The World Bank Group is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries. It is the largest and most well-known development bank in the world and is an observer at the United Nations Development Group; the bank is headquartered in Washington, D. C. in the United States. It provided around $61 billion in loans and assistance to "developing" and transition countries in the 2014 fiscal year; the bank's stated mission is to achieve the twin goals of ending extreme poverty and building shared prosperity. Total lending as of 2015 for the last 10 years through Development Policy Financing was $117 billion, its five organizations are the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association, the International Finance Corporation, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes. The first two are sometimes collectively referred to as the World Bank; the World Bank's activities are focused on developing countries, in fields such as human development and rural development, environmental protection, large industrial construction projects, governance.
The IBRD and IDA provide loans at preferential rates to member countries, as well as grants to the poorest countries. Loans or grants for specific projects are linked to wider policy changes in the sector or the country's economy as a whole. For example, a loan to improve coastal environmental management may be linked to development of new environmental institutions at national and local levels and the implementation of new regulations to limit pollution; the World Bank has received various criticisms over the years and was tarnished by a scandal with the bank's President Paul Wolfowitz and his aide, Shaha Riza, in 2007. The WBG came into formal existence on 27 December 1946 following international ratification of the Bretton Woods agreements, which emerged from the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, it provided the foundation of the Osiander Committee in 1951, responsible for the preparation and evaluation of the World Development Report. Commencing operations on 25 June 1946, it approved its first loan on 9 May 1947.
All of the 193 UN members and Kosovo that are WBG members participate at a minimum in the IBRD. As of May 2016, all of them participate in some of the other four organizations: IDA, IFC, MIGA, ICSID. WBG members by the number of organizations which they participate in: only in IBRD: None IBRD and one other organization: San Marino, Tuvalu, Brunei IBRD and two other organizations: Antigua and Barbuda, Venezuela, Marshall Islands, Kiribati IBRD and three other organizations: India, Belize, Dominican Republic, Bolivia, Ecuador, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, South Africa, Libya, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Qatar, Malta, Poland, Belarus, Tajikistan, Thailand, Vietnam, Tonga, Maldives, Myanmar All five WBG organizations: the rest of the 138 WBG membersNon-members are: Andorra, Liechtenstein, State of Palestine, Vatican City and North Korea. Together with four affiliated agencies created between 1957 and 1988, the IBRD is part of the World Bank Group; the Group's headquarters are in Washington, D.
C. It is an international organization owned by member governments. Technically the World Bank is part of the United Nations system, but its governance structure is different: each institution in the World Bank Group is owned by its member governments, which subscribe to its basic share capital, with votes proportional to shareholding. Membership gives certain voting rights that are the same for all countries but there are additional votes which depend on financial contributions to the organization; the President of the World Bank is nominated by the President of the United States and elected by the Bank's Board of Governors. As of 15 November 2009 the United States held 16.4% of total votes, Japan 7.9%, Germany 4.5%, the United Kingdom 4.3%, France 4.3%. As changes to the Bank's Charter require an 85% super-majority, the US can block any major change in the Bank's governing structure; the World Bank Group consists of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, established in 1945, which provides debt financing on the basis of sovereign guarantees.
The term "World Bank" refers to just the IBRD and IDA, whereas the term "World Bank Group" or "WBG" is used t
N. Anbuchezhian is an Indian politician born and brought up from the state of Tamil Nadu in Sekkapatti village of Madurai District, he was elected Member of Parliament for the Dindigul constituency for the period 1967–1971. Anbuchezhian subsequently served a term in the Legislative Assembly of Tamil Nadu. N. Anbuchezhian,MA. Ex. MP. Ex. MLA. Ex. MC. Ex. P. President was born in Sekkapatti village in Madurai district, on 1 November 1936, his father, A. Neelamegam Pillai was an Agriculturist, he had his school life in his native village itself. He studied Intermediate Pre-University Course at Virudhunagar Hindu Nadar's Senthikumara Nadar College, Virudhunagar, he studied MA. Master's degree Post Graduation in Pachaiappas College, Chennai. Anbuchezhian was a member of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and was selected to contest the 1967 election for the 4th Lok Sabha by C. N. Annadurai, the founder of DMK, he was the first MP for the constituency, not a member of the Indian National Congress party. He defeated the sitting Congress MP and Union Minister, T. S. Soundram, with a margin of over 100,000 votes.
Subsequently, between 1971–1976, Anbuchezhian was the Member of the Legislative Assembly for the Periyakulam state assembly constituency, after defeating Chinnasamy Chettai of the INC by a margin of 9,595 votes. During the same period, he was elected chairman of the Batlagundu Panchayath Union, defeating INC candidate Radhakrishna Chettiar. Anbuchezhian was elected as Panchayath President in his own village of Sekkapatti. Anbuchezhian contested Nilakkottai assembly constituency during 1962 election in DMK ticket, he lost the election with a slender margin of 944 votes. The election result was declared void by High court. Subsequently, during the reconstitution of assembly constituencies in TN, Nillakottai assembly constituency was categorized as reserved one
Mónica Brown is a Peruvian-American academic and author of children's literature. Known for her Lola Levine and Sarai chapter book series, as well as numerous biographies covering such Latin American luminaries as Tito Puente, Celia Cruz, Dolores Huerta, Cesar Chavez, she writes relatable characters that highlight the nuance and diversity of the Latinx experience and girl empowerment. Brown writes characters that highlight the nuance and diversity of the Latinx experience such as the bicultural red-headed Peruvian-Scottish-American Marisol McDonald, her motivation is to show that bicultural children are not made up of cultural fractions but whole people with a rich and vibrant cultural heritage. Brown is an English professor at Northern Arizona University. Brown was born on October 24, 1969 in Mountain View, California, to Isabel Maria Vexler Valdivieso from Piura and Daniel Doronda Brown from San Francisco. Monica is Mestiza and Romanian Jewish on her Mother’s side and Hungarian Jewish and Italian on her father’s side.
Brown was converted to Judaism as an adult. Throughout her childhood, Brown took numerous vacations to visit her mother’s family in Peru, her diverse upbringing influences her work most notably in the character Lola Levine whose Jewish-Peruvian-American ancestry mirrors Brown's. Brown earned a B. A. in English from the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1991, an M. A. in English from Boston College in 1994, a Ph. D. in English from Ohio State University in 1998. She is a tenured professor at Northern Arizona University, where she teaches courses on Chicano, African American, Multi-ethnic literature. Giving birth to her daughters motivated Brown to begin writing children's books that reflected the significant contributions of the people of the Americas. Brown published her first children's book, My Name is Celia: the Life of Celia Cruz, published bilingually in English and Spanish in 2004, for which she won the Américas Award for Children's Literature. Brown finds inspiration in her Peruvian and Jewish heritage and a commitment to bring diverse stories to children In the book Waiting for the Biblioburro, Brown works to showcase the power of literacy and education by telling the story of a Colombian educator who reaches remote communities in Colombia with a donkey powered library.
Brown's book Frida Kahlo and her Animalitos was selected by the New York Times as the best illustrated book of 2017. In 2018, Brown launched a chapter-book series Sarai, co-authored with child actress and internet sensation Sarai Gonzalez; the series is inspired by events in Sarai's life. Brown's books are published as dual language editions, she has had one translated into Quechua an indigenous language of the Andes. Entire body of work Valle del Sol Award Victoria Foundation’s Professor Alberto Rios Outstanding Latino/a in the Literary Arts Award Judy Goddard Award Most Significant Creative or Artistic Achievement Award—Northern Arizona UniversityWaiting for the Biblioburro International Latino Book Awards: Best Children’s Fiction Picture Book – Bilingual Christopher Award for Literature for Young PeopleMarisol McDonald and the Clash Bash Tejas Star Book Award International Latino Book Awards: Best Children’s Fiction Book School Library Journal’s “Top 10 Latino-themed Books of 2013"Tito Puente, Mambo King/Tito Puente, rey del mambo American Library Association for Library Service to Children Notable Children’s Books Tejas Star Book Finalist School Library Journal’s “Top 10 Latino-themed Books of 2013 Best Multicultural Books of 2013, Center for the Study of Multicultural Children’s LiteratureMarisol McDonald Doesn’t Match/Marisol McDonald no combina Maryland Black-Eyed Susan Book Award Nominee — Picture Book Tejas Star Book Award Notable Book Award Pura Belpré Honor International Latino Book Award, Best Bilingual Book Kirkus –Starred Review Junior Library Guild Premier SelectionPablo Neruda: Poet of the People Américas Award for Children’s Literature Orbis Pictus Award Honor for Outstanding Nonfiction Honor for Outstanding Nonfiction Kirkus –Starred ReviewSide by Side: The Story of Dolores Huerta and Cesar Chavez/Lado a lado: La historia de Dolores Huerta y Cesar Chavez NAACP Image Award Nominee Smithsonian Institution’s Notable Book for ChildrenChavela and the Magic Bubble Charlotte Zolotow Award- Commended bookPelé King of Soccer Kirkus –Starred ReviewMy Name is Gabito: The Life of Gabriel Garcia Márquez School Library Journal- Starred Review Best Books of 2007— Críticas Junior Library Guild— Premier SelectionMy Name is Gabriela: The Life of Gabriela Mistral/Me llamo Gabriela: la vida de Gabriela Mistral Críticas—Starred ReviewMy Name is Celia: The Life of Celia Cruz/Me llamo Celia: la vida de Celia Cruz Américas Book Award Peruvian Americans List of Peruvian women writers Official website Monica Brown on Where Text Meets Art: Reflections on the Author Illustrator Relationship, March 3, 2013 Meet Monica Brown, Reading Rockets, August 30, 2016 Picture Perfect How Diverse is your Classroom Library?, Teaching Tolerance, Issue 46, Spring 2014