Aztec Ruins National Monument
Salmon Ruins and Heritage Park, with more Puebloan structures, lies a short distance to the south, just west of Bloomfield near the San Juan River. The buildings date to the 11th to 13th centuries, and the misnomer attributing them to the Aztec civilization can be traced back to early American settlers in the mid-19th century, the actual construction was by the Ancestral Puebloans. The site was declared Aztec Ruin National Monument on January 24,1923, as a historical property of the National Park Service, the National Monument was administratively listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15,1966. Aztec Ruins was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites, as part of the Chaco Culture National Historical Park, the site is on the Trails of the Ancients Byway, one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways. National Register of Historic Places listings in San Juan County, New Mexico The National Parks, washington, U. S. Department of the Interior. Aztec Ruins - Photos and Maps National Park Service website American Southwest, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary UNESCO World Heritage site
Pearl Harbor is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, west of Honolulu. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is a United States Navy deep-water naval base and it is the headquarters of the United States Pacific Fleet. The U. S. government first obtained exclusive use of the inlet, the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan on December 7,1941, was the immediate cause of the United States entry into World War II. Pearl Harbor was originally a shallow embayment called Wai Momi or Puʻuloa by the Hawaiians. Puʻuloa was regarded as the home of the goddess, Kaʻahupahau. Making due allowance for legendary amplification, the estuary already had an outlet for its waters where the present gap is, during the early 19th century, Pearl Harbor was not used for large ships due to its shallow entrance. The interest of United States in the Hawaiian Islands grew as a result of its whaling and trading activity in the Pacific. As early as 1820, an Agent of the United States for Commerce and these commercial ties to the American continent were accompanied by the work of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
American missionaries and their families became a part of the Hawaiian political body. Throughout the 1820s and 1830s, many American warships visited Honolulu, in most cases, the commanding officers carried letters from the U. S. Government giving advice on governmental affairs and of the relations of the island nation with foreign powers. In 1841, the newspaper Polynesian, printed in Honolulu, advocated that the U. S. establish a base in Hawaii for protection of American citizens engaged in the whaling industry. The British Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs Robert Crichton Wyllie, remarked in 1840 that and my opinion is that the tide of events rushes on to annexation to the United States. In 1865, the North Pacific Squadron was formed to embrace the western coast, lackawanna in the following year was assigned to cruise among the islands, a locality of great and increasing interest and importance. This vessel surveyed the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands toward Japan, as a result, the United States claimed Midway Island.
The Secretary of the Navy was able to write in his report of 1868. This increased activity caused the permanent assignment of at least one warship to Hawaiian waters and it praised Midway Island as possessing a harbor surpassing Honolulus. In the following year, Congress approved an appropriation of $50,000 on March 1,1869, after 1868, when the Commander of the Pacific Fleet visited the islands to look after American interests, naval officers played an important role in internal affairs. They served as arbitrators in disputes, negotiators of trade agreements and defenders of law
The island became uninhabited in 2010. The island was the site of the only World War II land battle fought on a territory of the United States. Attu Station, a former Coast Guard LORAN station, is located at 52°51′N 173°11′E, in the chain of the Aleuts, the next island to the west of Attu are the Russian Commander Islands just 208 miles away. Attu is nearly 1,100 miles from the Alaskan mainland and 750 miles northeast of the northernmost of the Kurile Islands of Russia, and it is 4,800 miles from the capital city, Washington, D. C. Attu is about 20 by 35 miles in size with an area of 344.7 square miles. The population in the 2010 census was 20 people, all at the Attu Station, as of 1982, the only significant trees on the island were those planted by American soldiers at a chapel constructed after the 1943 battle when the Japanese occupation was over. Although Attu Island is the westernmost body of land east of the International Date Line its time zone is UTC-10, the name Attu is a transliteration of the Aleut name of the island.
It was called Saint Theodore by the explorer Aleksei Chirikov in 1742, being the nearest to Kamchatka, was the first of the Aleutian Islands exploited by Russian traders. The first population estimate by the Russians put at most 175 Aleuts on Attu, the large number and size of archeological sites on Attu have led to estimates of 2, 000–5,000 inhabitants during the centuries preceding European contact. Russians would stay multiple years on the island hunting sea otters, after the initial wave of traders, Attu was largely overlooked by ships heading further east. The Aleuts were the inhabitants of the island prior to World War II. Earlier, in response to Japanese aggression in the Pacific, American territorial authorities conducted an evacuation of about 880 Aleuts from villages elsewhere in the Aleutian Islands. These people were interned in camps in the Alaska Panhandle. However, Attu Village had not yet been evacuated when the Japanese attacked, the village consisted of several houses around Chichagof Harbor.
The 42 Attu inhabitants who survived the Japanese invasion were taken to a camp near Otaru. Sixteen of them died while they were imprisoned, before the Attu villagers were returned to the U. S. the American government stated publicly that it was not aware of their status. To place a barrier between the U. S. and Russia in case Russia decided to join the war against Japan, to make preparation for air bases for future offensive action. In late September 1942, the Japanese garrison on Attu was transferred to Kiska, and Attu was essentially left unoccupied, on October 29,1942, the Japanese reestablished a base on Attu at Holtz Bay under the command of Lt. Col. Hiroshi Yanekawa
Modoc County, California
Modoc County is a county located in the far northeast corner of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,686, making it the third-least populous county in California. The county seat and only incorporated city is Alturas, previous county seats include Lake City and Centerville, the latter is now a ghost town. The county borders Nevada and Oregon, a large portion of Modoc County is federal land. The countys official slogans include The last best place and Where the West still lives, prior to the arrival of Europeans in the region, varying cultures of Native Americans inhabited the county for thousands of years. At the time of European encounter, the Modoc people lived in what is now northern California, near Lost River, the county was named after them. The Achumawi, and the Paiute lived in the area, to the north were the Klamath in present-day Oregon. The first European explorers to visit Modoc County were the American John C, frémont and his traveling party in 1846, who had departed from Sutters Fort near the confluence of the American and Sacramento Rivers.
The northern boundary of California, and eventually Modoc County, had established as the 42nd parallel since the time of Mexican possession. In the absence of a survey of the 120th meridian. The Territory of Utah requested jurisdiction to the summit of the Sierra Nevada, at the time, the Warner Mountains were believed to be a part of the Sierra Nevada, so this would have included Surprise Valley, but California denied the request. In 1856, the residents of Honey Lake Valley reckoned the 120th meridian to be west of their valley, placing them in Utah territory, Nataqua would have included Modoc County. Increasing traffic on the emigrant trail, unprovoked militia raids on innocent Modoc, in 1864, the Klamath and Yahooskin band of the Shoshone signed a treaty ceding lands in both Oregon and California, and the tribes were colocated on the Klamath Reservation. Harassed by the Klamath, traditional competitors, a band of Modoc led by Captain Jack returned to California, the Modoc War of 1872-73 brought nationwide attention to the Modoc during the protracted battles.
From strong defensive positions in the tubes,52 Modoc warriors held off hundreds of US Army forces. Peace talks in 1873 stalled when the Modoc wanted their own reservation in California, more Army troops were called in to lay siege to Captain Jacks Stronghold. Dissension arose, and some Modoc surrendered, finally most were captured, and those responsible for the assassinations were tried and executed. More than 150 Modoc were transported to Indian Territory as prisoners of war, the area has since been designated the Lava Beds National Monument
Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act
Section 17 gave the Secretary of the Interior ninety days to withdraw from development any lands necessary to insure that the public interest in these lands is properly protected. Additionally, Section 17 of the Act directed the Secretary of the Interior to withdraw up to 80 million acres of land development for conservation purposes. These lands, referred to as “d-2” lands, were to be available for potential designation as National Parks, Wildlife Refuges and Scenic rivers. The d-2 provision of ANCSA gave the Secretary nine months to withdraw lands before they would re-open to development, on December 17,1972, Interior Secretary Morton forwarded 127,100,000 acres of selected lands to Congress under 17 and 17, known as the Morton Proposal. As stated, the d-2 provision of ANCSA set a deadline for the Secretary to withdraw lands within nine months of the passage of ANCSA. On January 29,1973 Congressman James A. Haley introduced the Morton proposal as H. R.12336, and these bills were the first of many failed proposals leading to the eventual passage of ANILCA seven years later.
Over the course of the seven years many bills were introduced with a range of proposals for disposal of the selected lands. As the sunset date approached in 1978 both chambers of congress scrambled to pass a bill, on May 19,1978, H. R.39 was passed by the House of Representatives. H. R.39 was referred to the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for mark up, Senator Ted Stevens of Alaska was instrumental in making significant changes to the original house resolution. The final bill submitted by the Senate energy committee was deemed unacceptable by the Carter administration, with limited time left before adjournment, the house and senate conferenced in order to resolve differences between the two bills. Senator Mike Gravel of Alaska inserted himself into the negotiations, making a number of new demands not included in either bill, changes made to the bill did not satisfy Gravel, and he refused to support the bill. Senator Gravel threatened a filibuster, and the provision did not pass the Senate, the sunset provision of section of ANCSA was set to expire on December 18,1978.
President Carter used the Antiquities Act to designate 56 million acres as National Monuments by executive order on December 1,1978, much of the lands designated as National Monument were part of the original Morton Proposal. An additional 40 million acres were withdrawn under the authority of section 204 of the Federal Lands Policy Management Act by Secretary Andrus. Carter stated that he had forced to use the Antiquities Act by Congresss failure to act in a reasonable time. President Carter was burned in effigy in Fairbanks, though these protests continued for some time, the designation of the monuments broke the legislative opposition to ANILCA. However, in 1978,75 seats in the House of Representatives had changed hands, proponents were forced to continue to work compromises, and the bills passage was further delayed. In early November 1980, Jimmy Carter lost re-election to Ronald Reagan, the bill was passed in late November, and signed into law by President Carter in December
Battle of Attu
It is the only land battle in which Japanese and American forces fought in Arctic conditions. The more than two-week battle ended when most of the Japanese defenders were killed in brutal hand-to-hand combat after a final charge broke through American lines. The strategic position of the islands of Attu and Kiska off Alaskas coast meant their location could control the sea lanes across the Northern Pacific Ocean, Japanese planners believed control of the Aleutians would therefore prevent any possible U. S. attacks from Alaska. This assessment had already been inferred by U. S, general Billy Mitchell who told the U. S. Congress in 1935, I believe that in the future, whoever holds Alaska will hold the world. I think it is the most important strategic place in the world, on 7 June 1942, six months after the United States entered World War II, the 301st Independent Infantry Battalion from the Japanese Northern Army landed unopposed on Attu. The landings occurred one day after the invasion of nearby Kiska, the U.
S military now feared both islands could be turned into strategic Japanese airbases from which aerial attacks could be launched against the West Coast of North America. In Walt Disney′s 1943 film, Victory Through Air Power, the use of the Aleutian Islands for American long-range bombers to bomb Japan from American territory was postulated, on 11 May 1943, units from 17th Infantry, of Maj. Gen. Albert Browns 7th U. S. Infantry Division made amphibious landings on Attu to retake the island from Japanese Imperial Army forces led by Colonel Yasuyo Yamasaki, despite heavy naval bombardments of Japanese positions, the American troops encountered strong entrenched defenses that made combat conditions tough. Arctic weather conditions and exposure-related injuries caused casualties among U. S. forces. But after two weeks of fighting, American units managed to push the Japanese defenders back to a pocket around Chichagof Harbor. On 21–22 May 1943, a powerful Japanese fleet assembled in Tokyo Bay in preparation for a sortie to repel the American attempt to recapture Attu.
The fleet included the carriers Zuikaku, Shōkaku, Junyō, Hiyō, the battleships Musashi, Kongō, and the cruisers Mogami, Suzuya, Chikuma, Agano, Ōyodo, the Americans succeeded in recapturing Attu before the fleet could depart. On 29 May 1943, without hope of rescue, Yamasaki led his troops in a banzai charge. The momentum of the attack broke through the American front line positions. Shocked American rear-echelon troops were soon fighting hand-to-hand combat with Japanese soldiers, the battle continued until almost all of the Japanese were killed. The charge effectively ended the battle for the island, although U. S. Navy reports indicate that groups of Japanese continued to fight until early July 1943. In 19 days of battle,549 soldiers of the 7th Division were killed, the Japanese lost over 2,351 men, only 28 prisoners were taken. Attu was to be the last action of the Aleutian campaign, the Japanese Northern Army secretly evacuated their remaining garrison from nearby Kiska, ending the Japanese occupation in the Aleutian Islands on 28 July 1943
Ford Island is an islet in the center of Pearl Harbor, Oahu, in the U. S. state of Hawaii. It has been known as Rabbit Island, Maríns Island, and Little Goats Island and it was the site of an ancient Hawaiian fertility ritual, which was stopped by Christian missionaries during the 1830s. The island was given by Kamehameha I to Spanish deserter Francisco de Paula Marín, after the island was bought at auction by James Isaac Dowsett and sold to Caroline Jackson, it became the property of Dr. Seth Porter Ford by marriage and was renamed Ford Island. After Fords death, his son sold the island to the John Papa ʻĪʻī estate and it was converted into a sugarcane plantation. In 1916, part of Ford Island was sold to the U. S. Army for use by a division in Hawaii. From the 1910s to the 1940s, the continued to grow as a strategic center of operations for the U. S. Navy in the Pacific Ocean. Ford Island was at the center of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Pacific Fleet by the Japanese fleet on December 7,1941. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964, and as of 2011 the National Trust for Historic Preservation has listed the island as one of the United States most-endangered historic sites.
By the late 1990s, hundreds of millions of dollars had been invested in real estate development and infrastructure, Ford Island continues to serve an active role in the Pacific, hosting military functions at the Pacific Warfighting Center and civilian functions at NOAAs Pacific Tsunami Warning Center. The island has featured in films such as Tora. Tora. and Pearl Harbor and receives tourists from the U. S. and abroad at the USS Arizona memorial, Ford Island is located inside Pearl Harbor, South Oʻahu of the Hawaiian Islands. Pearl Harbor is divided into three bodies of water called the West Loch, Middle Loch and East Loch with Ford Island in the center of the East Loch. It is 1.5 miles long and 0.75 miles wide, the land is a relatively flat plain rising from 5 to 15 feet above mean water level, and slopes toward Pearl Harbor. It connects to the island of Oʻahu, surrounding Pearl Harbor, via a 4. The islands soil is composed primarily of material, lagoonal deposits and coralline debris. Its volcanic material is Aeolian ash, weathered tuff and basalt, Ford Island proper is a coral outcrop.
There are two smaller islets near the island and Mokuiki, in 1991, the Navy discovered nine metals, two semi-volatile organic compounds and a polychlorinated biphenyl in Ford Islands soil and marine sediment. Suspected sources were nine 225, 000-US-gallon fuel tanks on the side of the island
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He was the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000 and he is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives shortly thereafter. He co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election and he is the second president to assume the nations highest office after his father, following the lead of John Quincy Adams. He is a brother of Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida who was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bushs first term as president. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine, launching a War on Terror, a military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001.
He promoted policies on the economy, health care, Social Security reform and his tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, and torture. In the 2004 Presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election. After his re-election, Bush received increasingly heated criticism from across the spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections, Bush left office in 2009, returning to Texas where he purchased a home in Crawford. He wrote a memoir, Decision Points and his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians polls published in the late 2000s and 2010s. George Walker Bush was born on July 6,1946, at Grace-New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut, as the first child of George Herbert Walker Bush and his wife, the former Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil, another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953.
His grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S and his father, George H. W. Bush, was Ronald Reagans Vice President from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. President from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish, Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade. He spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a school in Houston. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a school in Andover, Massachusetts
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack, known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor, led to the United States entry into World War II. The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the U. S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions they planned in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States. Over the next seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U. S. -held Philippines and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya, the attack commenced at 7,48 a. m. The base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese fighter planes, all eight U. S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but the USS Arizona were raised, and six were returned to service, the Japanese sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, and one minelayer. 188 U. S. aircraft were destroyed,2,403 Americans were killed and 1,178 others were wounded.
Important base installations such as the station, maintenance. Japanese losses were light,29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, one Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured. The surprise attack came as a shock to the American people. The following day, December 8, the United States declared war on Japan, the U. S. responded with a declaration of war against Germany and Italy. Domestic support for non-interventionism, which had been fading since the Fall of France in 1940, Roosevelt to proclaim December 7,1941, a date which will live in infamy. Because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, over the next decade, Japan continued to expand into China, leading to all-out war between those countries in 1937. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China and achieve sufficient resource independence to attain victory on the mainland, from December 1937, events such as the Japanese attack on USS Panay, the Allison incident, and the Nanking Massacre swung public opinion in the West sharply against Japan.
Fearing Japanese expansion, the United States, the United Kingdom, in 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina in an effort to control supplies reaching China. The United States halted shipments of airplanes, machine tools, and aviation gasoline to Japan, an invasion of the Philippines was considered necessary by Japanese war planners. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with a 40 and this was opposed by Douglas MacArthur, who felt that he would need a force ten times that size, and was never implemented. By 1941, U. S. planners anticipated abandonment of the Philippines at the outbreak of war and orders to that effect were given in late 1941 to Admiral Thomas Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U. S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, the U. S. Navy has the worlds largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of October 2016, the U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy. It played the role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense.
The Chief of Naval Operations is an admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The CNO may not be the highest ranking officer in the armed forces if the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, the United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navys three primary areas of responsibility, The preparation of naval forces necessary for the prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, tactics, organization, U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest, as part of that establishment, the U. S. Navys functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to sealift duties. It follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, the Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders.
In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia, the establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, the worlds preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the Congress