International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation
The International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation is an international sports organisation that governs sports for athletes with physical impairments. IWAS is a registered charity with its headquarters located at Aylesbury College in, Buckinghamshire. and is the international governing body for the Paralympic sport of wheelchair fencing as well as the developing sport of Powerchair Hockey. IWAS provides support to developing sports and nations to cultivate the sporting opportunities available across the world. IWAS acts as a multi-sport competition organiser in the form of the IWAS World Games and IWAS Under 23 World Games; the International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports World Games programme are multi-sport competitions for athletes with a physical impairments, which under the former name of the International Stoke Mandeville Games were the forerunner of the Paralympic Games. Following the vision of its creator and founder, Sir Ludwig Guttmann, IWAS has continued to provide its 65+ international Members with competition and sporting opportunities to physically impaired athletes in maintaining its vision to "Inspire Worldwide Achievements in Sport".
IWAS was formed in 2005 following a merger of the International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation and the International Sports Federation of the Disabled. ISOD had been founded by the International War Veterans Association in 1964; the IWAS Games are held annually in different nations around the world and host hundreds of athletes competing in a differing range of in sports including Athletics, Table Tennis, Wheelchair Fencing, Para Taekwondo and Archery. The Games offer the athletes of the 65+ IWAS Member Nations international competition opportunities in promotion of the Paralympic movement. IWAS remains a vital mechanism in the Paralympic movement through its international pathway from grassroot sport to elite Paralympic inclusion. IWAS Wheelchair Fencing World Championships, Eger 2015 IWAS World Championships, Budapest 2013 IWAS World Championships, Catania 2011 IWAS World Championships, Paris 2010 IWAS World Championships, Budapest 2006 Torino Italyhttps://www.paralympic.org/news/fie-iwas-extend-agreement http://www.iwasf.com/iwasf/index.cfm/iwas-news/results-summary-iwas-wheelchair-fencing-world-cup1/ http://www.iwasf.com/iwasf/index.cfm/sports/iwas-wheelchair-fencing/ http://www.iwasf.com/iwasf/index.cfm/sports/iwas-wheelchair-fencing/competitions1/ http://www.iwasf.com/iwasf/index.cfm/sports/iwas-wheelchair-fencing/history1/ This bond has been strengthened by the opportunities presented by Organising Committees to create combined FIE/IWAS World Championship situations, such as the World Championships in Torino Italy and the forthcoming World Championships in Paris, France U23 and U17 World Championships 7-11 October 2016 IWAS Under 23 Wheelchair Fencing World Championships, Sharjah IWAS Under 17 Wheelchair Fencing World Championships, Sharjah 2015 IWAS Wheelchair Fencing U23 Championships, Warsaw Download IWAS Wheelchair Fencing U17 Championships, Warsaw 2014 IWAS Wheelchair Fencing Junior Competitions 2013 IWAS World Games Official website
Panorama Mountain Village
Panorama Mountain Resort is a ski and golf resort in Canada, located in the Purcell Mountains of southeastern British Columbia. Part of the Columbia Valley sub-region of the East Kootenay region, it is a tourist destination known for its rolling cliffs and views of the Rocky Mountains, it is owned by Panorama Mountain Village Inc. Panorama was founded in 1962 by Guy Messerli, of Invermere, some friends; the original ski hill consisted of a single rope tow. In 1964, a platter was purchased from Sunshine Village, installed to replace the rope tow. In 1969, the platter was moved to its present location on the bunny hill, an long wooden T-Bar was installed that ran up the present Mile 1 quad location. In 1973, lots were sold near the base of the hill for development to raise money for the hill. Using the funds that they earned from the lots, the Horizon Double Chair was installed in 1975; the Horizon ran about three quarters of the distance of the present Champagne Express lift. In 1978 the hill was purchased from Messerli and associates by Alan Graham and Cascade Development Group.
Graham funded the Toby and Horsethief lodges, completed in 1979, that increased lodging in the area. In 1979, the Toby Double chair was built, in 1980 the Sunbird Triple Chair was completed. Both still operate to this day. In 1984, in the continued effort to make Panorama into a resort, hotels began opening near the base of the hill, tennis courts were installed. In March 1985, Panorama hosted two men's World Cup speed events, the Champagne T-Bar was built to bring skiers to the top of the races; the Champagne T-Bar ran from the top of the Horizon double to where the Champagne Quad Chair runs today. In 1989, the Old wooden T-Bar was replaced with the Mile 1 Express, development continued at the hill base. In 1993 the hill was purchased by Intrawest, whose massive pockets would pay for much more development at Panorama, the Greywolf Golf Course. In 1995 the Summit T-Bar was opened. In 1998, a innovative lift system called a Pulse Gondola was installed by Doppelmayr Lifts from the lodge on Toby Creek up to the main base area to bring skiers and pedestrians from the lower village and day skier parking lot up to the upper village snow front.
In 2004, the Horizon double chair and Champagne T-Bar were replaced by the Champagne Express, the Summit T-Bar was replaced by the Summit Quad. In November 2008, the Audi FIS Alpine Ski World Cup returned to the resort with Giant Slalom and Slalom races held on Old Timer and Hay Fever respectively. On January 28, 2010 Intrawest agreed to sell Panorama Mountain Village to a group of local business people led by Rick Jensen; the group was said to be paying $27.5 million. The deal is due to close in February; the buyer group is made up of 18 people. In December 2014 the resort opened their new chair lift the Discovery Quad; the new chair goes from the learning area to the top of a green run. It makes for a natural and easy learning progression for people transferring from the carpet lifts to the chair lift; the ski resort is of above average size for North America, with 2,975 acres of skiable lift-served terrain. This places it somewhere in the top ten in terms of area, it has one of the largest vertical drops in North America, at 4,265 feet.
In terms of continuously skiable vertical drop, it is 5th behind Revelstoke, Whistler Blackcomb, Jackson Hole, Kicking Horse. At the bottom of the ski hill there is a resort with lodging, retail shops, the Panorama Springs Pools complex. There is the Panorama Nordic Centre with 20.5 km of trail for classic and skating and 6.6 km for classic only. 4 km from the Nordic center there is the Hale Hut. It is home to Greywolf golf course, which winds along the Toby Creek Canyon; the only way to access Panorama is via a road from the town of Invermere, located 18 km away. Media related to Panorama Mountain Village at Wikimedia Commons Panorama Resort.com Grey Wolf Golf.com
Tarvisio is a comune in the Province of Udine, the northeastern part of the autonomous Friuli Venezia Giulia region in Italy. The town is in the Canal Valley between the Carnic Alps and Karawanks ranges in the north and the Julian Alps in the south. Located at the border with both Austria and Slovenia and its neighbouring municipalities of Arnoldstein and Kranjska Gora form the tripoint of Romance and Slavic Europe; the height west of the town centre marks the watershed between the Slizza creek, a tributary of the Gail River, part of the Danube basin, the Fella River, tributary of the Tagliamento discharging into the Adriatic Sea. Tarvisio has access to the A23 Alpe-Adria autostrada, part of the European route E55, running from the Austrian A2 Süd Autobahn to Udine, the A4 autostrada at Palmanova; the Tarvisio railway station is located at the new Pontebbana line from Villach to Udine opened in 2000, that replaced the tracks of the former Austro-Hungarian k.k. Staatsbahn built in 1879. Despite the modest elevation, the city has a continental climate with cold winters.
Summers can be hot. As a former component of the Austrian Empire, until 1918, the town, as was the rest of the Canal Valley, was overwhelmingly German- and Slovenian-speaking. Today the municipality speaks Italian. In 2012, the mayor put up multilingual signs in four languages, German and the regional minority language of Friulian, saying "the inhabitants deserve to use their mother tongues freely." The comune of Tarvisio includes the following frazioni: Names in: Italian:Camporosso Cave del Predil Coccau Fusine in Valromana Monte Lussari Muda Plezzut Poscolle Rutte Sant'Antonio Riofreddo As a place upon ancient trade routes across the Alps to Venice, Tarvisio's roots date back to Roman times. In 1007 Emperor Henry II vested the newly created Diocese of Bamberg with the Carinthian Canal Valley down to Pontebba, a region which had considerable importance because of nearby ore mines and ironworks around the village of Fusine in Valromana. Tarvisio remained a southern exclave of the Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg, until in 1758 the bishop sold Tarvisio to the Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa of Austria.
Until 1918 it was part of the Duchy of Carinthia, it received town privileges in 1909. Tarvisio features include the parish church Saints Peter and Paul, built in the 15th century, as well as sceneries like the Fusine laghi mountain lakes. At the summit of the 1,789-metre Mount Lussari is a pilgrimage church, where according to legend in 1360 a shepherd discovered a statue of Virgin Mary; the church and the nearby ski centre can be reached by cable car from Malborghetto Valbruna. The area around the Sella Nevea mountain pass between Tarvisio and Chiusaforte is a popular ski resort. For decades, Tarvisio benefited economically from people coming from Austria and Yugoslavia for shopping trips. However, trade at the notorious "Rag Market" diminished after the implementation of Schengen Agreement and the establishment of the Eurozone. Today and winter sports in the Karawanks, the Carnic Alps, the Julian Alps have become important industries. Tarvisio is known for its heavy alpine snow, which attracts many tourists for skiing and snowboarding school groups.
It was the Women's 2007 Alpine Skiing World Cup. Tarvisio Boscoverde railway station Notable people that were born or lived in Tarvisio include: Lambert Ehrlich, Slovene Roman Catholic priest, political figure, ethnologist
Le Grand-Bornand is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. The commune owes its name to the river which runs through it; the inhabitants of Le Grand-Bornand are called Bornandins. Located on the western slope of the Aravis mountain range not far from Mont Blanc, Annecy Lake and Switzerland, Le Grand-Bornand is a summer and winter resort which developed around an old village. Le Grand-Bornand is in a wide part of the valley which has allowed it to develop - the village of Petit-Bornand, located downstream, is in a narrower part of the valley; the commune of Le Grand-Bornand is made-up of three areas: the Bouchet valley, the Chinaillon valley and the village of Le Grand-Bornand located at the junction of the two valleys. The hamlet of Chinaillon to the north east of Le Grand-Bornand is the main ski centre; the valley of Bouchet is located upstream of the village along the course of the river Borne. Nearby villages include Manigod, Thônes, La Clusaz, Saint-Jean-de-Sixt and the larger Chamonix and Annecy.
1569: Church fire 1715: Opening of a school 1755: End of the dispute with neighbouring village La Clusaz on the delimitation between the territories of the two villages 11 March 1817: Violent earthquake causes property damage 28 October 1923: Creation of a ski club, the "société des skieurs bornandins". 24 August 1944: 76 troops from the Vichy government's militia, condemned to death on 23 August by a court martial of the French Forces of the Interior and after a parody of a trial, are publicly shot close to the Peseretaz wood. 44 were buried in a cemetery created on the spot in the Bouchet valley. 14 July 1987: A brutal and unforeseeable flood of the Borne river, following a violent storm over the mountain, submerges the valley and devastates in particular the campsite of Le Grand-Bornand. There two missing persons; the commune and the State were forced to compensate the families of the victims as the campsite had been located on the river floodplain. 11 April 2003: property developer, Xavier Flactif, his family are killed in their country cottage in Chinaillon by a neighbour, David Hotyat.
22 July 2004: The village is the finish for a stage of the 2004 Tour de France. Lance Armstrong wins after a stage of 204.5 km from Bourg d'Oisans. He was stripped of this and many other wins for doping. 22 February 2006: Roddy Darragon wins a silver medal in a ski sprint at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin and the following day, Sylvie Becaert takes the bronze medal in the biathlon. Since 1997, Le Grand Bornand is twinned with Quiberon. Researcher toponymist and Ph. D. graduate of the Sorbonne, Jérémie Delorme, has listed and described, about 3 000 place names in the commune. 90% come from Latin, 8% come from Gaulish, 1% from Germanic and 1% from pre-Latin languages. A third of the names refer to former occupants. Names ending in "ière" are pre names ending in "lhon" are pre 5th-century. Jean Bastard Rosset - March 1971 to March 1977 Pierre Pochat Cottilloux - March 1983 to March 1989 Andre Perrillat Amédé - March 1989 to March 2008 Gérard Perrissin-Fabert - March 2008 to present Le Grand-Bornand voting in the 2nd round of the 2007 French presidential election Nicolas Sarkozy: 84% Royal Ségolène: 17% Church of the Virgin Mary of the Assumption: it has been confirmed this church dates from 1346.
It was destroyed by a fire in 1569 and the bell-tower rebuilt in 1661. It was rebuilt in 1877; the bell-tower, finished in 1845, is remarkable for its Baroque outer shell. Chinaillon chapel Bouchet chapel Nant-Robert chapel Gramusset refuge Maroly virtual lake Militiamen cemetery Roddy Darragon: silver medalist in cross-country skiing individual sprint event in the 2006 Winter Olympics Sylvie Becaert: bronze medalist in the biathlon at the 2006 Winter Olympics and 2005 world champion Christophe Perrillat: French cross-country skiing team member at the 2006 Winter Olympics Steve Missillier: member of the 2007 French Alpine skiing team Sebastien Baker-Bidoz: former member of the French Alpine skiing team Tessa Worley: member of the French Alpine skiing team. 2013 and 2017 world champion in the alpine skiing giant slalom event. Tourism: ski resort. Le Grand-Bornand holds the award "Station verte de vacances". Winter sports: The station is rated for beginner skiers and family holidays. However, although there are a few good restaurants, there is minimal nightlife.
Agriculture: Le Grand-Bornand is one of the birthplaces of reblochon, a cheese produced from abondancière, tarine and montbéliarde cows raised on Crau hay. Companies: Aravis Boissons has manufactured Forclaz lemonade since 1870 according to the same, original recipe Village hall Social housing Swimming pool Mini golf Golf Tennis Trampoline Biathlon Skiing Snowboarding Cross-country skiing Hiking Mountain-biking Excursions Dodes forest Mushroom collecting Via Ferrata "To happiness of the kids", children's festival "To each their turn" Publicity in schools by the organisers of the Tour de France, to develop the image of "the outer loop" for future generations of consumers. July 15–16, 2007: Arrival of 7th stage of the Tour de France 2007 and departure of 8th stage of the Tour de France 2007, 165 kilometres between Le Grand-Bornand and Tignes. Alps Mountain festival Ball of the conscripts, organized in May each year Week of the mountain, discovering local fauna and flora. One evening is organized by the Office of mountain Guides.
In 2007 it is from 21–27 July. Le Grand-Bornand has been the start town for three stages of the Tour de France, in 1995, 1999 and 2007, it was the finish of a stage in 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
The Paralympics is a major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, ataxia, vision impairment and intellectual impairment. There are Winter and Summer Paralympic Games, which since the 1988 Summer Games in Seoul, South Korea, are held immediately following the respective Olympic Games. All Paralympic Games are governed by the International Paralympic Committee; the Paralympics has grown from a small gathering of British World War II veterans in 1948 to become one of the largest international sporting events by the early 21st century. The Paralympics has grown from 400 athletes with a disability from 23 countries in 1960 to thousands of competitors from over 100 countries in the London 2012 Games. Paralympians strive for equal treatment with non-disabled Olympic athletes, but there is a large funding gap between Olympic and Paralympic athletes.
The Paralympic Games are organized in parallel with the Olympic Games, while the IOC-recognized Special Olympics World Games include athletes with intellectual disabilities, the Deaflympics include deaf athletes. Given the wide variety of disabilities that Paralympic athletes have, there are several categories in which the athletes compete; the allowable disabilities are broken down into ten eligible impairment types. The categories are impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, ataxia, vision impairment and intellectual impairment; these categories are further broken down into classifications. Athletes with disabilities did compete in the Olympic Games prior to the advent of the Paralympics; the first athlete to do so was German American gymnast George Eyser in 1904, who had one artificial leg. Hungarian Karoly Takacs competed in shooting events in both 1952 Summer Olympics, he could shoot left-handed. Another disabled athlete to appear in the Olympics prior to the Paralympic Games was Lis Hartel, a Danish equestrian athlete who had contracted polio in 1943 and won a silver medal in the dressage event.
The first organized athletic day for disabled athletes that coincided with the Olympic Games took place on the day of the opening of the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. Jewish-German born Dr. Ludwig Guttmann of Stoke Mandeville Hospital, helped to flee Nazi Germany by the Council for Assisting Refugee Academics in 1939, hosted a sports competition for British World War II veteran patients with spinal cord injuries; the first games were called the 1948 International Wheelchair Games, were intended to coincide with the 1948 Olympics. Dr. Guttman's aim was to create an elite sports competition for people with disabilities that would be equivalent to the Olympic Games; the games were held again at the same location in 1952, Dutch and Israeli veterans took part alongside the British, making it the first international competition of its own kind. These early competitions known as the Stoke Mandeville Games, have been described as the precursors of the Paralympic Games. There have been several milestones in the Paralympic movement.
The first official Paralympic Games, no longer open to war veterans, was held in Rome in 1960. 400 athletes from 23 countries competed at the 1960 Games. Since 1960, the Paralympic Games have taken place in the same year as the Olympic Games; the Games were open only to athletes in wheelchairs. With the inclusion of more disability classifications the 1976 Summer Games expanded to 1,600 athletes from 40 countries; the 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul was another milestone for the Paralympic movement. It was in Seoul that the Paralympic Summer Games were held directly after the Olympic Summer Games, in the same host city, using the same facilities; this set a precedent, followed in 1992, 1996 and 2000. It was formalized in an agreement between the International Paralympic Committee and the International Olympic Committee in 2001, was extended through 2020. On March 10, 2018, the two committees further extended their contract to 2032; the 1992 Winter Paralympics were the first Winter Games to use the same facilities as the Winter Olympics.
The first Winter Paralympic Games were held in 1976 in Sweden. This was the first Paralympics in which multiple categories of athletes with disabilities could compete; the Winter Games were celebrated every four years on the same year as their summer counterpart, just as the Olympics were. This tradition was upheld until the 1992 Games in France; the Paralympic Games were designed to emphasize the participants' athletic achievements and not their disability. Recent games have emphasized that these games are about not disability; the movement has grown since its early days – for example, the number of athletes participating in the Summer Paralympic games has increased from 400 athletes in Rome in 1960 to 4,342 athletes from 159 countries in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. Both the Paralympic Summer and Winter Games are recognized on the world stage; the IPC is the global governing body of the Paralympic Movement. It comprises 176</ref> National Paralympic Committees and four di
The Bernese Alps are a mountain range of the Alps, located in western Switzerland. Although the name suggests that they are located in the Berner Oberland region of the canton of Bern, portions of the Bernese Alps are in the adjacent cantons of Valais and Vaud, the latter being named Fribourg Alps and Vaud Alps respectively; the highest mountain in the range, the Finsteraarhorn, is the highest point in the canton of Bern. The Rhône valley separates them from the Chablais Alps in the west and from the Pennine Alps in the south; the Bernese Alps are drained by the river Aare and its tributary the Saane in the north, the Rhône in the south, the Reuss in the east. One of the most prominent Alpine ranges, the Bernese Alps extend from the gorge of Saint-Maurice, through which the Rhône finds its way to Lake Geneva, to the Grimsel Pass or, depending on the definition, to the river Reuss; the principal ridge, a chain that runs 100 kilometres from west to east, whose highest peak is the Finsteraarhorn, forms the watershed between the cantons of Bern and Valais.
Except for the westernmost part, it is the watershed between the Rhine and the Rhône. This chain lies close to the Rhône on the south; this makes a large difference between the south, where the lateral short valleys descend abruptly into the deep trench forming the valley of the Rhône and the north, where the Bernese Alps extends through a great part of the canton of Bern, throwing out branches to the west into the adjoining cantons of Vaud and Fribourg. There the mountains disappear into the hilly Swiss Plateau; the main chain west of Gemmi Pass consists of a few large prominent summits above 3,000 metres covered by glaciers. On the eastern part, the main chain became wider and the peaks reach over 4,000 metres, in the most glaciated part of the Alps. A characteristic in the orography of the Bernese Alps is, that whereas the western of that chain consists of a single series of summits with comparatively short projecting buttresses, the higher group presents a series of longitudinal ridges parallel to the axis of the main chain, separated from each other by deep valleys that form the channels of great glaciers.
Thus the Tschingel Glacier and the Kander Glacier, separate the portion of the main range lying between the Gemmi Pass and the Mittaghorn from the high parallel range of the Doldenhorn and Blümlisalp on its northern side. To the south the same portion of the main range is divided from the still higher parallel range whose summits are the Aletschhorn and the Bietschhorn by the Lötschental and the Lötschenlücke. To this again succeeds the deep trench through which the lower part of the Aletsch Glacier flows down to the Rhône, enclosed by the minor ridge that culminates at the Eggishorn, it is in the central and eastern portions of the range only that crystalline rocks make their appearance. The beauty of the scenery and the facilities offered to travellers by the general extension of mountain railways make the northern side of the range, the Bernese Oberland, one of the portions of the Alps most visited by tourists. Since strangers first began to visit the Alps, the names of Grindelwald and Interlaken have become famous.
But unlike many other Alpine regions, which have been left to be explored by strangers, this region has been long visited by Swiss travellers and men of science. Among them were the brother Meyer of Aarau and Franz Joseph Hugi, they have explored most of the mountain ranges not difficult of access, further than this, have attained most of the higher summits. In 1841, Louis Agassiz, with several scientific friends, established a temporary station on the Unteraar Glacier, along with scientific observations on the glaciers, started a series of expeditions; the works of Desor and Gottlieb Studer have been followed by several other publications that bear testimony to Swiss mountaineering activity. Notwithstanding the activity of their predecessors, the members of the English Alpine Club have found scope for further exploits, amongst which may be reckoned the first ascents of the Aletschhorn and the Schreckhorn, the still more arduous enterprise of crossing the range by passes, such as the Jungfraujoch and Eigerjoch, which are considered amongst the most difficult in the Alps.
The Jungfrau-Aletsch area is located in the eastern Bernese Alps in the most glaciated region of the Alps. It was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2001 and further expanded in 2007, its name comes from the Aletsch Glacier and the two summits of the Jungfrau and Bietschhorn, which constitute some of the most impressive features of the site. The actual site includes other large glacier valleys such as the Fiescher Glacier and the Aar Glaciers; the chief peaks of the Bernese Alps are: Main glaciers: Aletsch Glacier Fiescher Glacier Unteraar Glacier Lower Grindelwald Glacier Oberaletsch Glacier Mittelaletsch Glacier Gauli Glacier Lang Glacier Upper Grindelwald Glacier Kander G