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World war

A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". While a variety of global conflicts have been subjectively deemed "world wars", such as the Cold War and the War on Terror, the term is and accepted only as it is retrospectively applied to two major international conflicts that occurred during the 20th century: World War I and World War II; the Oxford English Dictionary cited the first known usage in the English language to a Scottish newspaper, The People's Journal, in 1848: "A war among the great powers is now a world-war." The term "world war" is used by Karl Marx and his associate, Friedrich Engels, in a series of articles published around 1850 called The Class Struggles in France. Rasmus B. Anderson in 1889 described an episode in Teutonic mythology as a "world war", justifying this description by a line in an Old Norse epic poem, "Völuspá: folcvig fyrst i heimi" German writer August Wilhelm Otto Niemann had used the term "world war" in the title of his anti-British novel, Der Weltkrieg: Deutsche Träume in 1904, published in English as The Coming Conquest of England.

The term "first world war" was first used in September 1914 by German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel, who claimed that "there is no doubt that the course and character of the feared'European War'... will become the first world war in the full sense of the word," citing a wire service report in The Indianapolis Star on 20 September 1914. In English, the term "First World War" had been used by Charles à Court Repington, as a title for his memoirs; the term "World War I" was coined by Time magazine on page 28b of its June 1939 issue. In the same article, on page 32, the term "World War II" was first used speculatively to describe the upcoming war; the first use for the actual war came in its issue of September 11, 1939. One week earlier, on September 4, the day after France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany, the Danish newspaper Kristeligt Dagblad used the term on its front page, saying "The Second World War broke out yesterday at 11 a.m."Speculative fiction authors had been noting the concept of a Second World War in 1919 and 1920, when Milo Hastings wrote his dystopian novel, City of Endless Night.

Other languages have adopted the "world war" terminology, for example. In terms of human technological history, the scale of World War I was enabled by the technological advances of the second industrial revolution and the resulting globalization that allowed global power projection and mass production of military hardware, it had been recognized that the complex system of opposing military alliances was to lead to a worldwide conflict if a war broke out. Due to this fact, a minute conflict between two countries had the potential to set off a domino effect of alliances, triggering a world war; the fact that the powers involved had large overseas empires guaranteed that such a war would be worldwide, as the colonies' resources would be a crucial strategic factor. The same strategic considerations ensured that the combatants would strike at each other's colonies, thus spreading the wars far more than those of pre-Columbian times. War crimes were perpetrated in World War I. Chemical weapons were used in the First World War despite the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 having outlawed the use of such weapons in warfare.

The Ottoman Empire was responsible for the Armenian genocide—the murder of more than 1,000,000 Armenians during the First World War—and the other late Ottoman genocides. The Second World War occurred from 1939 to 1945 and is the only conflict in which nuclear weapons have been used. Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in Japan, were devastated by atomic bombs dropped by the United States. Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler, was responsible for genocides, most notably the Holocaust, the killing of 6,000,000 Jews and 5,000,000 others persecuted by the Nazis including Romani people and homosexuals; the United States, the Soviet Union, Canada deported and interned minority groups within their own borders, because of the conflict, many ethnic Germans were expelled from Eastern Europe. Japan was responsible for attacking neutral nations without a declaration of war, such as the bombing of Pearl Harbor, it is known for its brutal treatment and killing of Allied prisoners of war and the inhabitants of Asia. It used Asians as forced laborers and was responsible for the Nanking massacre where 250,000 civilians in the city were brutally murdered by Japanese troops.

Non-combatants suffered at least as badly as or worse than combatants, the distinction between combatants and non-combatants was blurred by belligerents of total war in both conflicts. The outcome of World War II had a profound effect on the course of world history; the old European empires either collapsed or were dismantled as a direct result of the wars' crushing costs and, in some cases, their fall was due to the defeat of imperial powers. The United States became established as the dominant global superpower, along with its ideological foe, the Soviet Union, in close competition; the two sup


Llandow is a village and community in the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales. The community population taken at the 2011 census was 726; the village is located 15 miles south west of Cardiff. Llandow has a community council which elects a total of ten community councillors from the wards of Llandow and Llanmihangel. Prior to 1995 Llandow was an electoral ward to the Vale of Glamorgan Borough Council. There were no contests in the ward, with a Conservative councillor being elected unopposed at each borough election. With the transfer of Ewenny to the Vale in 1996, Llandow became part of the county ward of Llandow/Ewenny for elections to the Vale of Glamorgan Council. Within Llandow is a small medieval parish church, whose history dates back to the 11th century, with a saddleback tower dedicated to the Holy Trinity. Adjacent to the village is a disused airfield, once home to a World War II RAF station, part of which has now been converted into the Llandow Circuit for motorsports, next to, the South Wales Karting Centre, home to the Llandow Kart Club.

On 12 March 1950 RAF Llandow was the site of the Llandow air disaster, when an airliner returning Welsh rugby fans from an international match in Belfast crashed on approach in the nearby village of Sigingstone. With the deaths of 80 passengers and crew, the crash was at the time the worst air disaster in history. From 3–11 August 2012, a disused airfield near Llandow hosted the National Eisteddfod of Wales. photos of Llandow and surrounding area

Clare Daniels

Clare Daniels is an English international rugby union referee and is the world's most capped female Test referee. She has played scrum-half for Tor RFC in Glastonbury for a few years in the late 1990s before the team disbanded and Daniels decided to take part in a training course run by the Somerset Rugby Referees’ Society, her international debut was on 2 July 2005, when she refereed the Canada Cup match between Canada and Scotland. Since she has been selected to officiate at Women's Rugby World Cup in 2006 and 2010, 2009 Rugby World Cup Sevens, Women's Six Nations in 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 and other tournaments, including some men's matches in National League 2 North and National League 2 South. After working as a Bath Chronicle sports writer for seven years, Daniels took up a full-time role with the RFU refereeing team as the new Southern Region Referee Development Manager on 2 August 2010


The Hysteriaceae are a taxonomic family of fungi and the only extant family belonging to the order Hysteriales. Members of the Hysteriaceae are defined by the possession of a sexual structure called the hysterothecium, an elongated structure that opens by a longitudinal slit and releases sexually produced spores; the family is distributed, with many species found in temperate regions, most are saprobic on wood and bark, although a few are parasitic on plants. The defining feature of this group—the hysterothecium—is a dense, persistent darkly colored structure, with a boat-like shape and a pronounced lengthwise slit. Hysterothecia are capable of opening to reveal a lenticular, disk-like hymenium or closing in response to relative humidity, they can be embedded in the substratum, bursting through the surface of the substratum, or rest on the surface. They can be solitary or in groups, ellipsoid to elongated, are sometimes branched, triradiate or borne on a crust- or net-like growth of mycelium.

In vertical section, hysterothecia are globose to inversely ovoid, with a thick three-layered peridium, composed of small pseudoparenchymatous cells, the outer layer encrusted with pigment and longitudinally striated in age, the middle layer lighter in pigmentation and the inner layer distinctly thin-walled and compressed. The hamathecium is composed of persistent cellular pseudoparaphyses, in a gel matrix, with tips darkened or branched at maturity to form an epithecium. Bitunicate asci are borne in a basal layer and at maturity are club-shaped to cylindrical, bearing eight ascospores, overlapping in two series, ranging from hyaline to dark brown, clavate, ellipsoid or fusoid. Ascospores are diverse in septation, range from didymospores to phragmospores to dityospores, at times surrounded by a gel coating, show bipolar asymmetry; the Hysteriaceae are panglobal in distribution and are lignicolous or corticolous, although a saxicolous and lichenized species has been described from Tasmania.

Current classification of the Hysteriaceae includes the following genera: Hysterium Tode emend. Fr. Hysterographium Corda emend. de Not. Gloniopsis de Not. Gloniella Sacc. Glonium Muhlenb. Ex. Fr. Farlowiella Sacc. and Hysterocarina Zogg, to, added Actidiographium Vassiljeva. The genera Hysteroglonium Rehm ex Lindau, Hysteropatella Rehm and Pseudoscypha Reid & Prioz. are tentatively included in the Hysteriaceae by Eriksson. Both coelomycetous pynidial states and dematiaceous hyphomycetous anamorphs have been described for members of the Hysteriaceae; the genus Hysterium, the type genus of the family Hysteriaceae, is attributed to Heinrich Julius Tode, the first to apply the name to a group of fungi bearing a pronounced longitudinal slit, for which he gave the common name Venusschwämme. Recognizing the transitional nature of the ascoma, Tode stated: “Medium hoc genus inter Pezizas and Lichenes”. Persoon synonymized the epithet pulicaris, first proposed by Lightfoot for a variety of Lichen scriptus β pulicaris, into what was to become the type species of the genus, namely Hysterium pulicare Pers.

Ex Fr. Early authors provided remarkably accurate figures of hysteriaceous fungi. James Bolton and Robert Kaye Greville were the first to provide illustrations of asci and ascospores. Due to the transitional nature of the hysterothecium, neither open nor closed, hysteriaceous fungi have been placed in the discomycetes and pyrenomycetes about by various mycologists throughout the 19th Century. In his Systema Mycologicum, Fries considered hysteriaceous fungi to belong to the pyrenomycetes and placed them in the order Phacidiacei, but placed them in his new class discomycetes, stating: “Transitum sistunt ad Discomycetes, sed discum verum non monstrant.” François Fulgis Chevallier recognized the unique nature of the hysterothecium and was the first to segregate hysteriaceous fungi into a new order, the Hysterineae, which he considered as pyrenomycetes distinct from Fries’ Phacidiei. August Corda, on the other hand, retained the Phacidiei within the Hysteriaceae, divided the family into a number of subfamilies.

Giuseppe De Notaris considered the Hysteriaceae to belong to the pyrenomycetes and used spore pigmentation to classify hysteriaceous fungi into the Phaeosporii and the Hyalosporii. Pier Andrea Saccardo followed Fries, but placed hysteriaceous fungi in the pyrenomycetes, carried de Notaris’ spore classification scheme further by dividing the Hysteriaceae into nine sections based on pigmentation and the morphology of spore septation. Job Bicknell Ellis and Benjamin Matlack Everhart, in their North American Pyrenomycetes, tentatively included the Hysteriaceae, but stated that they had not at first intended to do so due to the transitional nature of the hysterothecium. In Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamen-Flora, Die Pilze, Heinrich Rehm compromised and placed the Hysteriales as an order intermediate between the pyrenomycetes and the discomycetes. Duby considered hysteriaceous fungi to belong to the pyrenomycetes and proposed two sections, the Hystériées to include Hysterium, Gl

List of Plagiognathus species

This is a list of species in the genus Plagiognathus. Plagiognathus alashanensis Qui and Nonnizab, 1993 Plagiognathus albatus Plagiognathus albifacies Knight, 1927 Plagiognathus alboradialis Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus albus Reuter, 1894 Plagiognathus alnicenatus Plagiognathus alpinus Plagiognathus amorphae Plagiognathus amurensis Reuter, 1883 Plagiognathus annulatus Uhler, 1895 Plagiognathus aquilinus Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus arbustorum Plagiognathus astericola Plagiognathus atricornis Knight, 1926 Plagiognathus biobioensis Plagiognathus bipunctatus Reuter, 1883 Plagiognathus blatchleyi Reuter, 1912 Plagiognathus brevicornis Plagiognathus brevirostris Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus brunneus Plagiognathus chrysanthemi Plagiognathus cibbetsi Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus collaris Plagiognathus concoloris Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus confusus Reuter, 1909 Plagiognathus cornicola Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus crocinus Knight, 1927 Plagiognathus cuneatus Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus davisi Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus delicatus Plagiognathus dimorphus Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus dispar Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus emarginatae Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus fenderi Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus flavicornis Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus flavidus Knight, 1929 Plagiognathus flavipes Plagiognathus flavoscutellatus Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus flavus Knight, 1964 Plagiognathus fulvaceus Knight, 1964 Plagiognathus fulvidus Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus fumidus Plagiognathus fusciloris Reuter, 1878 Plagiognathus fuscipes Knight, 1929 Plagiognathus fuscosus Plagiognathus grandis Reuter, 1876 Plagiognathus guttatipes Plagiognathus guttulosus Plagiognathus hallucinatus Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus laricicola Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus lattini Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus lineatus Van Duzee, 1917 Plagiognathus lividellus Kerzhner, 1979 Plagiognathus longipennis Plagiognathus longirostris Plagiognathus lonicerae Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus louisianus Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus luteus Knight, 1929 Plagiognathus maculipennis Plagiognathus maculosus Zhao, 1996 Plagiognathus melliferae Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus mexicanus Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus mineus Plagiognathus minuendus Plagiognathus modestus Plagiognathus moerens Reuter, 1909 Plagiognathus monardellae Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus morrisoni Plagiognathus mundus Van Duzee, 1917 Plagiognathus negundinis Knight, 1929 Plagiognathus nigronitens Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus notodysmicos Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus obscurus Uhler, 1872 Plagiognathus occipitalis Reuter, 1908 Plagiognathus paddocki Knight, 1964 Plagiognathus paramundus Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus parshleyi Plagiognathus pemptos Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus phaceliae Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus phorodendronae Knight, 1929 Plagiognathus physocarpi Plagiognathus piceicola Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus polhemorum Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus politus Uhler, 1895 Plagiognathus punctatipes Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus reinhardi Johnston, 1935 Plagiognathus repetitus Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus ribesi Kelton, 1982 Plagiognathus rideri Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus rileyi Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus rosicola Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus rosicoloides Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus rubidus Plagiognathus salicicola Knight, 1929 Plagiognathus salviae Knight, 1968 Plagiognathus schaffneri Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus shepherdiae Knight, 1929 Plagiognathus shoshonea Knight, 1964 Plagiognathus similis Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus stitti Knight, 1964 Plagiognathus subovatus Knight, 1929 Plagiognathus suffuscipennis Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus syrticolae Knight, 1941 Plagiognathus tenellus Knight, 1929 Plagiognathus texanus Schuh, 2001 Plagiognathus tinctus Knight, 1923 Plagiognathus tsugae Plagiognathus tumidifrons Plagiognathus urticae Knight, 1964 Plagiognathus verticalis Plagiognathus vitellinus Plagiognathus viticola

Vitan Mal

Vitan Mal is a Slovene writer. Vitan Mal was born on 25 October 1946 in the Rožna Dolina neighborhood of Ljubljana. After graduating from secondary school, he studied Slavic studies and librarianship at the University of Ljubljana's Faculty of Education, he has worked as a camera operator, a journalist, an editor for the children and young people's program at Slovene national public broadcasting organization, Radiotelevizija Slovenija. Mal established his reputation with picture books storybooks for young people; these include novels about the problems faced by young people growing up today. Among younger children, his series of crime stories for children about agent Žardna; some of his books have been translated from Slovene into other languages. For his youngest readers he wrote for various Slovene children's magazines including Ciciban, Kurirček, Pionirski list and Zmajček; the print run of all of Mal's books exceeds 300,000 copies and, as part of the Slovene Bralna značka reading program, he has appeared at nearly 500 schools and libraries.

Mal is considered the first Slovene write of juvenile literature that wrote, as he put it, "about banal things such as having to pee, throwing up, masturbation." Slovene juvenile literature experienced a rebirth in the 1980s in part due to Mal's contributions and distanced itself from a moralizing approach to upbringing. Young readers were attracted to his portrayal of young people as they are, with all of their good and bad qualities, his works for adults—Ganimed in drugi, Za metuljem še Rok, Nedokončana zgodba —were intended for a small circle of readers because they explore homoeroticism. Mall worked as a professional camera operator and journalist for Radiotelevizija Slovenija, as an assistant cameraman for the series Erazem in potepuh and the film Cvetje v jeseni, he wrote several episodes for RTV for the series Kuhinja pri violinskem ključu, aired in 1974. The film 1977 Sreča na vrvici was based on Mal's teci kuža moj; this is Slovenia's commercially most successful film, with rights having been purchased in over fifty countries.

Mal's book Ime mi je Tomaž was used by the director Tugo Štiglic as basis for the screenplay for the films Poletje v školjki and Poletje v školjki 2, which became Slovene cult films in the 1980s. Mal was investigated in 2012 for photographing children without permission at a Ljubljana elementary school and charges were filed against him, he was charged with possession of child pornography in 2013, in 2014 he was found guilty and received a 2-year suspended sentence with a 5-year probation period. Ime mi je Tomaž, 1972 Teci, teci kuža moj, 1975 Roki Rok, 1976 Mali veliki junak, 1976 Vanda, 1982 Sreča na vrvici, 1984 Baronov mlajši brat, 1985 Poletje v školjki, 1986 Školjka svetega Sebastijana, 1990 Ledosned, 2006 Na ranču veranda, 1993 Hitro hitreje, 1994 Nedelje nekega poletja, 1996 Ta grajski, 1998 Dvojni agent Žardna, 1999 Žigana, 2003 Žardna in hiša duhov, 2003 Žardna in ukradeni angel, 2005 Žardna in Četrtek, 2006 Za metuljem še Rok, 1976 Ganimed in drugi, 1993 Nedokončana zgodba, 1999 Napačna odločitev, 2009