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World Vision International

World Vision International is an Evangelical Christian humanitarian aid and advocacy organization. It prefers to present itself as interdenominational and employs staff from non-evangelical Christian denominations, it was founded in 1950 by Robert Pierce as a service organization to meet the emergency needs of missionaries. In 1975 development work was added to World Vision's objectives, it is active in nearly 100 countries with a total revenue including grants and foreign donations of more than $2 billion. The charity was founded in 1950 as World Vision Inc. by Robert Pierce and co-founder Frank Phillips with the first office in Portland, Oregon. The charity operated as a missionary service organization meeting emergency needs in crisis areas in East Asia, where in 1954 it opened an office in South Korea. In order to restructure, the organization World Vision International was founded in 1977 by Walter Stanley Mooneyham the president of World Vision. In 1967, the Mission Advanced Research and Communication Center was founded by Ed Dayton as a division of World Vision International.

It became the organizational backbone of the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization and published data about "unreached people" and published the "Mission Handbook: North American Protestant Ministries Overseas". During the 1970s, World Vision began training families to build small farms by teaching agricultural skills aiming to make lasting effects in the communities they were helping by promoting self-reliance The organization began installing water pumps for clean water in communities which caused infant mortality rates to drop. Volunteers now use the fresh water to teach communities gardening and irrigation and promote good health. During the 1990s, World Vision International began focusing on the needs of children, orphaned in Uganda and Somalia in response to AIDS, civil war, respectively, they began educating other African communities on AIDS after realizing its impact. They joined the United Nations peacekeeping efforts to help those affected by civil war. World Vision started to promote the international ban on land mines.

In 1994 World Vision US moved to Washington State. According to Forbes magazine, as of December 2014, World Vision is the 11th largest charity in the United States with total revenue of over 981 million dollars. World Vision Partnership now operates as a federation of interdependent national offices governed by the same agreement but with three different levels of central control. National Offices- under strong central control by World Vision International, registered in the host country as a branch of the main organization. Intermediate Stage National Offices with a separate board of directors Interdependently National Registered Offices- autonomous in internal decision but are expected to coordinate with World Vision International and are bound to the Covenant of Partnership; the Covenant of Partnership is a document that all national members of the World Vision Partnership have to sign. According to this document all national offices have to accept policies and decisions established by the International Board and must not establish an office or program outside their own national borders without the consent of World Vision International and the host country.

Except for direct project founding, all funds intended for outside their national borders have to be remitted through World Vision International. The financial planning and budget principles adopted by the International Board have to be accepted as well as an examination of the financial affairs of the national offices by Partnership representatives; the president of World Vision International has a seat on all national offices with their own national board. The partnership offices – located in Geneva, Nairobi, Los Angeles, San José, Costa Rica – coordinate operations of the organization and represent World Vision in the international arena. For making large scale decisions, the international organization considers opinions from each national office, whether in the developed or developing world. An international board of directors oversees the World Vision partnership; the full board meets twice a year to appoint senior officers, approve strategic plans and budgets, determine international policy.

The current chairperson of the international board is Donna Shepherd. The international president is Kevin J. Jenkins. World Vision's staff comes from a range of Christian denominations, its staff includes followers of Protestantism and Eastern Orthodoxy. Around the world its staff includes followers of different religions or none, its staff participates in weekly services. They stress. However, World Vision respects other religions that it encounters, stating that "to promote a secular approach to life would be an insult to them". Richard Stearns, president of World Vision US, stated that World Vision has a strict policy against proselytizing, which he describes as "...using any kind of coercion or inducement to listen to a religious message before helping someone". The World Vision Partnership and all of its national members are committed to the concept of transformational development, cast in a biblical framework and in which evangelization is an integral part of development work. Activities include: emergency relief, health care, economic development, promotion of justice.

The organization has consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council and partnerships with UN agencies like UNICEF, WHO, UNHCR and ILO, financial records reveal that it has funded evangelical activities all over the world. Its approach to aid is to first help people and their com

Ralph Whitlock

Ralph Whitlock was a Wiltshire farmer, conservationist and author of over 100 books. Whitlock was born in Pitton, near Salisbury, Wiltshire six months before the outbreak of the First World War, he was the son of the eldest of three children. His family name is noted on the first parish register in Pitton, where his family had been shepherds and farmers since the early 1600s. Whitlock was to chronicle the history of his native village in The Lost Village, which noted the changes in Pitton from the 1920s to the 1980s. A subsequent volume, The Victorian Village recounted 19th century life there. Educated at Bishop Wordsworth's School, Whitlock had planned to attend university to study history but family circumstances during the Great Depression thwarted any such hopes and he followed his father into farming. Whitlock's collection of correspondence and papers is housed at the Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre, Chippenham. Whitlock began writing for local newspapers in 1930 when he spotted a gap in the market, as the local press did not include coverage of his home village.

Two years was given a column in the Western Gazette which he continued to write for the next 50 years. His local and regional newspaper writing led to further commissions. In 1944, Brian Vesey-Fitzgerald, editor of The Field, invited Whitlock to submit a series of articles on farming; this resulted in his appointment as farming correspondent, a position he held from 1946 to 1974. Regular newspaper commissions included columns in the Daily Telegraph and, the Guardian Weekly. Collections of his Guardian Weekly articles were published in two books: Letters from an English Village and Letters from the English Countryside. Whitlock wrote under the pseudonyms of Edwin Mould and Madge Reynolds. Whitlock's most lasting legacy is his prodigious output of books, his first book, Peasant's Heritage, charted his first-hand experience at farming. Many titles were to follow, including books on species and folklore, series of children's books, his final title, O Who Will Marry Me? A Book of Country Love, was published in February of the year of his death.

As a broadcaster, Whitlock was best known for Cowleaze Farm, part of the long-running Children's Hour radio series slot on the BBC Home Service. Scripted into 20 to 25-minute stories on the life of a farmer, the series ran from 1945 to 1962. In each episode Whitlock would take young listeners on a tour through the farm, accompanied by his dog Towser. In Cowleaze Farm he played himself as Farmer Whitlock, while the part of his wife was played by Phyllis Smale, but by Vivienne Chatterton and Constance Chapman. Four Cowleaze Farm books were published between 1948 and 1964. From 1947 to 1949, Whitlock presented a series on the Third Programme and Home Service, titled Bird Song of the Month, a forerunner of Tweet of the Day; each programme featured recordings of birds by ornithologist Ludwig Koch which could be heard during the month ahead. These programmes and other one-off talks and features presented by Whitlock were produced in Bristol by the founder of the BBC Natural History Unit, Desmond Hawkins.

By the late 1940s, Whitlock's minor celebrity status resulted in a foray onto panel game shows such as What Do You Know? and Round Britain Quiz on the radio, television's Ask Me Another, as well as the early regional TV magazine programme Westward Ho!. Whitlock began working in farming after leaving school in 1930, working with his father Edwin'Ted'. The'30s was a tough decade for small-scale farmers; the Whitlocks shed their sheep, diversifying into vegetables and chickens. Despite further expansion into dairy farming,'the struggle was never ending'. All the income Whitlock earned from writing was ploughed into the farm yet the overdraft grew and, when his father died in 1963, he left nothing. Four years after his father's death, Whitlock lost in a court battle with Wiltshire County Council and was evicted from the 50 acres he had farmed for 23 years; the land was divided up between neighbouring farms. Despite having a further 140 acres, he decided to retire from farming. Whitlock's knowledge of farming and conservation is reflected in his broadcast output which dealt with the ground-breaking issues of conservation and sustainability.

For instance, in 1950, he presented a series of five weekly programmes on the BBC Home Service, titled The Changing Forest. As two-thirds of Britain's woodlands had been felled to meet the war effort, Whitlock examined the work of the Forestry Commission and its aim to bring five million acres into productive woodland over the next 50 years; the series covered the forests of Thetford Chase, the New Forest, Rheola Forest, the Lake District. Whitlock was a founder trustee and honorary warden of the Bentley Wood Charitable Trust near West Dean, Wiltshire, a nature reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest; the 665-hectare site had been acquired in 1983 through a bequest of Lady Colman. In 1988 Whitlock was awarded a certificate of merit from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds for his conservation work. Whitlock was a Methodist lay preacher. On retiring from farming in 1968, he took up the position of agricultural consultant to the Methodist Missionary Society. For the next five years he travelled extensively through East and Central Africa, West Africa, Indonesia and Belize.

His wartime experience of bringing marginal land into cultivation was to stand him in good st

Marjo-Riitta Järvelin

Marjo-Riitta Järvelin is a Finnish epidemiologist. Since 2002 she has been professor of lifecourse epidemiology at Imperial College London, she is part-time professor of public health at the University of Oulu and visiting faculty at London's Brunel University. Järvelin studied at the University of Oulu, receiving her medical degree in 1980 and a Ph. D. in epidemiology in 1989. She qualified as a pediatric specialist in 1987, she has a master's degree from the University of London Environmental Epidemiology and Policy and became a licensed physician in the UK in 1998. For more than 25 years Järvelin has conducted public health research based on large populations from northern Finland. Two major resources are the NFBC1966 and NFBC1986 birth cohorts from Northern Finland, which were collected during the years 1965 and 1985 from women attending prenatal examinations. Järvelin has been the scientific director of these birth cohorts for several years. A long follow-up period has enabled a fully-fledged epidemiological programme throughout the life span.

Järvelin has studied, among other things, the effects of genetic and early environmental factors on the emergence of multifactorial diseases. She coordinated the international DynaHEALTH research project focusing on supporting healthier and more active aging and reducing type II diabetes and obesity. Among the international acknowledgments that she has received for her scientific work, Professor Järvelin was named Finland's Epidemiologist of the Year in 2012, she has been a member of the Finnish Academy of Sciences since 2013


Brailsford is a small red-brick village and civil parish in Derbyshire on the A52 midway between Derby and Ashbourne. The civil parish population at the 2011 Census was 1,118; the village has a post office and a school. There are many fine houses in the district including two 20th century country houses: Brailsford Hall built in 1905 in Jacobean style, Culland Hall. Brailsford was mentioned in the Domesday Book as being in the tenancy of Elfin who held the nearby manors of Bupton and Thurvaston from the tenant-in-chief, Henry de Ferrers; the Domesday survey of 1086 records the following for Brailsford: Land of Henry de Ferrers M. In Brailsford Earl Waltheof had 2 carucates of land taxable. Land for 2 ploughs. Now in lordship 2 ploughs. 24 villagers and 3 smallholders have 5 ploughs. A priest and ½ church. Value before 1066, 60s. Elfin holds it. Elfin, through his son, Nicholas de Brailsford, is the ancestor of the Brailsford family, who are still numerous in the county and elsewhere today. From Pigot and Co's Commercial Directory for Derbyshire, 1835: "BRAILSFORD is rather a considerable village, in the parish of its name, hundred of Appletree.

Coaches to different parts of the kingdom are continually passing through here, the support of the village is chiefly derived from that circumstance—there being no manufactures, nor any extensive trade existing here. The places of worship are the parish church, a chapel for Wesleyan methodists; the parish contained 724 inhabitants in 1821 and 780 in 1831. The hamlet of Ednaston on the other side of Brailsford Brook has the grade I listed Ednaston Manor, built 1912–14 for W. G. Player by Sir Edwin Lutyens, not open to the public. According to Pevsner, Home Farm and Ruck o'Stones Cottage are apparently by Lutyens. Ednaston Hall and Ednaston House stand in the village. Nearby at Muggington is the Halter Devil Chapel, built in 1723 onto the end of a farmhouse by Francis Brown, a reformed alcoholic, who one night attempted to halter his horse, mistakenly caught a cow, thought it was the devil. Brailsford parish church, or "half a church" as stated in the Domesday Book—referring to its status as a shared church between Brailsford and the hamlet of Ednaston—is about half a mile from the village.

It was built in the 11th and 12th centuries and consists of a nave, south aisle and tower. There have been modifications, such as the 14th century chancel arch; the tower is ashlar-faced and diagonally buttressed with a Perpendicular west west window. It contains an octagonal font in the Perpendicular style, with the lower part of the base exhibiting the Tudor rose. In the churchyard is a mid-11th century Saxon cross, showing interlace and a human figure. Brailsford has a small Methodist church. Many locals take part in the famous Shrove Tide football match played in Ashbourne on two afternoons during February. An annual ploughing match takes place in Brailsford on the first Wednesday in October. Mosley, Jane Jane Mosley's Recipes Jane Mosley's Remedies. Derby: Derbyshire Museum Service ISBN 0-906753-00-7 Brailsford Saxon Cross

Jacobi theta functions (notational variations)

There are a number of notational systems for the Jacobi theta functions. The notations given in the Wikipedia article define the original function ϑ 00 = ∑ n = − ∞ ∞ exp ⁡, equivalent to ϑ 00 = ∑ n = − ∞ ∞ q n 2 exp ⁡ However, a similar notation is defined somewhat differently in Whittaker and Watson, p. 487: ϑ 0, 0 = ∑ n = − ∞ ∞ q n 2 exp ⁡ This notation is attributed to "Hermite, H. J. S. Smith and some other mathematicians", they define ϑ 1, 1 = ∑ n = − ∞ ∞ n q 2 exp ⁡ This is a factor of i off from the definition of ϑ 11 as defined in the Wikipedia article. These definitions can be made at least proportional by x = za. Whittaker and Watson and Stegun, Gradshteyn and Ryzhik all follow Tannery and Molk, in which ϑ 1 = − i ∑ n = − ∞ ∞ n q 2 exp ⁡ ϑ 2 = ∑ n = − ∞ ∞ q 2 exp ⁡ ϑ 3 = ∑ n = − ∞ ∞ q n 2 exp ⁡ ϑ 4 = ∑ n = − ∞ ∞ n q n 2 exp ⁡ Note that there is no factor of π in the argument as in the previous definitions. Whittaker and Watson refer to still other definitions of ϑ j; the warning in Abramowitz and Stegun, "There is a bewildering variety of consulting books caution should be exercised," may be viewed as an understatement.

In any expression, an occurrence of ϑ should not be assumed to have any particular definition. It is incumbent upon the author to state. Abramowitz, Milton. "Chapter 16.27ff.". Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas and Mathematical Tables. Applied Mathematics Series. 55. Washington D. C.. ISBN 978-0-486-61272-0. LCCN 64-60036. MR 0167642. LCCN 65-12253. Gradshteyn, Izrail Solomonovich. "8.18.". In Jeffrey, Alan. Table of Integrals and Products. Translated by Scripta Technica, Inc.. Academic Press, Inc. ISBN 0-12-294760-6. L

John Dodgson Barrow

John D. Barrow a landscape painter, has been regarded as belonging to the second generation of the Hudson River School, his subjects were Central New York scenes around Skaneateles, New York, where he lived and worked until moving to New York City. A non-profit gallery is devoted to his work in the village of Skaneateles. Barrow designed Sailors' Monument at Lake View Cemetery, he designed the addition to the village's public library that houses his art gallery. Notes Media related to John Dodgson Barrow at Wikimedia Commons The John D. Barrow Art Gallery John Dodgson Barrow from AskArt. John Dodgson Barrow from White Mountain Art