphics products as well, notably the SGI 3130, Silicon Graphics' range of machines that followed, it was not uncommon to differentiate the target market for the products, with Sun and Apollo considered to be network workstations, while the SGI machines were graphics workstations. As RISC microprocessors became available in the mid-1980s, these were adopted by many workstation vendors. Workstations tended to be expensive several times the cost of a standard PC and sometimes costing as much as a new car. However, minicomputers sometimes cost as much as a house; the high expense came from using costlier components that ran faster than those found at the local computer store, as well as the inclusion of features not found in PCs of the time, such as high-speed networking and sophisticated graphics.

Workstation manufacturers tend to take a "balanced" approach to system design, making certain to avoid bottlenecks so that data can flow unimpeded between the many different subsystems within a computer. Additionally, given their more specialized nature, tend to have higher profit margins than commodity-driven PCs; the systems that come out of workstation companies feature SCSI or Fibre Channel disk storage systems, high-end 3D accelerators, single or multiple 64-bit processors, large amounts of RAM, well-designed cooling. Additionally, the companies that make the products tend to have comprehensive repair/replacement plans; as the distinction between workstation and PC fades, however, workstation manufacturers have employed "off the shel

BBC Arabic Television

BBC Arabic Television is a television news channel broadcast to the Arab World by the BBC. It was launched on 11 March 2008, it is funded from the British television licence fee. In 1994, BBC Arabic Television was launched by Rome-based Orbit Communications Company and a subsidiary of the Saudi Arabian Mawarid Holding. On 21 April 1996, it was "pulled off the air" following an episode of Panorama, critical of the Saudi Arabian government. Ian Richardson, who set up the news department during that time blamed the short life of the channel on a clash with the owners over content. During the short life of BBC Arabic Television, there were several angry ‘liaison meetings’ with Orbit and the guarantees of editorial independence proved to be a sour joke, only obscured by a thin smokescreen about the BBC's alleged failure to observe "cultural sensitivities" – Saudi code for anything not to the Royal Family's liking; when it became clear to Orbit and Mawarid that it had, in their terms, created a monster not prepared to toe the Saudi line, it was only a matter of time before there would be a final parting of the ways.

Many of the staff who worked for the original BBC Arabic Television service went on to work for Al Jazeera television, now one of BBC Arabic Television's main competitors. Plans to relaunch the channel were announced in October 2005 and broadcasting was to start in Autumn 2007, but was delayed until 2008; the channel relaunched at 0956 GMT on 11 March 2008, with the first news bulletin airing at the top of the hour at 1000. Broadcasting for 12 hours a day, 24-hour programming began on 19 January 2009. BBC Arabic Television is run by the BBC World Service, it was funded from a grant-in-aid from the British Foreign Office but in 2014 funding was switched to come from the television licence, used to fund the BBC's domestic broadcasting. The service is based in the Peel Wing of Broadcasting House in London. In 2011, as the British government cut funding to the BBC, forcing the BBC World Service to close down its services in five languages, the government increased funding to the BBC Arabic service, in the words of Foreign Secretary William Hague, to "assist the BBC Arabic Service to continue their valuable work in the region".

BBC Arabic can be seen via The website includes a 16:9 live stream of the channel; the channel broadcasts 24 hours a day, showing live news programmes mixed with current affairs programmes and occasional light entertainment. Newshour, an hour-long news bulletin is broadcast every evening at 18:00 GMT. Other daily programmes are Nuqtat Hewar, BBC Trending. BBC news bulletins of either 30 or 60 minutes in duration are broadcast throughout the day, covering stories by journalists and correspondents around the world. Official website Live video stream BBC Press Release The Failed Dream That Lead To Al Jazeera Faisal Abbas: "BBC Arabic TV'should try to be different, " BBC 12 March 2008 Eric Pfanner: "BBC Set to Open Its New Arab World TV Channel in New York Times 4 March 2008 "BBC launches Arabic TV channel," BBC 11 March 2008

Andru Branch

Andru Branch is a Canadian reggae musician. He is the lead singer-songwriter of the reggae band Andru Halfway Tree, he was nominated for a Juno Award for his debut 1998 album. Branch was born Andru Reginald Arnold Branch on June 27, 1968, in New Brunswick. Branch was signed to independent Jamaican record label Kingston Muzik in 1996. Branch recorded and mixed his 1998 debut album What If I Told You at Kingston Muzik Studio in Kingston, Jamaica, its title was taken from a popular saying favoured by Andru's late mother. The album was distributed with modified artwork in Europe and the United States by Tabou 1 Records and features Earl "Chinna" Smith and members of Bob Marley's backing band "The Wailers". Branch was nominated for a Juno Award at the Juno Awards of 2000 for this release in the category Best Reggae Recording, his second album The Only Constant was released in January 2008 and features Squidly Cole and Chris Meredith of Ziggy Marley's band along with Alvin "Seeco" Patterson from The Wailers.

The Only Constant is straight-up roots-reggae, brimming with lush horns, placid backbeats and spiritual proclamations". Andru's traditional roots-reggae style is wide-ranging, varying from African high-life to suggestions of country influence and has been described by Exclaim! Magazine as "some of the rootsiest bottom-heavy music to come out of the Great White North", he performed at Jamaica's 1998 Reggae Sunsplash Festival and as a percussionist, has backed musicians Brinsley Forde, Gregory Isaacs, Glen Washington, Vybz Kartel and Sean Paul. Studio One's original Soul Vendors bassist Brian "Bassie" Atkinson joined Andru Branch & Halfway Tree in 2002 and the band is making new reggae music. Andru developed a profound love for reggae music while growing up in multicultural Toronto, where he was mentored by Tony "Raffa" White and Bernie Pitters before moving to Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 2000. Andru Branch graduated from Lawrence Park Collegiate and received a "Sound & Music Recording Diploma" from Recording Arts Canada.

Andru Branch: What If I Told You Andru Branch: The Only Constant Andru Branch & Halfway Tree: My Jamaican Weed – Single Andru Branch: Rocksteady – Single Andru Branch & Halfway Tree: Step Into The Light Andru Branch: Happy Day – Single Andru Branch & Halfway Tree: Step Into The Dub Confrontation.