SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

World Rugby

World Rugby is the world governing body for the sport of rugby union. World Rugby organises the Rugby World Cup every four years, the sport's most recognised and most profitable competition, it organises a number of other international rugby competitions, such as the World Rugby Sevens Series, the Rugby World Cup Sevens, the World Under 20 Championship, the Pacific Nations Cup. World Rugby's headquarters are in Ireland, its membership now comprises 120 national unions. Each member country must be a member of one of the six regional unions into which the world is divided: Africa, Americas North, Europe, South America and Oceania. World Rugby was founded as the International Rugby Football Board in 1886 by Scotland and Ireland, with England joining in 1890. Australia, New Zealand and South Africa became full members in 1949. France became a member in 1978 and a further eighty members joined from 1987 to 1999; the body was renamed the International Rugby Board in 1998, took up its current name of World Rugby in November 2014.

In 2009, the International Olympic Committee voted to include rugby sevens in the 2016 Summer Olympics. World Rugby gained membership of the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations in 2010; until 1885 the laws of rugby football were made by England as the founder nation. However, following a disputed try in an international between Scotland and England in 1884, letters were exchanged in which England claimed that they made the laws, the try should stand. Scotland refused to play England in the 1885 Home Nations Championship. Following the dispute, the home unions of Scotland and Wales decided to form an international union whose membership would agree on the standard rules of rugby football; the three nations met in Dublin in 1886. On 5 December 1887, committee members of the Irish Rugby Football Union, Scottish Rugby Union and Welsh Rugby Union met in Manchester and wrote up the first four principles of the International Rugby Football Board. England refused to take part in the founding of the IRFB, stating that they should have greater representation, as they had more clubs.

The England Union refused to accept the IRFB as the recognised lawmaker of the game. This led to the IRFB taking the stance of member countries not playing England until they joined, no games were played against England in 1888 and 1889. In 1890 England joined the IRFB; the same year, the IRFB wrote the first international laws of rugby union. In 1893, the IRFB was faced with the divide between amateurism and professionalism, nicknamed the "Great Schism". Following the introduction of working-class men to the game in Northern England, clubs began paying "broken time" payments to players, due to the loss of earnings from playing on a Saturday. Cumberland County Union complained of another club using monetary incentives to lure players, leading to the IRFB conducting an enquiry; the IRFB was warned by all the chief clubs in Lancashire and Yorkshire that any punishment would lead to the clubs seceding from the union. The debate over broken time payments caused the 22 leading clubs in Yorkshire and Lancashire to form the Northern Rugby Football Union.

The competing unions' laws of the game diverged immediately. England's seats on the IRFB were reduced from six to four in 1911; the Australian Rugby Union, New Zealand Rugby Football Union and South African Rugby Board joined the board with one seat each in 1948, with England's seats being reduced to two, the same as the other home nations. The three Southern Hemisphere unions were given a second seat each in 1958; the French Rugby Federation was admitted in 1978 and the Argentine Rugby Union, Canadian Rugby Union, Italian Rugby Federation and Japan Rugby Football Union were admitted in 1991. In 2016, Georgia and the USA were added to the voting Council with one vote each. Additionally, current Council members Argentina and Italy were granted a second representative and vote; the six regional associations represented on the Council received an additional vote. It is thought that in the late 1950s Harold Tolhurst presented the IRFB with the idea of a world championship. In 1983 and 1984 the Australian and New Zealand Rugby Football Unions each proposed hosting such a tournament.

The following year the board committed to conduct a feasibility study. A year another meeting took place in Paris, the Union subsequently voted on the idea; the South African Rugby Board's vote that proved crucial in setting up a tied vote, as they voted in favour though they knew they would be excluded due to the sporting boycott because of their apartheid policies. English and Welsh votes changed, the vote was won 10 to 6; as at January 2017, World Rugby has 17 associated unions. Membership of World Rugby is a four-step process: A Union must apply to become an associate member of its Regional Union After all membership criteria are met, including one year as an associate member, the Union is admitted to the Regional Union as a full member After completion of stages 1 and 2, two years as a full member of a Regional Union, the Union may apply to become an Associate member of World Rugby; as an associate member, the union can participate in World Rugby funded tournaments but not the Rugby World Cup Following two years of associate membership of World Rugby, the union may apply to become a Full MemberRegional Unions Six regional associations, which represent each continent, are affiliated with World Rugby and help to develop the fifteen

M81 Group

The M81 Group is a galaxy group in the constellations Ursa Major and Camelopardalis that includes the galaxies Messier 81 and Messier 82, as well as several other galaxies with high apparent brightnesses. The approximate center of the group is located at a distance of 3.6 Mpc, making it one of the nearest groups to the Local Group. The group is estimated to have a total mass of ×1012M☉; the M81 Group, the Local Group, other nearby groups all lie within the Virgo Supercluster. The table below lists galaxies that have been identified as associated with the M81 Group by I. D. Karachentsev. Note that the object names used in the above table differ from the names used by Karachentsev. NGC, IC, UGC, PGC numbers have been used in many cases to allow for easier referencing. Messier 81, Messier 82, NGC 3077 are all interacting with each other. Observations of the 21-centimeter hydrogen line indicate; the gravitational interactions have stripped some hydrogen gas away from all three galaxies, leading to the formation of filamentary gas structures within the group.

Bridges of neutral hydrogen have been shown to connect M81 with M82 and NGC 3077. Moreover, the interactions have caused some interstellar gas to fall into the centers of Messier 82 and NGC 3077, which has led to strong starburst activity within the centers of these two galaxies. Computer simulations of tidal interactions have been used to show how the current structure of the group could have been created. M81 Group @ SEDS M81 Group from An Atlas of The Universe

Counterfeit Cat

Counterfeit Cat is a British-Canadian animated television series produced by Wildseed Kids and Tricon Kids & Family in association with Teletoon with the participation of Disney XD. The series first aired on Disney XD in the United Kingdom on May 12, 2016. In the United States, the first episode aired on Disney XD as a sneak preview on May 31, 2016 and on June 20, 2016. In Canada, it premiered on November 1, 2016. On Disney XD, the show is rated TV-Y7 in the United States; as of May 2017, Sonar Entertainment has acquired the global rights to distribute the series, replacing its former owner, Tricon Films & Television. The series revolves around the adventures and friendship of Max, a lazy housecat and Gark an alien who disguised himself as a purple knitted cat. Gark crashed his spaceship on Earth, landing in the laundry room of Betty, a klutzy yet kind old woman, Max's owner. Gark believes that Max is the bravest species on Earth, despite Max's cowardice; the two find themselves in surreal and dangerous situations due to Gark's unstable, bizarre powers, which Max uses to his own advantage without thinking of the consequences.

Max is a yellow, selfish 12-year-old house-cat, pampered by Betty. Max gets dragged along into dangerous and frightening adventures with Gark—adventures that he hates getting involved in. Despite taking advantage of Gark's powers it is shown several times throughout the series that he still cares for his best friend, his full name is Maximillian Fluffybottom III. Gark is a brave 9-year-old physical alien. Due to his dangerous nature and curiosity gets him and Max into misadventures because he mistakes Max is a tiger, The bravest species in the world. Betty is a klutzy elderly old woman who owns Max and Gark. In "Jackson 5", She is revealed that she had Max when she was younger, she has a daughter named Jeanette and several deceased husbands as revealed in the episode, "Humanoid". Throckmorton is the artificial intelligence of Gark's ship, he is overprotective of Gark and acts like a father-figure to him, though when it comes to Max their attitudes clash. Staring Dog is a dog with big eyes and greyish brown fur, he stares at Max which makes him uncomfortable and frightened.

He made his debut in "Bin Juice" in the form of a cameo. Ranceford is a odd-eyed cat. Max harbors a crush on her, she is the leader of The Sunshine Circle of Cats and denies Max membership. The Kid is a squirrel that lives in the park next to Betty's apartment and, Nelson's best friend; the Squirrels are the three squirrels that live next to Betty's apartment. Nelson is a dumb and overweight green pigeon, The Kid's best friend. Cutter is a light green-blue cat with purple hair, his voice is freakishly campy. His name is revealed in "Cat Box of Fear". Anton is a green dog with black hair. In his first appearance he is a bully to Max, but in episodes isn't a threat. Trash Can Hat Cat is a cat with scruffy fur, he believes in wild conspiracy theories and is homeless. Chico is a bounty hunter disguised as a puppy, she wants to kidnap Gark. Zaxos is a Wartian bounty hunter set out to capture Gark along with Chico, she appeared in "Zaxos Returns" and claims to have changed her ways, but is out to steal Betty's cheeks.

The Cat Toy God is Max's nemesis and the ruler of an alternate dimension found underneath Betty's sofa. Jackson is a light green, ear-torn, one legged cat, he keeps dying and coming back from the dead, he blames Max for his deaths and tries to kill him but, like Anton, isn't a threat in episodes. Wilma is an old woman who owns one of Betty's friends. Jeanette is Betty's cat-obsessed daughter, she looks after Max and always brings costumes, something Max hates. Flargle is a purple three-eyed alien who posts on a blog about how bad of a planet Earth is, which causes Gark to be mad, he partners with Chico and Zaxos in the episode, "Gark's Got Talent". He made his debut in "Mere Mortals". Chameleon is a chameleon who turned into a super villain by Gark in "The Gark Night Rises", he paired with Anton and Staring Dog in the episode, "Gark's Got Talent". Jibbo is a yellow alien who one of the saviors of Baa-Boo-Raa, she was introduced in the second part of "Gone Gark". Baa-Boo-Raa is a Sensei, he was introduced in "Gone Gark".

Jock is an alien, made of meat and from Planet Meathead. He is one of the saviors, he made his debut in the second part of "Gone Gark". On December 3, 2010, Aardman Animations started the development for the show for Disney; the series is Aardman's first series to use traditional animation. The development was in co-production with Wildseed Studios to complete the development for the project together while Atomic Cartoons was hired to serve animation production and Tricon Films & Television committed to distribute the series until Sonar Entertainment had taken over its distribution