Volapük is a constructed language, created in 1879 and 1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest in Baden, Germany. Schleyer felt. Volapük conventions took place in 1884, 1887 and 1889; the first two conventions used German, the last conference used only Volapük. In 1889, there were an estimated 283 clubs, 25 periodicals in or about Volapük, 316 textbooks in 25 languages. Volapük was displaced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Esperanto. Schleyer first published a sketch of Volapük in May 1879 in Sionsharfe, a Catholic poetry magazine of which he was editor; this was followed in 1880 by a full-length book in German. Schleyer himself did not write books on Volapük in other languages. André Cherpillod writes of the third Volapük convention, In August 1889 the third convention was held in Paris. About two hundred people from many countries attended. And, unlike in the first two conventions, people spoke only Volapük. For the first time in the history of mankind, sixteen years before the Boulogne convention, an international convention spoke an international language.
The Dutch cryptographer Auguste Kerckhoffs was for a number of years Director of the Academy of Volapük, introduced the movement to several countries. The French Association for the Propagation of Volapük was authorized on 8 April 1886, with A. Lourdelet as President and a central committee that included the deputy Edgar Raoul-Duval. However, tensions arose between Kerckhoffs and others in the Academy, who wanted reforms made to the language, Schleyer, who insisted on retaining his proprietary rights; this led to schism, with much of the Academy abandoning Schleyer's Volapük in favor of Idiom Neutral and other new constructed language projects. Another reason for the decline of Volapük may have been the rise of Esperanto. In 1887 the first Esperanto book was published. Many Volapük clubs became Esperanto clubs. By 1890 the movement was with violent arguments among the members. Schleyer created a rival academy. Derived languages such as Nal Bino, Bopal, Spelin and Orba were invented and forgotten.
By 1900 there were only 159 members of Volapük clubs recognized by Schleyer. The umlauts, which may have been one of the reasons for the language's eventual decline into obscurity, were the subject of ridicule. For example, the Milwaukee Sentinel published the limerick: In the 1920s, Arie de Jong, with the consent of the leaders of the small remnant of Volapük speakers, made a revision of Volapük, published in 1931; this revision was accepted by the few speakers of the language. De Jong simplified the grammar, eliminating some used verb forms, eliminated some gendered pronouns and gendered verb endings, he rehabilitated the phoneme /r/ and used it to make some morphemes more recognizable. For instance, lömib "rain" became rein. Volapük enjoyed a brief renewal of popularity in the Netherlands and Germany under de Jong's leadership, but was suppressed in countries under Nazi rule and never recovered. Regarding the success of this artificial language, the Spanish scientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal wrote in the first edition of his Tonics of Willingness, in 1898: Nowadays, many scientific papers are published in more than six languages.
To the attempt of restoring Latin or using Esperanto as the universal language of science, wise men have responded by multiplying the number of languages in which scientific works are published. We have to acknowledge that Volapük or Esperanto are one more language to be learnt; this result was predictable because neither the popularized and democratic tendencies of modern knowledge, nor the economic views of authors and editors consent in a different way. However, some years in the third edition of the same book, he added the following footnote to the former assertion: "As it was presumable, nowadays -1920-, the brand new Volapük has been forgotten definitively. We forecast the same for Esperanto." Large Volapük collections are held by the International Esperanto Museum in Austria. In 2000 there were an estimated 20 Volapük speakers in the world. In December 2007 it was reported that the Volapük version of Wikipedia had jumped to 15th place among language editions, with more than 112,000 articles.
A few months earlier there had been only 797 articles. The massive increase in the size of "Vükiped", bringing it ahead of the Esperanto Wikipedia, was due to an enthusiast who had used a computer program to automatically create geographical articles, many on small villages; the motive was to gain visibility for the language. By March 2013 the Esperanto Wikipedia, with a active user community, had risen to 176,792 articles, while the Volapük Wikipedia had at that point 119,091 articles. There has been a continuous Volapük speaker community since Schleyer's time, with an unbroken succession of Cifals; these were: Johann Martin Schleyer 1879–1912 Albert Sleumer 1912–1948 Arie de Jong 1947–1948, 1951–1957 Jakob Sprenger 1948–1950 Johann Schmidt 1950–1977 Johann Krüger 1977–1983 Brian Bishop 1984–2014 Hermann Philipps 2014–present The alphabet is as follows: That is, the vowel letters ä, ö, ü have the pronunciations they
Esperantujo or Esperantio is the community of speakers of the Esperanto and their culture, as well the places and institutions where the language is used. The term is used "as if it were a country."Although it does not occupy its own area of Earth's surface, it can be said to constitute the 120 countries which have their own national Esperanto association. The word is formed analogously to country names. In Esperanto, the names of countries were traditionally formed from the ethnic name of their inhabitants plus the suffix -ujo, for example "France" was Francujo, from franco; the term analogous to Francujo would be Esperantistujo. However, that would convey the idea of the physical body of people, whereas using the name of the language as the basis of the word gives it the more abstract connotation of a cultural sphere. Names of nation states are formed with the suffix -io traditionally reserved for deriving country names from geographic features, so now Francio, the form Esperantio has been used i.a. in the Pasporta Servo and the Esperanto Citizens' Community.
In 1908, Dr. William Molly attempted to create an Esperanto nation in Neutral Moresnet known as "Amikejo". What became of it is unclear, Neutral Moresnet was annexed to Belgium in the Treaty of Versailles, 1919. During the 1960s came a new effort of creating an Esperanto state, which this time was called Republic of Rose Island; the state island stood in Adriatic Sea near Italy. After World War II, during Esperanto events there was a common currency used, but the management has stopped at the end of the 20th century. In Europe on 2 June 2001 a number of organizations founded the Esperanta Civito, which "aims to be a subject of international law" and "aims to consolidate the relations between the Esperantists who feel themselves belonging to the diaspora language group which does not belonge to any country". Esperanto Civito always uses the name Esperantujo, which itself is defined according to their interpretation of raumism, the meaning therefore may differ from the traditional Esperanto understanding of the word Esperantujo.
In April 2007 there was an Esperanto Republic founded as a joke. Esperantujo means any physical place as Esperanto meetings or virtual networks where they meet Esperanto speakers. Sometimes it is said. There is a German city, Herzberg am Harz, which since 12 July 2006 is called "the Esperanto city". There are bilingual pointers, in both German and Esperanto. Judging by the members of the World Esperanto Association, the countries where there the most Esperanto speakers are: Brazil, Japan, the United States, Italy. A language learning partner application called Amikumu has been launched in 2017, allowing Esperanto speakers to find one each other. There is no governmental system in Esperantujo. However, there is a social hierarchy of associations: Universal Esperanto Association is the principal association created in 1908, its central office is located in Rotterdam; the aim of the UEA is to promote the use of Esperanto, to strive for the solution of the language problem in international relations, to encourage all types of spiritual and material relations among people and to nurture among its members a strong sense of solidarity, to develop in them understanding and respect for other peoples.
Sometimes exist associations by continent, for example the European Esperanto Union. On the same level exist UEA commissions dedicated to promote spreading of Esperanto in Africa, Asia, Middle-East & North Africa, Oceania. In at least 120 countries in the world exist national associations: Brazilian Esperanto League, the German Esperanto Association, Japanese Esperanto Association, Esperanto-USA and Australian Esperanto Association are examples from all continents across the world; the goals are to help teach the language and use of Esperanto in the country. There exist local associations or Esperanto clubs where volunteers or activists offer courses to learn the language or get to know more about the culture of Esperanto. Sometimes they teach Esperanto in schools. There are thematic associations worldwide, which are concerned with spirituality, science or that brings together Esperantists which share common interests. There is a number of global organizations, such as Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda, or the World Esperanto Youth Organization, which has 46 national sections.
Universal Esperanto Association is not a governmental system. In addition to the United Nations and UNESCO, the UEA has consultative relationships with UNICEF and the Council of Europe and general cooperative relations with the Organization of American States. UEA collaborate with the International Organization for Standardization by means of an active connection to the ISO Committee on terminology; the association is active for information on the European Union and other interstate and international organizations and conferences. UEA is a member of European Language Council, a joint forum of universities and linguistic associations to promote the knowledge of languages and cultures within and outside the European Union. Moreover, on 10 May 2011, the UEA and the International Information Center for Terminology signed an Agreement on Cooperation, its objectives are inter exchange information, support each other and help out for projects, publications in the field
Esperanto vocabulary was defined in Unua Libro, published by L. L. Zamenhof in 1887, it contained around 900 root words. The rules of the language allow speakers to borrow words as needed, recommending only that they look for the most international words, that they borrow one basic word and derive others from it, rather than borrowing many words with related meanings. In 1894, Zamenhof published the first Esperanto dictionary, Universala vortaro, written in five languages and supplied a larger set of root words. Since many words have been borrowed from other languages those of Western Europe. In recent decades, most of the new borrowings or coinages have been scientific terms. There are frequent debates among Esperanto speakers about whether a particular borrowing is justified or whether the need can be met by derivation or extending the meaning of existing words. Esperanto occupies a middle ground between "naturalistic" constructed languages such as Interlingua, which take words en masse from their source languages with little internal derivation, a priori conlangs such as Solresol, in which the words have no historical connection to other languages.
In Esperanto, root words are borrowed and retain much of the form of their source language, whether the phonetic form or orthographic form. However, each root can form dozens of derivations that may bear little resemblance to equivalent words in the source languages, such as registaro, derived from the Latinate root reg. One of the ways Zamenhof made Esperanto easier to learn than ethnic languages was by creating a regular and productive derivational morphology. Through the judicious use of lexical affixes, the core vocabulary needed for communication was reduced, making Esperanto a more agglutinative language than most European languages, it has been estimated that on average one root in Esperanto is the communicative equivalent of ten words in English. However, a contrary tendency is apparent in cultured and Greco-Latin technical vocabulary, which most Europeans see as "international" and therefore take into Esperanto en masse, despite the fact they are not universal. Many Asians consider this to be an onerous and unnecessary burden on the memory, when it is so easy to derive equivalent words internally.
This sparks frequent debates as to whether a particular root is justified, sometimes results in duplicates of native and borrowed vocabulary. An example is "calligraphy", which occurs both as a calqued belskribo and as the direct borrowing kaligrafio. A similar development has occurred in English, Japanese, Spanish and other languages. However, although the debates in ethnic languages are motivated by nationalism or issues of cultural identity, in Esperanto the debates are motivated by differing views on how to make the language practical and accessible. One of the most useful derivational affixes for the beginner is the prefix mal-, which derives antonyms: peza, malpeza. However, except in jokes, this prefix is not used when an antonym exists in the basic vocabulary: suda, not "malnorda" from'north'; the creation of new words through the use of grammatical suffixes, such as nura from nur, tiama from tiam, or vido from vidi, is covered in the article on Esperanto grammar. What follows is a list of what are called "affixes".
Most of them, are lexical roots, in that they can be used as independent words and their relative order in a compound is determined by semantics, not grammar. They are called "affixes" because they derive from affixes in Esperanto's source languages; some are true affixes in that, although they may be used independently, their order within a word is fixed by the grammar. Only a few can not be used independently and so correspond to; when a root receives more than one affix, their order matters, because affixes modify the entire stem they are attached to. That is. Most affixes are themselves roots, as such have an inherent part of speech; this is indicated by the final part-of-speech vowel in the suffix list below. A few affixes do not affect the part of speech of the root. There are, in addition, affixes not listed here: technical affixes, such as the biological family suffix -edo seen in numidedo, a few taken from Ido, such as -oza in montoza, poroza. A proposed suffix -ala makes adjectives out of nouns made from adjectives: varmala, ŝtataligi.
Lexical affixes may act as roots by taking one of the grammatical suffixes: mala, ano, eble, iĝi, ero. Through compounding, lexical roots
Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case. This is supplemented by punctuation marks and by various logograms, such as the numerals 0–9, currency signs such as $, mathematical symbols. Twenty-two of the letters are identical in form to letters of the English alphabet; the remaining six have diacritic marks, ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ. In handwritten Esperanto, the diacritics pose no problem. However, since they do not appear on standard alphanumeric keyboards, various alternative methods have been devised for representing them in printed and typed text; the original method was a set of digraphs now known as the "h-system", but with the rise of computer word processing, the so-called "x-system" has become popular. These systems are described below. However, with the advent of Unicode, the need for such work-arounds has lessened; the letters have the sound values of the IPA, with the exception of c and the circumflex letters ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ. J transcribes two sounds and vocalic.
There is a nearly one-to-one correspondence of letter to sound. Beside the dual use of ⟨j⟩, significant exceptions are: voicing assimilation, as in the sequence kz of ekzemple, pronounced /ɡz/ place assimilation, as in n, pronounced before g and kNon-Esperantized names are given an Esperanto approximation of their original pronunciation, at least by speakers without command of the original language. Hard ⟨c⟩ is read as k, ⟨qu⟩ as kv, ⟨w⟩ as v, ⟨x⟩ as ks, ⟨y⟩ as j if a consonant, or as i if a vowel; the English digraph ⟨th⟩ is read as t. When there is no close equivalent, the difficult sounds may be given the Esperanto values of the letters in the orthography or roman transcription, accommodating the constraints of Esperanto phonology. So, for example, Winchester is pronounced Vinĉester /vint͡ʃester/, as Esperanto has no w. Changzhou becomes Ĉanĝo /t͡ʃand͡ʒo/, as Esperanto has no ng or ou sound. There are no strict rules, however; the original stress may be kept. The script resembles Western Slavic Latin alphabets but uses circumflexes instead of carons for the letters ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ.
The non-Slavic bases of the letters ĝ and ĵ, rather than Slavic dž and ž, help preserve the printed appearance of Latinate and Germanic vocabulary such as ĝenerala "general" and ĵurnalo "journal". The letter v stands for either w of other languages; the letter ŭ of the diphthongs aŭ and eŭ resemble the Belarusian Łacinka alphabet. Geographic names diverge from English for the English x, w, qu and gu, as in Vaŝingtono "Washington, D. C.", Meksiko "Mexico", or Gvatemalo "Guatemala". Other spelling differences appear when Esperanto spelling is based on the pronunciation of English names which have undergone the Great Vowel Shift, as in Brajtono for Brighton. Zamenhof tacked an -o onto each consonant to create the name of the letter, with the vowels representing themselves: a, bo, co, ĉo, do, e, fo, etc; the diacritics are mentioned overtly. For instance, ĉ may be called ĉo ĉapela or co ĉapela, from ĉapelo, ŭ may be called ŭo luneta or u luneta, from luno plus the diminutive -et-; this is the only system, accepted and in practical use.
The letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet not found in the Esperanto alphabet have distinct names, much as letters of the Greek alphabet do. ⟨q⟩, ⟨x⟩, ⟨y⟩ are kuo, ipsilono. However, while this is fine for initialisms such as ktp for etc. it can be problematic when spelling out names. For example, several consonantal distinctions are difficult for many nationalities, who rely on the fact that Esperanto uses these sounds to distinguish words, thus the pairs of letter names ĵo–ĝo, ĥo–ho, co–ĉo, lo–ro, ŭo–vo are problematic. In addition, over a noisy telephone connection it becomes apparent that voicing distinctions can be difficult to make out: noise confounds the pairs po–bo, to–do, ĉo–ĝo, ko–go, fo–vo, so–zo, ŝo–ĵo, as well as the nasals mo–no. There have been several proposals to resolve this problem. Gaston Waringhien proposed changing the vowel of voiced obstruents to a, so that at least voicing is not problematic. Changed to a are h, n, r, distinguishing them from ĥ, m, l; the result is the most common alternative in use: a, ba, co, ĉo, da, e, fo, ga, ĝa, ha, ĥo, i, jo, ĵa, ko, lo, mo, na, o, po, ra, so, ŝo, to, u, ŭo, va, zaHowever, this still requires overt mention of the diacritics, so does not reliably distinguish ba–va, co–so, ĉo–ŝo, or ĝa–ĵa.
The proposal closest to international norms that clarifies all the above distinctions is a modification of a proposal by Kálmán Kalocsay. As with Zamenhof, vowels stand for themselves, but it follows the international standard of placing vowel e after a consonant by default, but before sonorants and voiceless fricatives; the vowel a is used for ⟨h⟩ and the voiceless plosives ⟨p⟩, ⟨t⟩, ⟨k⟩, after the international names ha for ⟨h⟩ and ka for ⟨k⟩. The letter ⟨v⟩ has the i vowel of ĵi, distinguishing it from ⟨b⟩
The Pasporta Servo is a hospitality service for Esperanto speakers. It is maintained by the World Esperanto Youth Organization, which publishes an annual online and print directory of people within the Esperanto culture who are willing to host other Esperanto speakers in their residences for free for up to 3 nights; the platform is a gift economy. Free lodging via Pasporta Servo is one of the benefits of learning Esperanto. Guests using the service are encouraged to speak only Esperanto with their hosts. In 1966, psychologist Rubén Feldman González started the Programo Pasporto, a hospitality service for Esperanto speakers, in Argentina. In 1974, under the guidance of Jeanne-Marie Cash in France, the Pasporta Servo directory in its current form was first published, listing 40 hosts. Both founders are still hosts in the Pasporta Servo. In August 2008, TEJO launched an online version of the service. Official website
History of Esperanto
L. L. Zamenhof developed Esperanto in the 1870s and 80s and published the first publication about it, Unua Libro, in 1887; the number of Esperanto speakers has grown since although it has not had much support from governments and international organizations and has sometimes been outlawed or otherwise suppressed. Around 1880, while in Moscow and simultaneously with working on Esperanto, Zamenhof made an aborted attempt to standardize Yiddish, based on his native Bialystok dialect, as a unifying language for the Jews of the Russian Empire, he used a Latin alphabet, with the letters ć, h́, ś, ź and ě for schwa. However, he concluded there was no future for such a project, abandoned it, dedicating himself to Esperanto as a unifying language for all humankind. Paul Wexler proposed that Esperanto was not an arbitrary pastiche of major European languages but a Latinate relexification of Yiddish, a native language of its founder; this model is unsupported by mainstream linguists. Zamenhof would say that he had dreamed of a world language since he was a child.
At first he considered a revival of Latin, but after learning it in school he decided it was too complicated to be a common means of international communication. When he learned English, he realised that verb conjugations were unnecessary, that grammatical systems could be much simpler than he had expected, he still had the problem of memorising a large vocabulary, until he noticed two Russian signs labelled Швейцарская and Кондитерская. He realised that a judicious use of affixes could decrease the number of root words needed for communication, he chose to take his vocabulary from Romance and Germanic, the languages that were most taught in schools around the world and would therefore be recognisable to the largest number of people. Zamenhof taught an early version of the language to his high-school classmates. For several years, he worked on translations and poetry to refine his creation. In 1895 he wrote, "I worked for six years perfecting and testing the language though it had seemed to me in 1878 that it was completely ready."
When he was ready to publish, the Czarist censors would not allow it. Stymied, he spent his time in translating works such as the Shakespeare; this enforced delay led to continued improvement. In July 1887 he published a basic introduction to the language; this was the language spoken today. Unua Libro was published in 1887. At first the movement grew most in the Russian empire and eastern Europe, but soon spread to western Europe and beyond: to Argentina in 1889. In its first years Esperanto was used in publications by Zamenhof and early adopters like Antoni Grabowski, in extensive correspondence, in the magazine La Esperantisto, published from 1889 to 1895 and only in personal encounters. In 1894, under pressure from Wilhelm Trompeter, the publisher of the magazine La Esperantisto, some other leading users, Zamenhof reluctantly put forward a radical reform to be voted on by readers, he proposed the reduction of the alphabet to 22 letters, the change of the plural to -i, the use of a positional accusative instead of the ending -n, the removal of the distinction between adjectives and adverbs, the reduction of the number of participles from six to two, the replacement of the table of correlatives with more Latinate words or phrases.
These reforms were overwhelmingly rejected, but some were picked up in subsequent reforms and criticisms of the language. In the following decade Esperanto spread into western Europe France. By 1905 there were 27 magazines being published. A small international conference was held in 1904, leading to the first world congress in August 1905 in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. There were 688 Esperanto speakers present from 20 nationalities. At this congress, Zamenhof resigned his leadership of the Esperanto movement, as he did not want personal prejudice against himself to hinder the progress of the language, he proposed a declaration on founding principles of the Esperanto movement, which the attendees of the congress endorsed. World congresses have been held every year except during the two World Wars; the autonomous territory of Neutral Moresnet, between Belgium and Germany, had a sizable proportion of Esperanto-speakers among its small and multiethnic population. There was a proposal to make Esperanto its official language.
In the early 1920s, a great opportunity seemed to arise for Esperanto when the Iranian delegation to the League of Nations proposed that it be adopted for use in international relations, following a report by Nitobe Inazō, an official delegate of League of Nations during the 13th World Congress of Esperanto in Prague. Ten delegates accepted the proposal with only one voice against, the French delegate, Gabriel Hanotaux. Hanotaux did not like how the French language was losing its position as the international language and saw Esperanto as a threat. However, two years the League recommended that its member states include Esperanto in their educational curricula. Many people see the 1920s as the heyday of the Esperanto movement. In 1941, the Soviet Union started performing mass arrests and kill
L. L. Zamenhof
Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof, credited as L. L. Zamenhof and sometimes as the pseudonymous Dr. Esperanto, was a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist and the inventor of the international language Esperanto, the most widely-used constructed language in the world. Zamenhof first developed the language in 1873 while still in school, he grew up fascinated by the idea of a world without war. He believed; the language would be a tool to gather people together through neutral, equitable communication. He formed a community that continues today despite the World Wars of the 20th century, it has developed like other languages, through the interaction and creativity of its users. In light of his achievements, his support of intercultural dialogue, UNESCO selected Zamenhof as one of its eminent personalities of 2017, on the 100th anniversary of his death. Zamenhof was born on December 15, 1859, the son of Markus Zamenhof and Rozalia Zamenhof, in the multi-ethnic city of Białystok, now in Poland. At that time the city was in the Grodno Governorate of the Russian Empire as a result of the 1807 Treaties of Tilsit.
His parents were of Litvak Jewish descent. This group inhabited the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania, he appears to have been natively bilingual in Russian. His father was a teacher of French. From him, Zamenhof learned German and Hebrew, he spoke some major language of Białystok: Polish, a Yiddish and German. Polish became the native language of his children in Warsaw. In school he studied the classical languages Latin, Greek and Aramaic, he learned some English, though in his own words not well. He had an interest in Lithuanian and Italian, learned Volapük when it came out in 1880. By that point his international language project was well developed. In addition to the Yiddish-speaking Jewish majority, the population of Białystok included Roman Catholic Poles and Eastern Orthodox Russians, with smaller groups of Belarusians and other ethnic groups. Zamenhof was frustrated by the many quarrels among these groups, he supposed that the main reason for the hate and prejudice lay in the mutual misunderstanding caused by the lack of a common language.
If such a language existed, Zamenhof postulated, it could play the role of a neutral communication tool between people of different ethnic and linguistic backgrounds. As a student at secondary school in Warsaw, Zamenhof attempted to create an international language with a grammar, rich, but complex; when he studied English, he decided that the international language must have a simpler grammar. Apart from his parents' native languages Russian and Yiddish and his adopted language Polish, his projects were aided by his mastery of German, a good passive understanding of Latin and French, a basic knowledge of Greek and Italian. By 1878, his project Lingwe uniwersala was finished. However, Zamenhof was too young to publish his work. Soon after graduation he began to study medicine, first in Moscow, in Warsaw. In 1885, Zamenhof began his practice as a doctor in Veisiejai. After 1886 he worked as an ophthalmologist in Vienna. While healing people there, he continued to work on his project of an international language.
For two years he tried to raise funds to publish a booklet describing the language, until he received the financial help from his future wife's father. In 1887, the book titled Международный язык. Предисловие и полный учебник was published in Russian under the pseudonym "Doktoro Esperanto" Zamenhof called his language "Lingvo internacia", but those who learned it began to call it Esperanto after his pseudonym, this soon became the official name for the language. For Zamenhof, this language, far from being a communication tool, was a way to promote peaceful coexistence between people of different cultures. In 1879 Zamenhof wrote the first grammar of the Yiddish, it was published years in the Yiddish magazine Lebn un visnshaft. The complete original Russian text of this manuscript was only published in 1982, with parallel Esperanto translation by Adolf Holzhaus, in L. Zamenhof, provo de gramatiko de novjuda lingvo, Helsinki, pp. 9–36. In this work, not only does he provide a review of Yiddish grammar, but proposes its transition to the Latin script and other orthographic innovations.
In the same period Zamenhof wrote some other works in Yiddish, including the first survey of Yiddish poetics. In 1882 a wave of pogroms within the Russian Empire, including Congress Poland, motivated Zamenhof to take part in the early Zionist movement, the Hibbat Zion, he left the movement in 1887, in 1901 published a statement in Russian with the title Hillelism, in which he argued that the Zionist project could not solve the problems of the Jewish people. In 1914 he declined an invitation to join a new organization of Jewish Esperantists, the TEHA. In his letter to the organizers, he said, "I am profoundly convinced that every nationalism offers humanity only the greatest unhappiness... It is true that the nationalism of oppressed peoples – as a natural self-defensive reaction – is much more excusable than the nationalism of peoples who oppress.