Ian Alexandrovich Nepomniachtchi is a Russian chess grandmaster. He was a member of the gold medal-winning Russian team at the 2013 World Team Chess Championship in Antalya and at the 2015 European Team Chess Championship in Reykjavík. Nepomniachtchi won the 2010 Russian European Individual titles, he won the 2016 Tal Memorial and 2008 and 2015 Aeroflot Open. In October 2016, Nepomniachtchi was ranked fourth in the world in both rapid blitz chess, he has won two silver medals in the World Rapid Championship and a silver medal at the World Blitz Championship as well as winning the 2008 Ordix Open. Nepomniachtchi won the European Youth Chess Championship three times. In 2000, he won the under-10 category, in 2001 and 2002, he came first in the U12 championship. In 2002, Nepomniachtchi won the World Youth Chess Championship in the U12 category, edging out Magnus Carlsen on tiebreak score. In 2007, he finished second in the C group of the Corus Chess Tournament in Wijk aan Zee earning his first grandmaster norm.
That same year, Nepomniachtchi gained his second GM norm at the European Individual Chess Championship in Dresden. The third and final norm required for the GM title was won at the 5th Vanya Somov Memorial – World's Youth Stars tournament in Kirishi. Nepomniachtchi won the latter event, edging out Rauf Mamedov, Parimarjan Negi and Zaven Andriasian on tiebreak score. By winning the Aeroflot Open in Moscow in February 2008, he qualified for the 2008 Dortmund Sparkassen Chess Meeting. In this tournament, he shared second place after an undefeated run. In the same year, he won the Ordix Open, a rapid chess tournament in Mainz, he won the gold medal in chess at the 2009 Maccabiah Games. In 2010, in Rijeka, Nepomniachtchi won the European Individual Championship with a score of 9/11; the same year, in Moscow, he won the Russian Chess Championship, after defeating Sergey Karjakin in a playoff. In November 2011, Nepomniachtchi tied for 3rd–5th with Vasily Ivanchuk and Sergey Karjakin in the category 22 Tal Memorial in Moscow.
In May 2013, Nepomniachtchi tied for 1st–8th with Alexander Moiseenko, Evgeny Romanov, Alexander G Beliavsky, Constantin Lupulescu, Francisco Vallejo Pons, Sergei Movsesian, Hrant Melkumyan, Alexey Dreev and Evgeny Alekseev in the European Individual Championship. The following month, Nepomniachtchi finished second to Shakhriyar Mamedyarov in the World Rapid Chess Championship, held in Khanty-Mansiysk. In October 2013, he tied for first with Peter Svidler in the Russian Championship Superfinal, finishing second on tiebreak. Over the course of 2013, Nepomniachtchi's blitz rating surged from 2689 in January, to 2830 in December. Nepomniachtchi won the silver medal at the World Blitz Chess Championship of 2014 held in Dubai. In August, at the 5th International Chess Festival “Yaroslav the Wise” in Yaroslavl, he won the Tournament of Champions, a rapid chess event held with the double round-robin format featuring the six European champions of 2009-2014. At the SportAccord World Mind Games, held in December in Beijing, he won the gold medal in the men's Basque chess tournament.
In April 2015, he won the Aeroflot Open for the second time in his career, edging out Daniil Dubov on tiebreak, having played more games with the black pieces, earned a spot in the 2015 Dortmund Sparkassen Chess Meeting. Right after the end of the tournament he won the Aeroflot blitz tournament; that year, in September, he won the Moscow Blitz Championship and one month he took the silver medal at the World Rapid Chess Championship in Berlin. Nepomniachtchi won the 7th Hainan Danzhou tournament in the Tal Memorial in October. At the 42nd Chess Olympiad, he won the team bronze medal and an individual silver playing board 4 for Russia. In July, he won the 46th Dortmund Sparkassen Chess Meeting, scoring 5/7 to finish a point ahead of his nearest competitors. In January, Nepomniachtchi competed in the 81st Tata Steel Masters, placing third with 7½/13. Nepomniachtchi is Jewish, he graduated from the Russian State Social University. Official website Ian Nepomniachtchi chess games and profile at chess-db.com Ian Nepomniachtchi chess games at 365Chess.com Yan Nepomniashchy chess games at 365Chess.com Ian Nepomniachtchi player profile and games at Chessgames.com Ian Nepomniachtchi player profile at the Internet Chess Club
A time control is a mechanism in the tournament play of all two-player board games so that each round of the match can finish in a timely way and the tournament can proceed. Time controls are enforced by means of a game clock, where the times below are given per player. Time pressure is the situation of having little time on a player's clock to complete their remaining moves. In the case of chess, the World Chess Federation FIDE has a single, classical time control for most of its major events: 90 minutes for the first 40 moves, followed by 30 minutes for the rest of the game, with an addition of 30 seconds per move starting from move one; the Candidates tournament and the World Championship are played at 100 minutes for 40 moves, followed by 50 minutes for 20 moves, followed by 15 minutes for the rest of the game, with a 30-second increment starting from move one. FIDE formulates different time controls for fast chess; the amount of time given to each player to complete their moves will vary from game to game.
However most games tend to change the classification of tournaments according to the length of time given to the players. Shorter time limits, which do not afford due consideration to moves, are afforded a lesser degree of importance. Indeed, shorter limits are given special names to distinguish them. In chess, the categories of short time limits are: "lightning", "bullet", "blitz", "rapid". "Bullet" or "Lightning" games are the fastest, with either a short time limit per move or a short total time. "Blitz" games give five to ten minutes per player, "rapid" games give between ten and sixty minutes. By way of contrast, for Go, anything under twenty minutes could be considered "blitz"; the exact approach to using a game clock to regulate games varies considerably. This is the simplest methodology; each player is assigned a fixed amount of time for the whole game: once a player's main time expires, they lose the game. Each player's clock starts with a specified time. While Player 1 is deciding a move, player 1's clock time is decreasing and Player 2's clock time is increasing.
This is similar to. Moving gives your opponent extra time; the sum of both clocks will always remain the same. There is no maximum amount of time allotted for a game with this timing method; when time runs out on one player's clock the game is over and that player loses. Use of this time control is uncommon. Here the game time is separated into two basic domains: the main time, the overtime. To switch between the two requires some trigger event; this is the expiration of the main time. In chess, reaching a fixed number of moves can trigger the gain of a fixed amount of bonus time; this is the general chess rule and it occurs in long games after the 40th move: e.g. 120 minutes to complete the first 40 moves, another 30 minutes to complete the entire game. In go two common forms are: Byo-yomi is an extended time control in two-player games shogi and go; the word is borrowed from Japanese. After the main time is depleted, a player has a certain number of periods. If a move is completed before the time expires, the time period restarts the next turn.
If a move is not completed within a time period, the time period will expire, the next time period begins. This is written as <maintime> + <number of byo-yomi time periods> of <byo-yomi time period>. Using up the last period means that the player has lost on time. In some systems, such as certain Go title matches, there is no main time. A typical time control is "60 minutes + 30 seconds byo-yomi", which means that each player may make as many or as few moves as he chooses during his first 60 minutes of thinking time, but after the hour is exhausted, he must make each move in thirty seconds or less. To enforce byo-yomi, a third person or a game clock with a byo-yomi option is necessary. In professional Go games and many amateur tournaments, a player has several byo-yomi periods, for example five periods of one minute each. If a player makes his move within a one-minute period, he retains all five periods for his future moves. If a player oversteps one minute, he starts the following move in the second rather than the first byo-yomi period.
In effect, the player has one minute per move plus four extra one-minute packets which may be used as needed, e.g. four moves of two minutes each, or one move of five minutes, or any other combination. In higher-level tournaments, such as the Kisei tournament, the player's time is composed of byo-yomi periods, rather than having a main block of thinking time. In this case, the actual counting of time begins once the player falls below a certain threshold of time, such as 10 minutes. In the televised NHK Cup tournament, the player has 30 seconds per move pl
Astana, renamed in 2019 to Nur-Sultan, is the capital city of Kazakhstan. It is located on the banks of the Ishim River in the northern portion of Kazakhstan, within the Akmola Region, though administered separately from the region as a city with special status; the 2017 official estimate reported a population of 1,029,556 within the city limits, making it the second-largest city in Kazakhstan, behind Almaty. Astana became the capital of Kazakhstan in 1997, since has developed economically into one of the most modernized cities in Central Asia. On 23 March 2019, following a unanimous vote in Kazakhstan's parliament, the city was renamed Nur-Sultan, after former president Nursultan Nazarbayev. Modern Astana is a planned city, much like other other planned capitals. After Astana became the capital of Kazakhstan, the city cardinally changed its shape; the master plan of Astana was designed by Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa. As the seat of the Government of Kazakhstan, Astana is the site of the Parliament House, the Supreme Court, the Ak Orda Presidential Palace and numerous government departments and agencies.
It is home to many futuristic buildings and skyscrapers. Astana has extensive healthcare and education systems. Founded in 1830 as a settlement of Akmoly or Akmolinsky prikaz, it served as a defensive fortification for the Siberian Cossacks. In 1832 the settlement was renamed Akmolinsk. On 20 March 1961 the city was renamed Tselinograd to mark the city's evolution as a cultural and administrative center of the Virgin Lands Campaign. In 1992 it was renamed Akmola, the modified original name meaning "white grave". On 10 December 1997 Akmola replaced Almaty as the capital of Kazakhstan. On 6 May 1998 it was renamed Astana. On 20 March 2019, the capital again was renamed from Astana to its current name Nur-Sultan in honor of the long-serving Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev; the settlement of Akmoly known as Akmolinsky prikaz, was established on the Ishim River in 1830 as the seat of an okrug by a unit of the Siberian Cossacks headed by Fyodor Shubin. The name was given after a local landmark—Akmola means "a white grave" in Kazakh—although this theory is not universally accepted.
In 1832, the settlement was named Akmolinsk. The advantageous position of the town was clear as early as 1863 in an abstract from the Geographic and Statistical Dictionary of the Russian Empire, it describes how picket roads and lines connected this geographic center to Kargaly in the East, Aktau fort in the South and through Atbasar to Kokchetav in the West. In 1838, at the height of the great national and liberation movement headed by Kenesary Khan, Akmolinsk fortress was burned. After the repression of the liberation movement, the fortress was rebuilt. On 16 July 1863, Akmolinsk was declared an uyezd town. During the rapid development of the Russian capitalist market, the huge Saryarka areas were exploited by the colonial administration. To draft regulation governing the Kazakh Steppe the Government of the Russian Empire formed Steppe Commission in 1865. On 21 October 1868, Tsar Alexander II signed a draft Regulation on governing Turgay, Ural and Semipalatinsk Oblasts. In 1869, Akmolinsk external district and department were cancelled, Akmolinsk became the center of the newly established Akmolinsk Oblast.
In 1879, Major General Dubelt proposed to build a railway between Tyumen and Akmolinsk to the Ministry of Communications of Russia. In the course of the first 30 years of its existence, the population of Akmola numbered a trifle more than 2,000 people. However, over the next 30 years the city's population increased by three times according to volosts and settlements of the Akmolinsk Oblast. In 1893, Akmolinsk was an uyezd with a 6,428 strong population, 3 churches, 5 schools and colleges and 3 factories. During World War II, Akmolinsk served as a route for the transport of engineering tools and equipment from evacuated plants in the Ukrainian SSR, Byelorussian SSR, Russian SFSR located in the oblasts of the Kazakh SSR. Local industries were appointed to respond to war needs, assisting the country to provide the battle and home fronts with all materials needed. In the post-war years, Akmolinsk became a beacon of economic revival in the west of the Soviet Union ruined by the war. Additionally, many Russian-Germans were resettled here after being deported under Joseph Stalin's rule.
In 1954, Northern Kazakh SSR oblasts became a territory of the Virgin Lands Campaign led by Nikita Khrushchev, in order to turn the region into a second grain producer for the Soviet Union.) In December 1960, Central Committee made a resolution to create the Tselinniy Krai, which comprised five regions of the Northern Kazakh SSR oblasts. Akmolinsk Oblast was ceased to exist as a separate administrative entity, its districts were directly subordinated to the new krai administration, Akmolinsk became the krai capital, as well as the administrative seat of the new Virgin Lands economic region. On 14 March 1961, Khrushchev proposed to rename the city to name corresponding to its role in the Virgin Lands Campaign. On 20 March 1961, the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR renamed Akmolinsk to Tselinograd. On 24 April 1961, the region was reconstituted as Tselinograd Oblast. In the 1960s, Tselinograd was transformed. In 1963, work on the first three new high-rise housing districts began. In addition, the city received a number of new monumental public buildings, including the Virgin Lands Palace, a Palace of Youth, a House of Soviets, a new airport, several sports venues.
In 1971, the Tselinniy Krai was abolished and Tselinograd became th
Almaty known as Alma-Ata and Verniy, is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,801,713 people, about 8% of the country's total population and more than 2 million in its built-up area that encompasses Talgar, Otegen Batyr and many others suburbs. It served as capital of the Kazakh state in its various forms from 1929 to 1997, under the influence of the Soviet Union and its appointees. In 1997, the government relocated the capital to Astana in the north of the country and about 12 hours away by train. Almaty continues as the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan, as well as its most populous and most cosmopolitan city; the city is located in the mountainous area of southern Kazakhstan in the foothills of the Trans-Ili Alatau at an elevation of 700–900 m, where the Large and Small Almatinka rivers run into the plain. The city has been part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network in the area of music since November 2017; the city was the host for a 1978 international conference on Primary Health Care where the Alma Ata Declaration was adopted, marking a paradigm shift in global public health.
From 1929 to 1936, Almaty was the capital of Kazakh ASSR. From 1936 to 1991 it was the capital of Kazakh SSR. After Kazakhstan became independent in 1991, Almaty continued as the capital until 1997, when Astana was designated a return to the historic capital. Almaty remains the largest, most developed, most ethnically and culturally diverse city in Kazakhstan. Due to development by the Soviet Union and relocation of workers and industries from European areas of the Soviet Union during World War II, the city has a high proportion of ethnic Russians and Ukrainians; the city is in the foothills of Trans-Ili Alatau in the extreme south-east. It has a mild climate with warm summers and quite cold winters. Since the city is in a tectonically active area, it has an endemic risk of earthquakes. Although most do not cause any significant damage, Almaty has suffered some large destructive earthquakes. In 1997 the capital was moved to Astana in the north-central part of the country. Since Almaty has been referred to as the'southern capital' of Kazakhstan.
The name Almaty has its roots in the medieval settlement Almatu, that existed near the present-day city. A disputed theory holds that the name is derived from the Kazakh word for'apple', is translated as "full of apples", it was Almatau which means Apple Mountain. The Russian version of the name was Alma-Ata. Since gaining its independence from the Soviet Union, the use of the Kazakh Almaty is accepted. There is great genetic diversity among the wild apples in the region surrounding Almaty; the wild Malus sieversii is considered a candidate for the ancestor of the modern domestic apple. The city's name was written as آلماتی Ālmātī in Turkish and Persian written with the Perso-Arabic script. During 1000–900 BC in the Bronze Age, the first farmers and cattle-breeders established settlements in the territory of Almaty. During the Saka period, these lands were occupied by the Saka and Wusun tribes, who inhabited the territory north of the Tian Shan mountain range. Evidence of these times can be found in the numerous burial mounds and ancient settlements the giant burial mounds of the Saka tsars.
The most famous archaeological finds have been "The Golden Man" known as "The Golden Warrior", from the Issyk Kurgan. During the period of Saka and Wusun governance, Almaty became an early education centre. During the Middle Ages, a city culture developed in Almaty. There was a transition to a settled way of living, the development of farming and handicrafts, the emergence of a number of towns and cities in the territory of Zhetysu. In the 10–14th centuries, settlements in the territory of the so-called "Greater Almaty" became part of the trade routes of the Silk Road, which reached from China to western Asia and Europe. At that time, Almaty became one of the trade and agricultural centres on the Silk Road, it had an official mint. The city was first mentioned as Almatu in books from the 13th century. In the 15th–18th centuries, the city was in decline as trade activities were decreasing on this part of the Silk Road. European nations were conducting more trade by shipping; this period was one of crucial political transformations.
The Kazakh state and nation were founded here. The Dzungar invaded; the Kazakh fought to preserve independence. In 1730 the Kazakh defeated the Dzungar in the Anyrakay mountains, 70 kilometres north-west of Almaty. During the eighteenth century, the city and region was on the border between the Khanate of Kokand and Qing Empire, it was absorbed as part of the Russian Empire in the 1850s. To defend its empire, Russia built Fort Verniy near the Zailiysky Alatau mountain range between the Bolshaya and Malenkaya Almatinka rivers. Construction was nearly completed by the autumn of that year; the fort was a wooden palisade, shaped like a pentagon, with one side built along the Malaya Almatinka. The wood fence was replaced with a brick wall with embrasures; the main facilities were erected around the large square for parading. In 1855 Kazakhs displaced from their nomadic territor
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Dubai is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates. On the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf, it is the capital of the Emirate of Dubai, one of the seven emirates that make up the country. Dubai is a global business hub of the Middle East, it is a major global transport hub for passengers and cargo. Oil revenue helped accelerate the development of the city, a major mercantile hub, but Dubai's oil reserves are limited and production levels are low: today, less than 5% of the emirate's revenue comes from oil. A growing centre for regional and international trade since the early 20th century, Dubai's economy today relies on revenues from trade, aviation, real estate, financial services. Dubai has attracted world attention through large construction projects and sports events, in particular the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa; as of 2012, Dubai was the most expensive city in the Middle East. In 2014, Dubai's hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive in the world.
Many theories have been proposed as to the origin of the word "Dubai". One theory suggests the word was used to describe the souq, similar to the souq in Ba. An Arabic proverb says "Daba Dubai", meaning "They came with a lot of money." According to Fedel Handhal, a scholar on the UAE's history and culture, the word Dubai may have come from the word daba, referring to the slow flow of Dubai Creek inland. The poet and scholar Ahmad Mohammad Obaid traces it to the same word, but to its alternative meaning of "baby locust" due to the abundant nature of locusts in the area before settlement; the history of human settlement in the area now defined by the United Arab Emirates is rich and complex, points to extensive trading links between the civilisations of the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia, but as far afield as the Levant. Archaeological finds in the emirate of Dubai at Al-Ashoosh, Al Sufouh and the notably rich trove from Saruq Al Hadid show settlement through the Ubaid and Hafit periods, the Umm Al Nar and Wadi Suq periods and the three Iron Ages in the UAE.
The area was known to the Sumerians as Magan, was a source for metallic goods, notably copper and bronze. The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, becoming part of the city's present coastline. Pre-Islamic ceramics have been found from the 4th centuries. Prior to the introduction of Islam to the area, the people in this region worshiped Bajir. After the spread of Islam in the region, the Umayyad Caliph of the eastern Islamic world invaded south-east Arabia and drove out the Sassanians. Excavations by the Dubai Museum in the region of Al-Jumayra found several artefacts from the Umayyad period; the earliest recorded mention of Dubai is in 1095 in the Book of Geography by the Andalusian-Arab geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri. The Venetian pearl merchant Gasparo Balbi visited the area in 1580 and mentioned Dubai for its pearling industry. Dubai is thought to have been established as a fishing village in the early 18th century and was, by 1822, a town of some 7–800 members of the Bani Yas tribe and subject to the rule of Sheikh Tahnun bin Shakhbut of Abu Dhabi.
In 1833, following tribal feuding, members of the Al Bu Falasah tribe seceded from Abu Dhabi and established themselves in Dubai. The exodus from Abu Dhabi was led by Obeid bin Saeed and Maktoum bin Butti, who became joint leaders of Dubai until Ubaid died in 1836, leaving Maktum to establish the Maktoum dynasty. Dubai signed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 along with other Trucial States, following the British punitive expedition against Ras Al Khaimah of 1819, which led to the bombardment of the coastal communities of the Persian Gulf; this led to the 1853 Perpetual Maritime Truce. Dubai – like its neighbours on the Trucial Coast – entered into an exclusivity agreement in which the United Kingdom took responsibility for the emirate's security in 1892. In 1841, a smallpox epidemic broke out in the Bur Dubai locality, forcing residents to relocate east to Deira. In 1896, fire broke out in Dubai, a disastrous occurrence in a town where many family homes were still constructed from barasti - palm fronds.
The conflagration consumed half the houses of Bur Dubai, while the district of Deira was said to have been destroyed. The following year, more fires broke out. A female slave was subsequently put to death. In 1901, Maktoum bin Hasher Al Maktoum established Dubai as a free port with no taxation on imports or exports and gave merchants parcels of land and guarantees of protection and tolerance; these policies saw a movement of merchants not only directly from Lingeh, but those who had settled in Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah to Dubai. An indicator of the growing importance of the port of Dubai can be gained from the movements of the steamer of the Bombay and Persia Steam Navigation Company, which from 1899 to 1901 paid five visits annually to Dubai. In 1902 the company's vessels made 21 visits to Dubai and from 1904 on, the steamers called fortnightly – in 1906, trading seventy thousand tonnes of cargo; the frequency of these vessels only helped to accelerate Dubai's role as an emerging port and trading hub of preference.
Lorimer notes the transfer from Lingeh'bids fair to become complete and permanent', that the town had by 1906 supplanted Lingeh as the chief entrepôt of the Trucial States. The'great storm' of 1908 struck the pearling boats of Dubai and the coastal emirates t
Rishon LeZion is the fourth largest city in Israel, located along the central Israeli coastal plain 8 km south of Tel Aviv. It is part of the Gush Dan metropolitan area. Founded in 1882 by Jewish immigrants from the Russian Empire, it was the second Jewish farm settlement established in the land of Israel in the 19th century, after Petah Tikva. In 2017, it was declared the fourth largest city in Israel with a population of 249,860; the name Rishon LeZion is derived from a biblical verse: "First to Zion are they, I shall give herald to Jerusalem" and translates as "First to Zion". Rishon LeZion was founded on July 31, 1882, by ten Hovevei Zion pioneers from Kharkiv, Ukraine headed by Zalman David Levontin. Reuven Yudalevich was a member of the group; the pioneers purchased 835 acres of land southeast of present-day Tel Aviv, part of the townland of the Arab village of Ayun Kara. In addition to the problems posed by sandy soil and lack of water, the newcomers had no agricultural experience. Baron Rothschild brought in experts who drilled for water.
Wells were built at a depth of 20-25 meters. After the Biluim arrived, the colony began to develop. On February 23 1883, the settlers found water in the wells. To mark this occasion, the village emblem was inscribed with a verse from the Bible: "We have found water." Fani Belkind, Israel Belkind, Shimshon Belkind, Yoel Drubin, Haim Hissin, David Yudilovich were among the Biluim who arrived in Rishon Lezion at this time. In 1883 Itzhak Leib Toporovski a blacksmith of the young village created the first iron plough in the land of Israel, in 1885 the flag that would become the Flag of Israel was raised for the first time as part of the celebrations of the 3rd anniversary of the village; when Baron Edmond James de Rothschild took over, sending in his administrators and agricultural guide Shaul Helzner of Mikve Israel, major progress was made in the spheres of agriculture and viticulture. The Great Synagogue, which became a major focus of life in Rishon LeZion, was built between 1885 and 1889. Under Rothschild's patronage, the Carmel-Mizrahi Winery was established in 1886.
The Baron Edmond James de Rothschild and his wife Adelheid von Rothschild came to visit the village a year in 1887. In 1888, the medicine house, the baron's stables and the baron's clerks house were built. In 1889 the building in which the Carmel-Mizrahi Winery is located was built. A telephone was added in 1898 electricity was installed. In 1890 the palm boulevard in the city park was planted and in 1898, the year Theodor Herzl visited the settlement the city park was established and a water tower was built next to the well. In 1895 the Rishon LeZion orchestra was established. David Ben-Gurion was head of workers' union at the winery before becoming Israel's first Prime Minister; the first Hebrew school in the country opened in Rishon LeZion in 1886. Dov Lubman Haviv taught Mordechai Lubman Haviv was an educational inspector. Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, known as the father of modern Hebrew, was a teacher in Rishon LeZion. In 1898 the first Hebrew kindergarten in the world was established by Esther Ginzburg a former student of the first Hebrew school.
At the year of its founding in 1882, Rishon LeZion had a population of 150. In 1890, Rishon LeZion had a population of 359. Five years the figure had risen to 380, by 1900, to 526. In 1900 the management of the village was transfered from the barons office to the village council and the Jewish Colonization Association. In 1910 the village bell was constructed next to the medicine house, in 1912 the first car appeared in the village. In 1911, 4,000 dunams of land in Rishon LeZion were planted with grapes and 254 dunams with other fruit orchards. In 1913 the governor of Greater Syria Djemal Pasha annexed the sands around Rishon Lezion to their territory and in 1915 Rishon Lezion was expanded again and was given the territory between it and the Mediterranean Sea. In 1913 Nahlat Yehuda, another Jewish settlement, was established north of Rishon Lezion. In 1915 Rishon Lezion and the surrounding area experienced a Locust attack. Ayun Kara was the scene of a bloody battle between Turkish and New Zealand troops on November 14, 1917.
Local citizens carried the wounded to a medical facility in Rishon LeZion. A stone cenotaph was erected by the people of Rishon LeZion to the memory of the New Zealanders who fell that day, but it has since been destroyed. In the wake of the battle the New Zealanders set up camp at Rishon Lezion, described by one officer as a "pretty little hamlet surrounded by vineyards and orange groves." Relations between the troops and villagers were good, the troops brought the villagers the news of the Balfour Declaration. In 1919 the women of Rishon Lezion were given voting rights and on the same year Nehama Pohatchevsky was elected chairman of the village council which marked the first time a woman was elected to the position. In 1924 the British Army contracted the Jaffa Electric Company for wired electric power to the military installations in Sarafand; the contract allowed the Electric Company to extend the grid beyond the original geographical limits, projected by the concession it was given. The high-tension line that exceeded the limits of the original concession ran along some major towns and agricultural settlements, offering extended connections to the Jewish settlements of Rishon Le-Zion, Nes-Ziona and Rehovot (in spite of their proximity to the high-tension line