The World Organization of the Scout Movement is the largest international Scouting organization. WOSM has 171 members; these members are recognized national Scout organizations, which collectively have over 50 million participants. WOSM was established in 1922, has its operational headquarters at Kuala Lumpur and its legal seat in Geneva, Switzerland, it is the counterpart of the World Association of Girl Girl Scouts. The WOSM's current stated mission is "to contribute to the education of young people, through a value system based on the Scout Promise and Scout Law, to help build a better world where people are self-fulfilled as individuals and play a constructive role in society". WOSM is organized into regions and operates with a conference and bureau; the WOSM is associated with three World Scout Centres. The World Scout Jamboree is held every four years under the auspices of the WOSM, with members of WAGGGS invited. WOSM organises the World Scout Moot, a Jamboree for 17- to 26-year-olds, has organised the World Scout Indaba, a gathering for Scout leaders.
The World Scout Foundation is a perpetual fund governed by a separate Board of Governors and supported by donations for the development of WOSM associated Scouting programs throughout the world. WOSM is a non-governmental organization with General Consultative Status to the United Nations Economic and Social Council; as a result of an international conference held during the first World Scout Jamboree at Olympia, London in 1920, leaders there agreed to create a Boy Scouts International Bureau. An office was established at 25, Buckingham Palace Road and the International Commissioner of The Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom, Hubert S. Martin, was appointed as Honorary Director; the first task of the bureau was to co-ordinate the discussions and to prepare a second international conference in Paris in 1922. At the 1922 Paris conference The International Conference of the Boy Scout Movement, its committee and BSIB were constituted by the founding member organizations. In 1961 The International Conference of the Boy Scout Movement reconstituted the organization introducing the name World Organization of the Scout Movement.
The International Conference of the Boy Scout Movement became the WOSM's World Scout Conference, its International Committee became the World Scout Committee and the Boy Scouts International Bureau became the WOSM's World Scout Bureau. The World Scout Conference is the governing body and meets every three years, preceded by the World Scout Youth Forum; the World Scout Conference is the general assembly of Scouting and is composed of six delegates from each of the member Scout associations. If a country has more than one association, the associations form a federation for coordination and world representation; the basis for recognition and membership in the World Scout Conference includes adherence to the aims and principles of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, independence from political involvement on the part of each member association. The Conference is hosted by a member association. At the World Scout Conference basic cooperative efforts are agreed upon and a plan of mutual coordination is adopted.
The World Scout Committee is the executive body of the World Scout Conference and is composed of elected volunteers. The World Scout Committee represents World Scout Conference between the meetings of the full conference; the World Scout Committee is responsible for the implementation of the resolutions of the World Scout Conference and for acting on its behalf between its meetings. The Committee meets twice a year in Geneva, its Steering Committee, consisting of the Chairman, two Vice-Chairmen, a Youth Advisor and the Secretary General, meet as needed. The Committee has 15 members. Twelve, each from a different country, are elected for three-year terms by the World Scout Conference; the members, elected without regard to their nationality, represent the interests of the movement as a whole, not those of their country. The Secretary General, the Treasurer of WOSM and a representative member of the board of the World Scout Foundation are ex-officio members of the Committee; the chairmen of the regional Scout committees participate in the World Scout Committee meetings in a consultative capacity.
The World Scout Committee has set up work streams to address the top strategic priorities, as defined by the World Scout Conference, which at present include: Youth involvement Volunteers in Scouting Scouting's profile Standing committees include: Audit Budget Constitutions Honours and Awards Working With Others- a consultative committee of the WOSM and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, composed of members of the World Committee/World Board of both organizations 2007 Task Force for the 100th Anniversary of Scouting, composed of members of the World Scout Committee, World Scout Bureau, World Scout Foundation, The Scout Association of the United Kingdom Note: The World Scout Conference in 2008 decided that, starting at the World Conference in 2011, elected members will serve for only three years, but be eligible for re-election for one additional term. The Bronze Wolf Award is the only distinction awarded by WOSM, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting.
It was first awarded to Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell by a unanimous decision of the then-International Committee on the day of the institution of the Bronze Wolf in Stockholm in 1935. The World Scout Bureau is the secretariat that carries out the instructions of the World Scout Conference and the World Scout Committee; the WSB is adminis
Sara Nelson is the International President of the Association of Flight Attendants-CWA, AFL-CIO. A United Airlines flight attendant since 1996, she served as AFA's International Vice President for a term beginning January 1, 2011. Today, AFA-CWA represents nearly 50,000 flight attendants at 20 airlines. Nelson has been a flight attendant with United Airlines from 1996 through the present. Soon after beginning her career, based in Boston for United Airlines, Nelson became an activist in the Boston AFA Local, she served there in a variety of roles including the elected position of Council Representative. In 2002 Nelson was tapped by AFA leaders at United Airlines to serve as Communications Chair. In nearly 10 years as the union's chief spokesperson for United flight attendants, Nelson played a central role in the union's strategic response to every major event affecting the airline industry and, by extension, the members she helped to represent. In 2002, a year after the devastating impact of the September 11 Attacks rocked the airline industry, the SARS outbreak devastated international air travel.
Airlines including United Airlines undertook cost-cutting measures, Nelson served as the primary spokesperson for the union during those extensive pre-bankruptcy reorganization negotiations. By December 2002 when United Airlines filed the largest corporate bankruptcy in U. S. history, Nelson was leading both the internal and external communications response to what would become one of the longest corporate bankruptcies when it ended over three years later. When United used the bankruptcy to terminate the flight attendants pension plan, Nelson announced AFA's intent to engage in a strike, she served as the union's CHAOS strike chair during two rounds of labor negotiations, provided communications support to other groups of AFA flight attendants including those at Northwest Airlines where she served as AFA spokesperson during bankruptcy negotiations and strike preparations. In 2011 Nelson left the communications post when she was elected International Vice President, the union's number two leadership position.
Shortly after her election as International Vice President, Nelson undertook the leadership of AFA's internal and external organizing efforts. Under her leadership AFA prevailed in an representation election versus the International Association of Machinists for the bargaining rights covering the combined flight attendant workforce of United Airlines, Continental Airlines and Continental Micronesia following the merger of those carriers. Covering nearly 25,000 workers, that campaign culminated in one of the largest private sector union elections in decades, she led the union's successful organizing drive to represent the combined unit of flight attendants from Mesaba Airlines, Colgan Air and Pinnacle Airlines, following the merger that created Endeavor Airlines. Nelson led AFA's No Knives Ever Again Campaign in 2013; the Transportation Security Administration reversed its decision to allow knives on passenger flights, after first announcing it would lift the knife ban. Their rationale was that national security would be advanced if TSA officers spent less time looking for knives and more time watching for explosives.
AFA, with VP Sara Nelson leading the campaign, persuaded TSA executives that knives have no place on the aircraft. Featured on the Today Show, Nelson was able to challenge the TSA lifting the ban on allowing knives on passenger airplanes. Morning Joe featured an interview with Nelson, citing "Growing Outrage" about the lifting of the ban. Featured on BBC, Nelson took the campaign international to add growing pressure. Forbes interviewed Nelson, after the ban was reinstated. According to Nelson, the campaign succeeded because it worked as a coalition with congressional leaders, was backed by a legal team, arranged demonstrations at airports, exerted "pressure from all sides." Nelson was elected to the position of AFA International President in April 2014 and took office June 1, 2014. As International President, Nelson is the top officer of AFA, responsible for the overall leadership and direction of the union, she serves as chair of the union's annual convention, the AFA Board of Directors, as well as the union's Executive Board.
She is the chief spokesperson for the union, the primary liaison with other unions and labor organizations, industry groups and governmental agencies. Taking office as International Vice President of AFA in 2011, Nelson was responsible for the union's organizing and leadership development programs. Nelson testified before the United States Congress on issues of importance to flight attendants, like the Known Crew Member Program and the No Knives Campaign. In 2019 Nelson was credited for playing a key role in ending the 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown. On January 20, 2019, nearly a month into the shutdown, Nelson called for a general strike. In a viral speech on January 24, 2019, Nelson excoriated government officials for the shutdown, citing 800,000 federal workers who were forced to work for free or furloughed without pay. Nelson argued that TSA officers and air traffic controllers were distracted by the burdens the shutdown placed on them, and, eroding the safety of the airline industry.
The shutdown ended the next day as flights began to be cancelled at New York La Guardia Airport due to air traffic controllers no longer able to serve safely due to the impact of the shutdown. Nelson's militancy as a labor leader and her remarkable skill as a communicator have both been recognized as key to her effectiveness in the shutdown fight and beyond. Pop culture outlet InStyle Magazine took note, naming Nelson as one of its “50 Badass Women”; as she fought to end the shutdown, Nelso
Benno Premsela was a Dutch designer, visual artist and art collector. As designer he was active as industrial designer and interior designer. Premsela was raised in Amsterdam, he was the son of general practitioner and sexologist, en Rosalie de Boers. After his secondary education he attended the Nieuwe Kunstschool from 1937 to 1940. From 1956 to 1973 he was head of display window decoration at De Bijenkorf, he joined the Amsterdam Council for the Arts, which he chaired from 1961 to 1970. In 1972 he became chairman of the board of directors of the Gerrit Rietveld Academie. Premsela was chairman of the COC Nederland and made an important contribution to the acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands; the Benno Premsela Prize initiated in 2000 was named after Premsela. in 2002 a new national institute for design was named after him as well, the Premsela Dutch Platform for Design and Fashion. Erik Beenker. Benno Premsela, 1985. Keso Dekker. Benno Premsela onder anderen: Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.
1981. Bert Boelaars. Benno Premsela, 1920-1997: voorvechter van homo-emancipatie. 2008. PREMSELA, Benno at knaw.nl