The World Chess Championship 1972 was a match for the World Chess Championship between challenger Bobby Fischer of the United States and defending champion Boris Spassky of the Soviet Union. The match took place in the Laugardalshöll arena in Reykjavík, has been dubbed the Match of the Century. Fischer became the first American born in the United States to win the world title, the second American overall. Fischer's win ended, for a short time, 24 years of Soviet domination of the World Championship; the first game was played on July 11, 1972. The last game began on August 31, was adjourned after 40 moves, Spassky resigned the next day without resuming play. Fischer won the match 12½–8½, becoming the eleventh undisputed world champion. Former world chess champion Garry Kasparov described Fischer's win as "a crushing moment in the midst of the Cold War"; the match was played although during a period of increasing détente. The Soviet Chess School had a 24-year monopoly on the world championship title, with Spassky the latest in an uninterrupted chain of Soviet world chess champions, stretching back to the 1948 championship.
Fischer, an eccentric 29-year-old American, claimed that Soviet players gained an unfair advantage by agreeing to short draws among themselves in tournaments. In 1962 the American magazine Sports Illustrated and the German magazine Der Spiegel published Fischer's article "The Russians Have Fixed World Chess", in which he expounded this view. Fischer himself agreed to early draws. Spassky faced political pressure to win the match. While Fischer was famously critical of his home country, he too carried a burden of expectation because of the match's political significance. No American had achieved the world championship since the first champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, became a naturalized American citizen in 1888; the excitement surrounding the match was such that it was called the "Match of the Century" though the same term had been applied to the USSR vs. Rest of the World match just two years before. Spassky, the champion, had qualified for world championship matches in 1966 and 1969, he lost the world championship match to Tigran Petrosian in 1966.
In the 1969 cycle, he won matches against Efim Geller, Bent Larsen, Viktor Korchnoi to win the right to challenge a second time defeated Petrosian 12½–10½ to win the world title. He is said to have had a "universal style", "involving an ability to play the most varied types of positions", but Garry Kasparov notes that "from childhood he had a leaning toward sharp, attacking play, possessed a splendid feel for the initiative."In the Candidates matches en route to becoming the challenger in 1972, Fischer had demolished world-class grandmasters Mark Taimanov and Bent Larsen, each by a perfect score of 6–0, a feat no one else had accomplished in any Candidates match. After that, Fischer had split the first five games of his match against Petrosian closed out the match by winning the last four games. "No bare statement conveys the magnitude and impact of these results.... Fischer sowed devastation." From the last seven rounds of the Interzonal until the first game against Petrosian, Fischer won 20 consecutive games, nearly all of which were against top grandmasters.
Fischer had a much higher Elo rating than Spassky. On the July 1972 FIDE rating list, Fischer's 2785 was a record 125 points ahead of the number two player – Spassky, whose rating was 2660. Fischer's recent results and record Elo rating made him the pre-match favorite. Other observers, noted that Fischer had never won a game against Spassky. Before the match, Fischer had played five games against Spassky, losing three. Spassky's seconds for the match were Efim Geller, Nikolai Krogius and Iivo Nei. Fischer's was William Lombardy, his entourage included lawyer Paul Marshall, who played a significant role in the events surrounding the match, USCF representative Fred Cramer. The match referee was Lothar Schmid. For some time, it was doubtful. Shortly before the match, Fischer demanded that the players receive, in addition to the agreed-upon prize fund of $125,000 and 30% of the proceeds from television and film rights, 30% of the box-office receipts, he failed to arrive in Iceland for the opening ceremony on July 1.
Fischer's behavior was full of contradictions, as it had been throughout his career. He flew to Iceland and agreed to play after a two-day postponement of the match by FIDE President Max Euwe, a surprise doubling of the prize fund by British investment banker Jim Slater, much persuasion, including a phone call from Henry Kissinger. Many commentators from the USSR, have suggested that all this was part of Fischer's plan to "psych out" Spassky. Fischer's supporters say that winning the World Championship was the mission of his life, that he wanted the setting to be perfect for it when he took the stage, that his behavior was the same as it had always been. World-class match play involves one or both players preparing one or two openings deeply, playing them during the match. Preparation for such a match involves analysis of lines known to be played by the opponent. Fischer had been famous for his unusually narrow opening repertoire: for example invariably playing 1.e4 as White, always playing the Najdorf Variation of the Sicilian Defense as Black against 1.e4.
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Cheruskia is a minor planet orbiting the Sun, discovered by German astronomer Paul Götz on 26 July 1905 from Heidelberg. Photometric observations of this asteroid at the Palmer Divide Observatory in Colorado Springs, during 2008 gave a light curve with a period of 13.209 ± 0.001 hours and a brightness variation of 0.10 ± 0.01 in magnitude. This is in disagreement with a previous study reported in 2000 that gave a period estimate of 14.654 hours. Lightcurve plot of 568 Cheruskia, Palmer Divide Observatory, B. D. Warner Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 568 Cheruskia at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 568 Cheruskia at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
Islamism has existed in the United Kingdom since the 1970s, has become visible and a topic of political discourse since the beginning of the 21st century. Islam in the United Kingdom has grown due to immigration since the 1980s. In 2011, 2.7 million Muslims lived in the UK, more than quintupling over a 30-year period, with a continued tendency of rapid growth. Radical Islam has been present in Great Britain since the 1970s, but has not received wider public attention prior to the 7 July 2005 London bombings. Dawatul Islam is an Islamist organisation based in London, founded in 1978 from the Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan-originated UK Islamic Mission to cater to East Bengali Muslims in Britain after the founding of Bangladesh in 1971. Syrian Islamist Omar Bakri Muhammad moved to the United Kingdom in 1986, established a chapter of Hizb ut-Tahrir, Al-Muhajiroun, proscribed under the Terrorism Act 2000 on 14 January 2010. Social disturbance began in the Muslim community in England in 1988 with the publication of the satirical novel The Satanic Verses in London.
The book was condemned with a fatwa the following year. In 1989, an Islamic Party of Britain was founded by a Sheffield-born convert; the Islamic Forum of Europe was founded in 1990. It was founded by former members of the Jamaat-e-Islami-affiliated group Dawatul Islam, with whom it came into conflict over management of the East London Mosque "throughout the late 1980s" resulting in "two High Court injunctions" in 1990 in "response to violence" at the mosque; the Islamic Society of Britain was set up in 1990 to promote Islamic values. The Young Muslims UK, established in 1984, was incorporated into ISB as its youth wing. In 1997, some supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood "broke off" from ISB to form the Muslim Association of Britain; the Saved Sect operated from 2005 but was banned in 2006. The extent of the phenomenon was illustrated during the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy of 2006, when Al Ghurabaa, successor organisation to the disbanded Al-Muhajiroun, called Muslims to "Kill those who insult the Prophet Muhammad", resulting in extensive protests in London.
Following the 2005 terror attacks, the phenomenon of Islamism within the resident Muslim population in Britain receive wider interest. An early publication was Londonistan:. Undercover Mosque aired in 2007. Islam4UK led by Anjem Choudary had been active from 2009, it has been banned under the Terrorism Act 2000 on 14 January 2010. Since 2006, the Islamic Forum of Europe has been under scrutiny as fostering Islamist politics among Bangladeshi immigrants. IFE and the East London Mosque, have hosted extremist preachers including Anwar al-Awlaki. A Dispatches documentary aired on 1 March 2010 suggested the IFE are an extremist organization with a hidden agenda that went against Britain's democratic values. Dispatches quoted Azad Ali, the IFE's community affairs coordinator, as saying, "Democracy, if it means at the expense of not implementing the sharia, of course no one agrees with that". Responding in a comment piece in the Guardian newspaper, Inayat Bunglawala of the Muslim Council of Britain suggested that many of the people interviewed on the programme had "hidden agendas of their own" suggesting that Jim Fitzpatrick's claim of the Labour Party having been "infiltrated" by IFE was motivated by upcoming elections.
The IFE and YMO were featured in the book The Islamist by Ed Husain, where he explains that the YMO attracts English-speaking Asian youths, providing circles or talks daily at the East London Mosque. The Islamic Human Rights Commission was classified as "a radical Islamist organisation that uses the language and techniques of a human rights lobbying group to promote an extremist agenda" by the Stephen Roth Institute in 2005. Criticism of Islamism Islamist terrorism in the United Kingdom British Muslim identity Islamophobia in the United Kingdom Muslim Council of Britain Mosques and Imams National Advisory Board United Kingdom and ISIL
In the United Kingdom, an Acceptable Behaviour Contract is an early intervention made against individuals who are perceived to be engaging in anti-social behaviour. Though they may be used against adults all ABCs concern young people; the contract, drawn up and agreed upon by the agencies concerned in consultation with the individual, contains both negative and positive conditions, detailing what behaviour the individual will cease to partake in and what activities the individual will pursue to change their behaviour. Though ABCs are not binding, breach of an ABC is used as evidence to support an application for an Anti-Social Behaviour Order, breach of, a criminal offence. In agreements, children are asked to not only sign that they will not perform the identified behaviour but that they recognise that breach may result in application for an ASBO and that, if the ASBO is breached, they may face imprisonment of up to 5 years and/or a fine up to £2,000; the process for an ABC will first be a letter, sent to parent in the case of a minor, which will identify the existence of behaviour but not what it consisted of, associate the person with the behaviour, then'invite' the person, parent, to a meeting at which an ABC will be discussed.
Failure to attend, it is warned, may lead to sanctions, the most common being loss of local authority or social housing tenancy by the person or the parent. The use of these with such groups is more therefore, than with those in private-rented or owned properties. There is little national data on the ways in which ABCs have been used in the UK. At least 19,000 have been rolled out with children aged 10–18 years. ABCs were first used in Islington in the early 2000s, rolled out nationwide in the following years. Little attention has been paid to the rights issues around ABCs. However, the children play campaign body, Fair Play for Children Association, after being contacted by a parent in Islington in 2002, published an article'Easy as ABC?' which detailed 2 cases, raised serious concerns about the children's rights and civil liberties aspects of these contracts. Fair Play surveyed local authorities subsequently and found a wide range of practice, from virtual non-use onwards. Local authority solicitors seemed divided on the human rights aspect, some saying that use of ABCs had been considered against obligations under the Human Rights Act 1998, others that it had not.
The legal status of ABCs has hardly been considered. The claim is made that they are not binding, a moot point, for why are children warned their parents may lose tenancies? The question of coercion must arise. What is the human rights status of an ABC? The UK has incorporated the European Convention on Human Rights directly into its domestic law, The Human Rights Act 1998; the relevant Articles of the Convention may well be nos. 8, 11, 14 but the principal Article against which use of ABCs might best be judged is Article 6.1: "In the determination of his civil rights and obligations or of any criminal charge against him, everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law. Judgement shall be pronounced publicly by the press and public may be excluded from all or part of the trial in the interest of morals, public order or national security in a democratic society, where the interests of juveniles or the protection of the private life of the parties so require, or the extent necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice."
The question must arise, is the deployment of an ABC option a means of determining someone's civil obligations? The sending of a letter to a person, or parent, may be argued to be the first stage of such a process, the threat of sanctions where used must lend weight to such a view. If this view is correct the process must take account of the person's rights; the question arises as to whether ABC processes as described and used, comply with A6.1. Many local authority solicitors had not, in the above survey, considered A6.1 at all. The popularity of ABCs with government is that they are much easier to achieve than ASBOs and there is the aspect that they are for use as a means of avoiding involvement with the criminal law per the young. However, that they have been signed by children as young as 11 not because the child recognised alleged wrongdoing but because of threat of loss of parent's tenancy, that children have signed away a fundamental right of freedom of association, must raise concerns.
In particular the lack of reference to the HRA 1998 and the need for an independent scrutiny of a case, is a serious matter. Not only do children need to understand why they are being asked to sign an ABC, but their interests and rights cannot be subordinated to e.g. politically popular objectives or "easier" solutions to perceived problems of public order. Claims that ABCs prevent engagement with the criminal law may be countered with a view that other forms of informal intervention which do not involve coercion and target identified individual behaviours have been given neither the support nor prominence of the ABC afforded by government; the lack of detailed study of ABCs renders the suspicion that they can be used as an'easy option' to "sort out" neighbourhood problems with infringement of basic rights of th
Angora station is a SEPTA railway station in Philadelphia. It serves the Media/Elwyn Line and is located at 58th Street near Baltimore Avenue in Southwest Philadelphia's Angora neighborhood, however the actual location is south of Baltimore Avenue. Part of Cobbs Creek Parkway runs along 58th Street from Baltimore Avenue, over the railroad bridge, to nearby Hoffman Avenue. In 2013, this station saw 36 boardings and 37 alightings on an average weekday, making it SEPTA's least used regional rail station. Angora station lies several blocks southeast of the Angora Loop station, the western terminus of Route 34 on the SEPTA Subway-Surface Trolley Lines, a line that runs along Baltimore Avenue, three blocks north of the station. Angora has two low-level side platforms. SEPTA – Angora Station 1973 former Angora Station House photograph 58th Street entrance from Google Maps Street View
A Wien bridge oscillator is a type of electronic oscillator that generates sine waves. It can generate a large range of frequencies; the oscillator is based on a bridge circuit developed by Max Wien in 1891 for the measurement of impedances. The bridge comprises two capacitors; the oscillator can be viewed as a positive gain amplifier combined with a bandpass filter that provides positive feedback. Automatic gain control, intentional non-linearity and incidental non-linearity limit the output amplitude in various implementations of the oscillator; the circuit shown to the right depicts a once-common implementation of the oscillator, with automatic gain control using an incandescent lamp. Under the condition that R1=R2=R and C1=C2=C, the frequency of oscillation is given by: f h z = 1 2 π R C and the condition of stable oscillation is given by R b = R f 2 There were several efforts to improve oscillators in the 1930s. Linearity was recognized as important; the "resistance-stabilized oscillator" had an adjustable feedback resistor.
The oscillations would build until the vacuum tube's grid would start conducting current, which would increase losses and limit the output amplitude. Automatic amplitude control was investigated. Terman states, "The frequency stability and wave-shape form of any common oscillator can be improved by using an automatic-amplitude-control arrangement to maintain the amplitude of oscillations constant under all conditions."In 1937, Meacham described using a filament lamp for automatic gain control in bridge oscillators. In 1937, Scott described audio oscillators based on various bridges including the Wien bridge. Terman at Stanford University was interested in Black's work on negative feedback, so he held a graduate seminar on negative feedback. William Hewlett attended the seminar. Scott's February 1938 oscillator paper came out during the seminar. Here is a recollection by Terman: Fred Terman explains: "To complete the requirements for an Engineer’s degree at Stanford, Bill had to prepare a thesis.
At that time I had decided to devote an entire quarter of my graduate seminar to the subject of'negative feedback' I had become interested in this new technique because it seemed to have great potential for doing many useful things. I would report on some applications I had thought up on negative feedback, the boys would read recent articles and report to each other on current developments; this seminar was just well started. It was by a man from General Radio and dealt with a fixed-frequency audio oscillator in which the frequency was controlled by a resistance-capacitance network, was changed by means of push-buttons. Oscillations were obtained by an ingenious application of negative feedback."In June 1938, Buss and Cahill gave a presentation about negative feedback at the IRE Convention in New York. One topic was amplitude control in a Wien bridge oscillator; the oscillator was demonstrated in Portland. Hewlett, along with David Packard, co-founded Hewlett-Packard, Hewlett-Packard's first product was the HP200A, a precision Wien bridge oscillator.
The first sale was in January 1939. Hewlett's June 1939 engineer's degree thesis used a lamp to control the amplitude of a Wien bridge oscillator. Hewlett's oscillator produced a sinusoidal output with a stable low distortion; the conventional oscillator circuit is designed so that it will start oscillating and that its amplitude will be controlled. The oscillator at the right uses diodes to add a controlled compression to the amplifier output, it can produce total harmonic distortion in the range of 1-5%, depending on how it is trimmed. For a linear circuit to oscillate, it must meet the Barkhausen conditions: its loop gain must be one and the phase around the loop must be an integer multiple of 360 degrees; the linear oscillator theory doesn't address how the oscillator starts up or how the amplitude is determined. The linear oscillator can support any amplitude. In practice, the loop gain is larger than unity. Random noise is present in all circuits, some of that noise will be near the desired frequency.
A loop gain greater than one allows the amplitude of frequency to increase exponentially each time around the loop. With a loop gain greater than one, the oscillator will start. Ideally, the loop gain needs to be just a little bigger than one, but in practice, it is significantly greater than one. A larger loop gain makes the oscillator start quickly. A large loop gain compensates for gain variations with temperature and the desired frequency of a tunable oscillator. For the oscillator to start, the loop gain must be greater than one under all possible conditions. A loop gain greater than one has a down side. In theory, the oscillator amplitude will increase without limit. In practice, the amplitude will increase until the output runs into some limiting factor such as the power supply voltage or the amplifier output current limits; the limiting reduces the effective gain of the amplifier. In a stable oscillator, the average loop gain will be one. Although the limiting action stabilizes the output voltage, it has two significant effects