Camillo Ruini is an Italian cardinal of the Catholic Church. He served as Vicar General of the Diocese of Rome from 1991 to 2008, he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1991. He was active in the mass media and was one of the cardinals who most appeared on Italian television and magazines. On 14 February 2006, he was confirmed as president of the Italian Episcopal Conference by Pope Benedict XVI, a post at which he served until March 2007. Ruini was born in Emilia-Romagna. Having studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, he obtained a licentiate in philosophy and a licentiate in sacred theology, he was ordained to the priesthood on 8 December 1954, by Archbishop Luigi Traglia. In 1957 he returned to Reggio Emilia and taught philosophy at the diocesan seminary until 1968. From 1958 to 1966 he served as chaplain to university graduates and from 1966 to 1970 he served as a delegate for Azione Cattolica. Among his teaching posts, from 1968 until 1986 he taught dogmatic theology at the Studio Teologico Interdiocesano of Modena-Reggio Emilia-Carpi-Guastalla, where he was headmaster from 1968 to 1977.
On 16 May 1983, he was named auxiliary bishop of Reggio Emilia and titular bishop of Nefta and was consecrated a bishop by Bishop Gilberto Baroni the following 29 June. As vice president of the Preparatory Committee, he contributed to the realization of the Ecclesial Convention of Loreto, which has become a reference point in the dialogue between the Church and Italian society following the wounds of the 1960s and 1970s. In June 1986 the Pope John Paul II named him secretary-general of the Italian bishops' conference. From 1988 to 2011 he was a consultor of the Congregation for Bishops. In January 1991 he was named auxiliary pro-vicar general for the Diocese of Rome. In March 1991 he became president of the Italian bishops' conference, he was elevated to Cardinal-Priest of Sant'Agnese fuori le mura in June 1991, was named Vicar General of the Diocese of Rome and archpriest of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano in July 1991. He was grand chancellor of the Lateran University and Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family.
In addition to serving as the Cardinal Vicar, Cardinal Ruini served in the Roman Curia as a member of the Congregation for Bishops, the Pontifical Council for the Laity, the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See, the Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See. He held these memberships until the 80th birthday in 2011. Ruini was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 2005 papal conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI. Ruini lost the right to participate in papal conclaves when he turned 80. On 17 March 2010 the Vatican formed a commission to look into the phenomenon of Medjugorje, in Bosnia-Herzegovina, where six young people have said they have had visions of Mary since the early 80s; the international investigative commission on Medjugorje was organized with Ruini as president, made dependent on the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. In January 2014 the commission submitted its findings to the CDF. Ruini was instrumental in the production of a documentary biographical film on Pope John Paul II.
Ruini was seen as a conservative, close to the positions of Popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI. He was active in the mass media, was the strongest voice of the Church against the spring 2005 referendum for the abolition of parts of Italy's laws on artificial insemination, he commented, like Pope Benedict XVI, upon the issue of the 1999 French Pacte civil de solidarité for unmarried couples of the same or opposite sex. In 2007 a bill was proposed in the Italian Senate for a law on civil unions; the bishops conference opposed this proposal. On 7 March 2007 Pope Benedict XVI named Archbishop Angelo Bagnasco to succeed Cardinal Ruini as President of the Italian Episcopal Conference. Cardinal Ruini remained vicar for the diocese of Rome until 27 June 2008, when his resignation, for reasons of age, from that post and from that of Archpriest of the Basilica of St. John Lateran was accepted and Cardinal Agostino Vallini was appointed as his successor; as of 21 June 2013 Cardinal Ruini was serving as the President of the Scientific Committee of the Ratzinger Foundation.
"Ruini Card. Camillo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017
Pope Francis is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State. Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere, the first to visit and hold papal mass in the Arabian Peninsula, the first pope from outside Europe since the Syrian Gregory III, who reigned in the 8th century. Born in Buenos Aires, Bergoglio was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, from 1973 to 1979 was Argentina's provincial superior of the Society of Jesus, he became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. He led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina; the administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March, he chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, international visibility as Pope, concern for the poor and commitment to interfaith dialogue.
He is credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for instance choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than in the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace used by previous popes. He maintains that the Church should be more welcoming, he does not support Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology. Francis maintains the traditional views of the Church regarding abortion, ordination of women, clerical celibacy, he opposes consumerism and overdevelopment, supports taking action on climate change, a focus of his papacy with the promulgation of Laudato si'. In international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba and supported the cause of refugees during the European migrant crisis. Since 2016, Francis has faced open criticism from theological conservatives, on the question of admitting civilly divorced and remarried Catholics to Communion with the publication of Amoris laetitia, on the question of the alleged cover-up of clergy sexual abuse.
Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in a neighborhood of Buenos Aires. He was the eldest of five children of Regina María Sívori. Mario Bergoglio was an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro in Italy's Piedmont region. Regina Sívori was a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian origin. Mario José's family left Italy in 1929 to escape the fascist rule of Benito Mussolini. According to María Elena Bergoglio, the Pope's only living sibling, they did not emigrate for economic reasons, his other siblings were Oscar Adrián and Marta Regina. Two great-nephews and Joseph, died in a traffic collision. In the sixth grade, Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles, a school of the Salesians of Don Bosco, in Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires, he attended the technical secondary school Escuela Técnica Industrial N° 27 Hipólito Yrigoyen, named after a past President of Argentina, graduated with a chemical technician's diploma. He worked for a few years in that capacity in the foods section at Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory where his boss was Esther Ballestrino.
Before joining the Jesuits, Bergoglio worked as a bar bouncer and as a janitor sweeping floors, he ran tests in a chemical laboratory. In the only known health crisis of his youth, at the age of 21 he suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and three cysts, he had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards. Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of San Lorenzo de Almagro football club. Bergoglio is a fan of the films of Tita Merello and tango dancing, with a fondness for the traditional music of Argentina and Uruguay known as the milonga. Bergoglio found his vocation to the priesthood, he passed by a church to go to confession, was inspired by the priest. Bergoglio studied at the archdiocesan seminary, Inmaculada Concepción Seminary, in Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires, after three years, entered the Society of Jesus as a novice on 11 March 1958. Bergoglio has said that, as a young seminarian, he had a crush on a girl he met and doubted about continuing the religious career; as a Jesuit novice he studied humanities in Chile.
At the conclusion of his novitiate in the Society of Jesus, Bergoglio became a Jesuit on 12 March 1960, when he made the religious profession of the initial, perpetual vows of poverty and obedience of a member of the order. In 1960, Bergoglio obtained a licentiate in philosophy from the Colegio Máximo de San José in San Miguel, Buenos Aires Province, he taught literature and psychology at the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepción, a high school in Santa Fe, from 1964 to 1965. In 1966, he taught the same courses at the Colegio del Salvador in Buenos Aires. In 1967, Bergoglio finished his theological studies and was ordained to the priesthood on 13 December 1969, by Archbishop Ramón José Castellano, he attended a seminary in San Miguel. He became a professor of theology. Bergoglio completed his final stage of spiritual training as a Jesuit, tertianship, at Alcalá de Henares, Spain, he took the final fourth vow
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
The Great Jubilee in 2000 was a major event in the Roman Catholic Church, held from Christmas Eve 1999 to Epiphany 2001. Like other previous Jubilee years, it was a celebration of forgiveness of sins; the major innovation in this Jubilee was the addition of many "particular Jubilees" for various groups of persons, that it was celebrated in Rome and elsewhere in the world. Preparation for the Great Jubilee began when Pope John Paul II issued his Apostolic Letter Tertio Millennio Adveniente on November 10, 1994. In the letter, he invited the Church to begin a three-year period of intensive preparation for the celebration of the third Christian millennium; the first year, 1997 would be marked by an exploration of the person of Jesus, the second, 1998, by meditation on the person of the Holy Spirit, the third, 1999, by meditation on the person of God the Father. Each year was to be marked by a special prayer of entrustment to the Blessed Virgin Mary; the formal convocation of the holy year came through the papal bull of indiction, Incarnationis Mysterium, on November 29, 1998.
In the bull, the Pope indicated that he had desired to lead the Church into the Great Jubilee since the beginning of his pontificate. He explained that this Jubilee would be a chance to open new horizons in preaching the Kingdom of God. However, it would be a time of repentance, both for individuals and for the Church as a whole. Furthermore, he stressed the ecumenical character of this event, which he saw as not only for Catholics, but for all Christians and indeed for the whole world; the various churches and cathedrals in Rome took advantage of the Jubilee to perform long-needed renovations. The facade of St. Peter's was under scaffolding for months, as centuries of grime were painstakingly removed; the Holy See arranged to build a massive parking garage under the Janiculum hill, in order to accommodate all the buses that were expected. Construction of the garage was halted for some time due to the discovery of mosaics dating from the imperial period in unknown chambers under the hill; these were removed en masse so as to be able to complete the garage in time for the Jubilee.
With the Bull of Indiction came a document from the Apostolic Penitentiary, indicating the conditions for receiving the Jubilee indulgence. In many respects, they were simplified with respect to previous years; the normal conditions of confession, prayer for the Pope and renunciation of attachment to sin remained in place, but unlike previous Jubilees, it was only necessary to visit a single church on a single day. The indulgence could be obtained in Rome by visiting one of the four patriarchal basilicas, St. Peter's Basilica, St. John Lateran, St. Paul Outside the Walls or St. Mary Major, as well as by a visit to the shrine of Our Lady of Divine Love, the basilica of St. Lawrence Outside the Walls or the Christian catacombs of Rome. In the visit, the pilgrim had to take part in a religious celebration or spend a half-hour in Eucharistic adoration; the indulgence could be obtained in Israeli-occupied territories by a visit to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, or in Israel in the Church of the Annunciation in Nazareth.
Further, the Jubilee was extended to all dioceses of the world. A visit to the cathedral church or another shrine designated by the bishop would suffice to gain the Jubilee indulgence. Cloistered nuns and monks could obtain the indulgence in their house chapels; the indulgence could be gained by means of a personal sacrifice or works of charity. Mentioned in the document were sacrifices such as giving up smoking or alcohol for at least one day or making a donation to help the poor; the particular Jubilees punctuated each week of the year 2000. There were special Vespers services held every day at St. Peter's Basilica with participation by the Pope. Nearly every Sunday was dedicated to a special celebration of some sector of society; some events of the Jubilee year were seen to be significant, however. The pope opened the Jubilee by opening the holy door of St. Peter's Basilica shortly before the Midnight Mass on December 24, 1999. Most of the time, the holy doors of the patriarchal Basilicas are cemented shut.
On the occasion of a Jubilee year, the pope opens the doors as a symbol of opening the doors of grace. Pilgrims visiting the basilicas to gain the Jubilee indulgence enter the basilicas through these special doors. Throughout most of the Jubilee year, long lines were queued up to enter the door. Pope John Paul II simplified the rite of opening compared to previous Jubilees. After a series of prayers and hymns, punctuated by African elephant tusks being blown, the Pope, clad in a purple cope, pushed on the doors as they were drawn open from inside by assistants, he fell to his knees on the threshold of the Basilica and prayed, holding his silver Papal ferula. Pope John Paul II commissioned Patsy Ford Simms to compose the music for this celebration; the holy door in St. John Lateran was opened by the pope the following day, that of St. Mary Major on January 1, 2000; the fourth holy door, that of St. Paul Outside the Walls, was not opened until January 18, 2000, to launch the week of prayer for Christian Unity.
For that celebration, the Pope had planned an ecumenical service, inviting leaders of all Christian religions to take part. Twenty-two Christian leaders accepted the invitation, along with a representative of the World Council of Churches, which represents 337 denominations; the opening of the door was carried out by the Pope, Metropolit
Stations of the Cross
The Stations of the Cross or the Way of the Cross known as the Way of Sorrows or the Via Crucis, refers to a series of images depicting Jesus Christ on the day of his crucifixion and accompanying prayers. The stations grew out of imitations of Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem, believed to be the actual path Jesus walked to Mount Calvary; the object of the stations is to help the Christians faithful to make a spiritual pilgrimage through contemplation of the Passion of Christ. It has become one of the most popular devotions and the stations can be found in many Western Christian churches, including Anglican, Lutheran and Roman Catholic ones. A series of 14 images will be arranged in numbered order along a path and the faithful travel from image to image, in order, stopping at each station to say the selected prayers and reflections; this will be done individually or in a procession most during Lent on Good Friday, in a spirit of reparation for the sufferings and insults that Jesus endured during his passion.
The style and placement of the stations vary widely. The typical stations are small plaques with paintings placed around a church nave. Modern minimalist stations can be simple; the faithful might say the stations of the cross without there being any image, such as when the pope leads the stations of the cross around the Colosseum in Rome on Good Friday. The Stations of the Cross originated in pilgrimages to Jerusalem and a desire to reproduce the Via Dolorosa. Imitating holy places was not a new concept. For example, the religious complex of Santo Stefano in Bologna, replicated the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other religious sites, including Mount of Olives and Valley of Josaphat. After the siege of 1187, Jerusalem fell to the forces of Saladin, the first sultan of Egypt and Syria. Forty years Franciscans were allowed back into the Holy Land, their founder, Saint Francis of Assisi, held the Passion of Christ in special veneration and is said to have been the first person to receive stigmata.
In 1217, St. Francis founded the Custody of the Holy Land to guard and promote the devotion to holy places, their efforts were recognized when Franciscans were proclaimed custodians of holy places by Pope Clement VI in 1342. Although several travelers who visited the Holy Land during the 12–14th centuries, mention a "Via Sacra", i.e. a settled route that pilgrims followed, there is nothing in their accounts to identify this with the Way of the Cross, as we understand it. The earliest use of the word "stations", as applied to the accustomed halting-places in the Via Sacra at Jerusalem, occurs in the narrative of an English pilgrim, William Wey, who visited the Holy Land in the mid-15th century, described pilgrims following the footsteps of Christ to the cross. In 1521, a book called Geystlich Strass was printed with illustrations of the stations in the Holy Land. During the 15th and 16th centuries the Franciscans began to build a series of outdoor shrines in Europe to duplicate their counterparts in the Holy Land.
The number of stations varied between thirty. These were placed in small buildings, along the approach to a church, as in a set of 1490 by Adam Kraft, leading to the Johanniskirche in Nuremberg. A number of rural examples were established as attractions in their own right on attractive wooded hills; these include the Sacro Monte di Domodossola and Sacro Monte di Belmonte, form part of the Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy World Heritage Site, together with other examples on different devotional themes. In these the sculptures are approaching life-size and elaborate. Remnants of these are referred to as calvary hills. In 1686, in answer to their petition, Pope Innocent XI granted to the Franciscans the right to erect stations within their churches. In 1731, Pope Clement XII extended to all churches the right to have the stations, provided that a Franciscan father erected them, with the consent of the local bishop. At the same time the number was fixed at fourteen. In 1857, the bishops of England were allowed to erect the stations by themselves, without the intervention of a Franciscan priest, in 1862 this right was extended to bishops throughout the church.
The early set of seven scenes was numbers 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11 and 14 from the list below. The standard set from the 17th to 20th centuries has consisted of 14 pictures or sculptures depicting the following scenes: Jesus is condemmed to death Jesus carries His cross Jesus falls for the first time Jesus meets His mother, Mary Simon helps Jesus carry the cross Veronica wipes the face of Jesus Jesus falls for the second time Jesus meets the women of Jerusalem Jesus falls for the third time Jesus is stripped of His clothes Jesus is nailed to the cross Jesus dies on the cross Jesus is taken down from the cross Jesus is placed in the tombAlthough not traditionally part of the Stations, the Resurrection of Jesus is, in rare instances, included as a fifteenth station. Out of the fourteen traditional Stations of the Cross, only eight have a clear scriptural foundation. Stations 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 are not attested to in the gospels and Station 13 seems to embellish the gospels' record, which states that Joseph of Arimathea took Jesus down from the cross and buried him.
To provide a version of this devotion more aligned with the biblical accounts, Pope John Paul II introduced a new
The Angelus is a Catholic devotion commemorating the Incarnation. As with many Catholic prayers, the name Angelus is derived from its incipit—the first few words of the text: Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariæ; the devotion is practised by reciting as versicle and response three Biblical verses narrating the mystery, alternating with the prayer "Hail Mary". The Angelus exemplifies a species of prayers called the "prayer of the devotee"; the devotion was traditionally recited in Roman Catholic churches and monasteries three times daily: 6:00 am, 6:00 pm. The devotion is used by some Anglican and Lutheran churches; the Angelus is accompanied by the ringing of the Angelus bell, a call to prayer and to spread goodwill to everyone. The angel referred to in the prayer is Gabriel, a messenger of God who revealed to Mary that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God. According to Herbert Thurston, "The history of the Angelus is by no means easy to trace with confidence, it is well to distinguish in this matter between what is certain and what is in some measure conjectural."
This is an old devotion, well established 700 years ago. The Angelus originated with the 11th-century monastic custom of reciting three Hail Marys during the evening, or Compline, bell; the first written documentation stems from the Italian Franciscan friar Sinigardi di Arezzo. Franciscan friaries in Italy document the use in 1263 and 1295; the current form of the Angelus prayer is included in a Venetian Catechism from 1560. The older usages seem to have commemorated the resurrection of Christ in the morning, his suffering at noon, the annunciation in the evening. In 1269, St Bonaventure urged the faithful to adopt the custom of the Franciscans of saying three Hail Marys as the Compline bell was rung; the Angelus is not identical to the "Noon Bell" ordered by Pope Calixtus III in 1456, who asked for a long midday bell-ringing and prayer for protection against the Turkish invasions of his time. In his 1956 Apostolic Letter Dum Maerenti Animo about the persecution of the Catholic church in Eastern Europe and China, Pope Pius XII recalls the 500th anniversary of the "Noon Bell", a prayer crusade ordered by his predecessors against what they considered to be dangers from the East.
He again asks the faithful throughout the world, to pray for the persecuted Church in the East during the mid-day Angelus. The custom of reciting it in the morning grew from the monastic custom of saying three Hail Marys while a bell rang at Prime; the noon time custom arose from the noon time commemoration of the Passion on Fridays. The institution of the Angelus is by some ascribed to Pope Urban II, by some to Pope John XXII in the year 1317; the triple recitation is ascribed to Louis XI of France, who in 1472 ordered it to be recited three times daily. The form of the prayer was standardized by the 17th century; the manner of ringing the Angelus—the triple stroke repeated three times, with a pause between each set of three, sometimes followed by a longer peal as at curfew—seems to have been long established. The 15th-century constitutions of Syon monastery dictate that the lay brother "shall toll the Ave bell nine strokes at three times, keeping the space of one Pater and Ave between each three tollings".
The pattern of ringing on Irish radio and television consists of three groups of three peals, each group separated by a pause, followed by a group of nine peals, for a total of eighteen rings. In his Apostolic Letter Marialis Cultus, Pope Paul VI encouraged the praying of the Angelus considering it important and a reminder to faithful Catholics of the Paschal Mystery, in which by recalling the incarnation of the son of God they pray that they may be led "through his passion and cross to the glory of his resurrection." It is common practice that during the recital of the Angelus prayer, for the lines "And the Word was made flesh/And dwelt among us", those reciting the prayer bow or genuflect. Either of these actions draws attention to the moment of the Incarnation of Christ into human flesh. During Paschaltide, the Marian antiphon Regina Cœli with versicle and prayer, substitutes for the Angelus. In some Catholic schools, the Angelus is recited periodically. In most Franciscan and contemplative monasteries, the Angelus continues to be prayed three times a day.
In Germany, particular dioceses and their radio stations ring the Angelus. In addition, Roman Catholic churches ring the Angelus bell thrice daily. In Ireland, the Angelus is broadcast every night before the main evening news at 6:00 pm on the main national TV channel, RTÉ One, on the broadcaster's sister radio station, Radio 1, at noon and 6:00 pm. In 2015, in advertising for a commission to independent film makers to produce versions of the Angelus, RTÉ described the playing of the Angelus as follows: The daily "Angelus" broadcast on RTÉ One is by far RTÉ's longest-running and most watched Religious Programme. It's possibly, the most controversial. For some, the reflective slot, which airs for just one minute in every 1440 per day and on only one RTÉ TV channel, is as much part of Ireland's unique cultural identity as the harp on your passport. RTÉ Audience Research finds that a clear majority of Irish viewers still favours keeping the "Angelus" broadcasts and all, its appeal is summarised by one audience member as follows: "To the person of faith, it's a moment of grace.
What's not to like?"
World Youth Day 2008
The 23rd World Youth Day was a Catholic youth festival that started on 15 July and continued until 20 July 2008 in Sydney, Australia. It was the first World Youth Day in Oceania; this meeting was decided by Pope Benedict XVI, during the Cologne World Youth Day of 2005. The theme was "You will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes upon you". About 500,000 young people from 200 countries attended during the week, more than 1,000,000 came for the weekend, they were joined by cardinals, as well as by 6,600 reporters. The festivals of WYD began on 1 July 2007, when a large 3.8-meter-high wooden cross and a large 15-kilogram icon of the Virgin Mary arrived in Sydney to travel around the country. The relay-style event, known as the Journey of the Cross and Icon saw the cross and icon go on a pilgrimage around the dioceses of Australia, engaging with a variety of Catholic parishes and communities; the WYD Cross was entrusted to the youth of the world by Pope John Paul II in 1984 as a sign of peace and hope.
The Pope told the young people of the world to take it around the world as "a symbol of Christ's love for humanity". In 2004, Pope John Paul II commissioned the large icon of the Virgin Mary to accompany the cross' pilgrimage, it is a symbol intended to represent Mary's maternal love for young people. From the announcement of the host World Youth Day, the cross and icon travel ceremonially around the world similar to the Olympic torch relay. In the week preceding the main event, many young Catholic pilgrims spent time in different parts of Australia and New Zealand, staying with a local parish as part of the Days in the Dioceses. After their stay, they travelled to Sydney for the Opening Mass of the week-long main event; the Pope arrived at Sydney on 13 July at Richmond Air Force Base in North Western Sydney on a special Alitalia flight. Until 17 July he stayed in the Opus Dei centre, called Kenthurst Study Centre, 30 km from Sydney. On 15 July, World Youth Day 2008 began with the Opening Mass, celebrated by George Cardinal Pell, the Archbishop of Sydney, at Barangaroo.
This was followed by a concert. Each morning from 15 to 17 July, Catechists were held in 300 locations. Pilgrims received teachings from a Bishop and celebrated Mass. In the afternoons, pilgrims journeyed into the city and attend the Youth Festival consisting of a series of art exhibitions, concerts and conferences. On 17 July 2008, 500,000 attendees from around the world were present at Barangaroo to welcome Pope Benedict XVI on a day dubbed Super Thursday by the press; the Pope arrived on 14 July, but only appeared in public for the first time on the 17th. The event involved the Pope travelling around Port Jackson in a "boatacade" where pilgrims lined the shores to see him. However, there were many disappointed spectators in places like the Botanic Gardens and Circular Quay who did not see the Pope because of where he was sitting on the boat; the Sydney Children's Choir and Gondwana Voices performed at the event. The Pope spoke extensively to the pilgrims and greeted them in five foreign languages.
In order to let the pilgrims see him better the Pope was driven around Barangaroo through the crowds in his Popemobile. On 18 July, there was a live re-enactment of the Stations of the Cross at major city landmarks with an estimated 270,000 participants. Around 500 million people around the world followed the stations on television. On 19 July, around 235,000 pilgrims embarked on a 10-kilometre pilgrimage walk, beginning at the Mary MacKillop Chapel in North Sydney, over the Sydney Harbour Bridge and across the city to attend an overnight vigil before the Mass at Randwick Racecourse. 250,000 pilgrims slept overnight at Randwick, about 300,000 to 400,000 participants attended the Final Mass celebrated by Pope Benedict XVI on Sunday 20 July. Pope Benedict continued a tradition of Australian Papal Masses at Randwick Racecourse, following in the footsteps of John Paul II and Paul VI. At the conclusion of the final mass the Pope announced that the 2011 World Youth Day would be held in Madrid, Spain.
WYD 2008 was the first World Youth Day to take full advantage of telecommunications, with Pope Benedict sending text messages to the pilgrims during the week. Each pilgrim who registered for WYD had the option of providing a mobile phone number to which the Pontiff's message would be sent at the beginning of each day, it saw the launch of a new registration social networking site called xt3.com, with the aim to connect young Catholics before and after World Youth Day 2008. On 8 September, a final message was sent via SMS to WYD2008 pilgrims registered on Xt3.com, marking 50 days after the closing Mass: Dear Friends,Fifty days ago we were together for the celebration of Mass. Today I greet you on the birthday of Mother of the Church. Empowered by the Spirit and courageous like Mary your pilgrimage of faith fills the Church with life! Soon I am to visit France. I ask you all to join me in praying for the young people of France. May we all be rejuvenated in hope! Pilgrims were served a traditional Australian menu.
Over the six-day event, 3.5 million meals were served. To cater for the masses, 210,000 slices of bread, 425,000 chocolate bars, 200,000 meat pies and 300,000 servings of Weet-Bix Crunch were ordered. "We want to provide pilgrims with a good feed and a little bit of an Australian taste," WYD director of services Geoff Morris said. Organisers held a "Big Aussie BBQ", which saw 200 barbecues lit up across Sydney. Pilgrims and the public were able to buy 470 different product