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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization is a specialised agency of the United Nations, concerned with world public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland; the WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organisation, was an agency of the League of Nations; the WHO constitution was signed by 61 countries on 22 July 1946, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly concluding on 24 July 1948. It incorporated the Office International d'Hygiène Publique and the League of Nations Health Organisation. Since its establishment, it has played a leading role in the eradication of smallpox, its current priorities include communicable diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, Ebola and tuberculosis. The WHO is responsible for the World Health Report, the worldwide World Health Survey, World Health Day; the current Director-General of the WHO, Tedros Adhanom, served as Ethiopian Health Minister from 2005 to 2012 and as Ethiopian Foreign Minister from 2012 to 2016.

Adhanom started his five-year term on 1 July 2017. The International Sanitary Conferences held on 23 June 1851, were the first predecessors of the WHO. A series of 14 conferences that lasted from 1851 to 1938, the International Sanitary Conferences worked to combat many diseases, chief among them cholera, yellow fever, the bubonic plague; the conferences were ineffective until the seventh, in 1892. Five years a convention for the plague was signed. In part as a result of the successes of the Conferences, the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau, the Office International d'Hygiène Publique were soon founded in 1902 and 1907, respectively; when the League of Nations was formed in 1920, they established the Health Organization of the League of Nations. After World War II, the United Nations absorbed all the other health organizations, to form the WHO. During the 1945 United Nations Conference on International Organization, Szeming Sze, a delegate from the Republic of China, conferred with Norwegian and Brazilian delegates on creating an international health organization under the auspices of the new United Nations.

After failing to get a resolution passed on the subject, Alger Hiss, the Secretary General of the conference, recommended using a declaration to establish such an organization. Sze and other delegates lobbied and a declaration passed calling for an international conference on health; the use of the word "world", rather than "international", emphasized the global nature of what the organization was seeking to achieve. The constitution of the World Health Organization was signed by all 51 countries of the United Nations, by 10 other countries, on 22 July 1946, it thus became the first specialized agency of the United Nations. Its constitution formally came into force on the first World Health Day on 7 April 1948, when it was ratified by the 26th member state; the first meeting of the World Health Assembly finished on 24 July 1948, having secured a budget of US$5 million for the 1949 year. Andrija Štampar was the Assembly's first president, G. Brock Chisholm was appointed Director-General of WHO, having served as Executive Secretary during the planning stages.

Its first priorities were to control the spread of malaria and sexually transmitted infections, to improve maternal and child health and environmental hygiene. Its first legislative act was concerning the compilation of accurate statistics on the spread and morbidity of disease; the logo of the World Health Organization features the Rod of Asclepius as a symbol for healing. 1947: The WHO established an epidemiological information service via telex, by 1950 a mass tuberculosis inoculation drive using the BCG vaccine was under way. 1955: The malaria eradication programme was launched, although it was altered in objective. 1955 saw the first report on diabetes mellitus and the creation of the International Agency for Research on Cancer.1958: Viktor Zhdanov, Deputy Minister of Health for the USSR, called on the World Health Assembly to undertake a global initiative to eradicate smallpox, resulting in Resolution WHA11.54. At this point, 2 million people were dying from smallpox every year.1966: The WHO moved its headquarters from the Ariana wing at the Palace of Nations to a newly constructed HQ elsewhere in Geneva.1967: The WHO intensified the global smallpox eradication by contributing $2.4 million annually to the effort and adopted a new disease surveillance method.

The initial problem the WHO team faced was inadequate reporting of smallpox cases. WHO established a network of consultants who assisted countries in setting up surveillance and containment activities; the WHO helped contain the last European outbreak in Yugoslavia in 1972. After over two decades of fighting smallpox, the WHO declared in 1979 that the disease had been eradicated – the first disease in history to be eliminated by human effort.1967: The WHO launched the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases and the World Health Assembly voted to enact a resolution on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, with a focus on community-driven care. 1974: The Expanded Programme on Immunization and the control programme of onchocerciasis was started, an important partnership between the Food and Agriculture Organization, the United Nations Development Programme (UND

Beauvais Township, Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri

Beauvais Township is a subdivision of Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri, in the United States of America, is one of the five townships located in Ste. Genevieve County; the township was named in honor of an official of the county. Beauvais Township is a township in Ste. Genevieve, Missouri; the township was formed in 1832 from parts of Saline and Ste. Genevieve Townships. There are two towns in Beauvais Township, with a population of 543. 1,246 people live in the remaining area of the township. Minnith River aux Vases OzoraThe township contains three churches: Saints Phillip and James Catholic Church, Saline Baptist Church, Sacred Heart Catholic Church, as well as the following cemeteries: Mange, Brown, Saint Marys, Voekler. Beauvais Township is located in the southeastern section of Ste. Genevieve County. A number of streams run through the township: Johns Creek, Bluff Creek, Walnut Creek, Tube Creek, River aux Vases, Saline Creek, Brushy Creek, Idlewild Slough, Mitchel Slough. Lakes and reservoirs in the township include: Cedar Valley Lake, Donze Lake, Minnehaha Lake, Kisco Lake, Foerster Lake, Lake Minnie Ha-Ha Lower, Lake Minnie Ha-Ha Upper, Salt Petre Lake.

The 2000 census shows Beauvais township consisting of 810 housing units with a population of 1,800 individuals. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,789 people, with a population density of 22.1 per square mile, residing in the township. The racial makeup of the town was 97.32% White, 1.06% African American, 0.56% Native American and Alaska Native, 0.11% Asian, 0.22% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races

Mabini Protected Landscape and Seascape

The Mabini Protected Landscape and Seascape, in Davao de Oro, Philippines, is a terrestrial and marine protected area established in 2000 to protect ecologically significant habitats in the Davao Gulf. The park extends along the coast of the municipality of Mabini from the mouth of the Pandasan River to the southern tip of Kopiat Island, it includes Lunod Island known as Pandasan Island, earlier declared a wilderness area in 1981. It covers 6,106 hectares of extensive mangrove forests, white sand beaches and rich coral reef systems; the Mabini protected area is situated in the coastal villages of Cuambog, San Antonio, Pindasan and Tagnanan in the northeastern side of Davao Gulf, some 80 kilometers east of the regional capital Davao City. Its coast is characterized as flat and covered by San Miguel silty clay loam, it is lined by a good stand of mangrove forest along the shores of San Antonio and Pindasan. It is crossed by 9 rivers and creeks which drain into the Davao Gulf, including the Lapinigan and Pindasan rivers.

The park includes two small islands on the Davao Gulf: the 47-hectare Kopiat Island, the 17-hectare Lunod Island. The islands contain stretches of white sand beaches with mangrove areas. In Kopiat Island, a 7-hectare lagoon can be found; the waters surrounding the islands are known as a coral diversity hotspot hosting 46 of the 72 known genera of Scleractina found in the Philippines. Visitor facilities are provided at Kopiat Island, including resorts and cottages with comfort rooms and dressing rooms; the Mabini portion of Davao Gulf is a feeding ground to 11 species of cetaceans such as sperm whales, killer whales and bottle-nosed dolphins. It supports 5 marine turtle species including hawksbill turtles and leatherback turtles which lay their eggs on Kopiat Island. Mangrove forests cover 72 hectares of the park, dominated by the Rhizophora apiculata variety, it provides habitat to the following bird species